SGU LAS: Final Set 2
Terms in this set (96)
In cows, which surgical approach has the benefit of the rumen keeping the intestines out of the surgical field?
What are some causes of left displaced abomasum?
dietary changes immediately prepartum or in early postpartum.
**too little fiber, hypocalcemia
What is the Liptak test used to test for in cows?
left displaced abomasum.
*aspirate fluid from region blow the "ping". abomasal pH <3; ruminal pH >5.5
What are the principles of surgically correcting a left displaced abomasum?
fixation: abomasopexy, omentopexy, pyloropexy
What approach is recommended to surgically correct a left displaced abomasum if the "ping" is located very low?
right paramedian laparotomy and abomasopexy
True/False: cows should return to feed ASAP following surgical correction of a left displaced abomasum
What are some potential complications of surgically correcting a left displaced abomasum?
abomasal fistula formation
What is the prognosis for a left displaced abomasum?
fair to excellent depending on how long the condition existed before treatment
When facing a cow from the right, what is the difference between abomasal volvulus and right displaced abomasum?
abomasal volvulus: 180-270 degree counter clockwise rotation.
right displaced abomasum: 90 degree clockwise rotation
In the cow, what are the only hollow organs in the abdomen that cannot routinely result in a ping on the right side?
What can you feel on rectal palpation in a cow with abomasal volvulus/torsion?
tightly distended smooth surfaced surfaced viscus in the right cranial abdominal quadrant
How do organs shift in a cow with abomasal volvulus/torsion?
pylorus displaced cranially.
greater curvature is dorsal and cranial.
twist at omasal-abomasal junction.
liver displaced medially
What electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities can be expected in a cow with abomasal volvulus/torsion or right displaced abomasum?
What are approaches to repair of abomasal volvulus/torsion?
standing right flank laparotomy with pyloropexy or omentopexy.
right paramedian with abomasopexy
Where are most bovine intussusceptions found?
jejuno-ileum portion of the small intestine.
*AKA flange area of the bowel
What are indications for doing a rumenotomy?
What is the only acceptable position for doing a rumenotomy?
left flank laparotomy with the patient standing
What are potential complications from a rumenotomy?
rumen fistula formation
What approach will likely give the best result for fixing small intestine volvulus in the cow?
recumbent right flank
What is the prognosis for small intestine/mesenteric volvulus in cows?
poor to guarded
What neonatal diseases may present with absence of feces from birth and abdominal distention?
Is intussusception more acute in young or older cows?
young - b/c not as much mesenteric fat
In calves, what is the most common presenting sign for a left displaced abdomen?
chronic bloat in 2-12mo calf; ping on left side of abdomen
When is abomasal volvulus/torsion most commonly first seen in calves?
shortly after a large milk feeding
What neonatal disease in calves may have cardiovascular compromise as a complication?
What are 5 basic conditions that can cause an enlargement of the umbilicus?
uncomplicated umbilical hernia.
umbilical hernia with fibrous core or abscess.
umbilical hernia with infection of the umbilical cord remnants.
enlarged umbilical stalk
What is the most common congenital defect in cattle?
uncomplicated umbilical hernia.
**greater incidence in holstein heifers
An uncomplicated umbilical hernia may include what organs?
What is the most common condition occuring in combination with umbilical hernia with infection of the umbilical cord remnants?
What is the most common bacteria involved in an umbilical hernia with infection of the umbilical cord remnants?
An enlarged umbilical stump may occur secondary to what conditions?
persistent patent urachus.
treating the umbilicus with harsh antiseptics
What is the best age to dehorn small ruminants?
What method is used to dehorn young small ruminants?
What methods are used to dehorn adult small ruminants?
gigli wire or hard backed saw
What is a common complication of dehorning adult goats?
What procedure can be done at the same time as dehorning older goats?
**glands are caudo-medial to the base of the horns
When is tail docking usually done in sheep?
< 14 days
Why is tail docking usually done in sheep?
prevent fly strike
What is the treatment for urolithiasis in small ruminants if the obstruction is in the veriform urethral process?
amputate the process
What is the treatment for urolithiasis in small ruminants if the obstruction is at the distal bend of the sigmoid flexures?
What is the most preferred approach for c-section in small ruminants?
What are predisposing factors for rectal prolapse in pigs?
chronic water shortage
In pigs, what is meant by "balling"?
ejaculating into the preputial diverticulum
What are indications for doing llama canine tooth removal?
prevent injury during fighting.
treat root abscesses
What is the process for blunting the canine tooth in llamas?
remove the tip of the tooth with gigli wire and smooth with a rasp
What angular limb deformity is common in llamas?
What structures are responsible for dilating the vaginal ring and inguinal canal for the descent of testicles in horses?
epididymis and gubernaculum
In horses, testes move into the inguinal canal at what point during gestation?
When are stallions usually castrated?
typically 1-2 years old.
