A study guide with a whole bunch of horse/rodeo questions to help you prepare for your rodeo queen competitions
Terms in this set (215)
What is HYPP?
hyperkalemic periodic paralysis; severe muscle weakness that can lead to paralysis or death
What is the official publication of the PRCA?
PSN (Pro Rodeo Sports News)
Who is the commissioner for the PRCA?
What does PETA stand for?
People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals
Name a person from your state that has competed in the NFR
Hunter Herron, tie Down Roping
What is the website address for the PRCA?
What cowboy is known as the super looper?
What is the PRCA circuit system and why was it created?
An award system for cowboys who may never qualify for the NFR due to skill or personal reasons. Created in 1975 because the PRCA realized that many cowboys weren't given the chance to qualify for big rodeos
Name the 12 PRCA circuits
Badlands, California, Columbia River, First Frontier, Great Lakes, Montana, Mountain States, Prairie, Southeastern, Texas, Turquoise, and Wilderness
What is a flank strap?
A sheepskin-lined strap that is placed on a roughstock animal's flank to help encourage it to buck rather to rear during their ride
Where is the stifle located on a horse?
On the hind leg, by the flank
What is a flagman?
The judge that signals the start and finish of timed events
What is PROCOM?
PRCA's entry system
Why is the American Quarter Horse the preferred breed of rodeo?
The AQHA has the largest breed registry in the world and they are one of the most versatile breeds. Known for being quick, tough, and cowy
What does RNCFR stand for?
Ram National Circuit Finals Rodeo
What do both ears forward on a horse indicate?
That the horse is studying something that interests/scares him or he is anticipating something, such as food
Who is the Linderman Award named after?
What does the term "rank" mean when referring to a horse or bull?
That the animal is tough to ride
What is the purpose of the Justin Cowboy Crisis Fund?
To help with injuries to cowboys at PRCA rodeos
Define "Added Money"
Money added to the entry fees to make up the total purse money
What is a stock contractor?
Someone who raises and provides stock for the rodeo
What is the primary purpose of the PRCA?
To provide organization, fairness, and professionalism to rodeos
What are the 7 PRCA events?
Saddle bronc riding, bareback riding, bull riding, steer wrestling, steer roping, team roping, and tie down roping
Who won the 2014 NFR Top Gun Award?
Who was the 2014 All-Around champion?
Who was the 2013 bareback riding champion?
Who was the 2013 steer wrestling champion?
Who was the 2013 Team Roping Header champion?
Who was the 2013 Team Roping Heeler Champion?
Who was the 2013 saddle bronc riding champion?
Who was the 2013 tie-down roping champion?
Who was the 2013 steer roping champion?
Who was the 2013 bull riding champion?
What is rodeo's "Classic Event"?
Saddle bronc riding
Describe the job of a pick up man at a rodeo?
Pick up roughstock riders, clear the arena of stock, and run flags in timed events
Describe the job of a bullfighter at a rodeo
Keep the fallen cowboy safe by distracting the bull while the cowboy leaves the arena
What does PSN stand for?
Pro Rodeo Sports News
What is the most important thing to remember when pushing cattle in the arena?
To stay out of the way of the judges/flagger and cowboy
What is slack?
A preliminary competition held before the rodeo opens to the public to determine who gets to ride in the rodeo if too many contestants are entered
What protective gear may a contestant wear during bull riding?
Helmet and a padded vest
When does a cowboy qualify for a re-ride?
If the animal doesn't perform in a manner that allows the cowboy to show what he can do (falls, not enough buck, etc)
What does WNFR stand for?
Wrangler National Finals Rodeo
Name a component of proper flag protocal
The American flag must always be held higher than all the flags in the arena and never touch the ground
What does PRCA stand for?
Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association
Where are the national headquarters for the PRCA located?
101 prorodeo drive, colorado springs, colorado
Name a celebrity that endorses PETA
About how many rodeos are sanctioned by the PRCA per year?
What is another name for steer wrestling?
Name a stock contractor that has had stock at every PRCA in history
Bob Barnes; also inducted into the Pro Rodeo Hall of Fame
Where are the bars of a horse located?
in the mouth and on either side of the frog
What is a bone spavin?
Osteoarthritis in horses, which can cause lameness and swelling
What is a bowed tendon?
An enlarged, stretched flexor tendon behind the cannon bone
How many gallons of water does a horse need per day?
What is the penalty for breaking the barrier?
10 second time penalty
When a tie-down roper flips the calf by hand
Name the rope a tie-down roper uses to tie the calf's legs together
What is a length of time a roughstock rider must ride their animal fro a qualified ride?
What roughstock event doesn't have a mark-out rule?
Define "catch as can"
It means that a tie-down roper is allowed to catch the stock any way he chooses
What piece of equipment is used to enhance a horse's ability to buck?
How many molars does an adult horse have?
How many bones are in a horse's body?
What is a bucked shin?
An enlargement on the front cannon between the knee and fetlock joint
What is ringbone?
Abnormal calcification of the pastern bones that cause lameness
What is strangles?
The swelling of lymph nodes in the horse's throat, causing raspy breaths and lack of appetite; causes bumps to accumulate on the neck
Name all 5 second penalties
Knocking a barrel down in barrel racing and catching only one heel in team roping
What is a score line?
The amount of head start stock is given at a rodeo during timed events;
What are the symptoms of west nile virus?
Droopy lips, muscle twitching, lack of coordination, partial paralysis, and high fever
How much does a hoof grow per month?
1/4 to 2/8 of an inch each month (which is .6 to 1 cm)
How much does a hoof grow in a year?
3 to 4 inches per year
What are 13mwz's?
Original cowboy cut wranglers
Name 5 parts of the hoof?
Frog, wall, toe, heel, and bars
What is a horse's gestation period?
What is the normal pulse rate for a horse?
20 to 40 beats per minutes
How often should a horse be wormed?
Every 6 weeks
How often should your horse be vaccinated?
1-2 times a year
What is in a 4 way vaccine?
tetanus, eastern and western encephalitis, and influenza
How long is a horse's esophagus?
How much does a horse's stomach hold?
How long is a horse's small intestine?
How much does a horse's small intestine hold?
Where are soluble carbohydrates digested in the horse?