*when masculine behavior becomes intolerable
In stallions, how does early castration affect appearance?
physes close later causing longer limbs
In stallions, what must be checked on pre-castration physical exam?
verify the horse is male.
palpate both testes.
make sure no inguinal hernia
What are the 2 possible surgical approaches for castration in the horse?
two scrotal incisions.
skin tent -- remove portion of raphe to expose both testes
In an open horse castration, what parts are removed and what parts remain with the horse?
testes, epididymis and spermatic cord are removed.
parietal tunic and cremaster muscle remains
In an open horse castration, what structure is broken to separate the testis from the parietal tunic?
ligament of the tail of the epididymis
In horse castration, how are emasculators applied?
crushing jaw proximal and blade distal on the cord.
**relax tension on the cord before emasculating
Should the blade on an emasculator be sharp or dull?
dull....too sharp leads to excessive bleeding
When should primary closure be considered following horse castration?
if vigorous exercise cannot be performed post-op and only in aseptic conditions
If you are performing a horse castration in lateral recumbency, what testicle is usually removed first?
the "down testis"
In horses, if castration incisions are left open to heal by second intention, how long does it usually take to heal?
about 3 weeks
What is the protocol for exercise after a horse castration?
24 hours stall rest then 7-10 days of forced exercise
What is usually the source of excessive hemorrhage following horse castration?
What are some hemostatic agents that can be used to treat excessive hemorrhage from a horse castration?
You should be extra careful when castrating horses less than 6mo to avoid what complication?
True/False: protrusion of omentum is an emergent complication following a horse castration
false - not emergent.
re-emasculate and stall rest for 2 days; and give antibiotics
What is septic funiculitis?
infection of the spermatic cord
Why should you not use non-absorbable ligatures in horse castrations?
predispose to septic funiculitis
What causes hydrocele/vaginocele following horse castration?
inadequate resection of fascia and tunic causes accumulation of fluid in the vaginal tunic
What is the treatment for hydrocele/vaginocele in horses?
can remove vaginal sac or just leave it
What is a partial abdominal cryptorchid horse?
epididymis has descended through vaginal ring but testis has not
In horses, what is a "high flanker"?
True/False: unilateral cryptorchid horses can be fertile
What is the most prevalent, non-lethal developmental defect in horses?
Why is it more common for the left testis to be abdominal in cryptorchid horses?
the right testis is smaller...larger left testis is more likely to get trapped
Where is the gubernaculum in horses?
between the caudal pole of the testis and scrotum
What are the 3 parts of the horse gubernaculum?
cranial part becomes proper ligament of testis.
middle part becomes ligament of tail of epididymis.
caudal part becomes scrotal ligament
Why is it difficult to palpate an abdominal testis per rectum in horses?
proper ligament of testis is long which allows testis a wide range of movement
What value on hormonal assays will determine if a horse is cryptorchid?
if testosterone concentration is >100pg/mL both before and after hCG administration.
if estrone sulfate concentration is >400pg/mL
Horses must be anesthetized for all surgical approaches to cryptorchidectomy except which one?
Why might a parainguinal approach be preferred over an inguinal approach for a horse cryptorchidectomy?
internal inguinal ring is not disrupted.
aponeurosis of external abdominal oblique is more easily sutured than is the superficial inguinal ring
Which approaches for a horse cryptorchidectomy only allow removal of abdominally located testicles?
flank and suprapubic paramedian approaches
Which approach for a horse cryptorchidectomy allows removal of either inguinal or abdominal testis?
In a unilateral cryptorchid horse, which testis is removed first?
non-descended testis always removed first
What type of penis does the horse have?
What is a major cause of paraphimosis in horses?
injury to the penis and/or prepuce.
*may also be caused by castration, debilitation or paralysis of retractor penis muscle from phenothiazines
What is the most common intersex condition in horses?
What are common sites for habronemiasis in horses?
urethral process and preputial ring
What neoplasias may be found on the penis/prepuce in horses?
Which neoplasia is common in breeds of horses with non-pigmented genitalia?
What is the prognosis for neoplasia on the horse penis/prepuce?
good with early detection and treatment...low metastasis.
*poor if spreads to regional lymph nodes
What are treatment options for neoplasia on horse penis/prepuce?
surgical: segmental posthetomy (circumsicion), partial phallectomy, en bloc resection, bolz phallopexy
Which surgical treatment of neoplasia of horse penis should not be done in intact stallions?
bolz phallopexy = permanently retract penis into preputial cavity
What are indications for a vinsot technique partial phallectomy in horses?
How would you anesthetize the pudendal nerves in horses?
insert needle on either side of the penis, angled medially...aim for point of ischium and inject 5ml at each site
What is the benefit to the williams vs vinsot partial phallectomy?
williams has reduced incidence of urethral stricture and urine-induced contact dermatitis
In horses, an en bloc resection allows removal of what structures?
free portion of penis.
inguinal lymph nodes
What is the most common urolith in horses?
bladder stones...calcium carbonate and calcium oxalate crystals form around a nidus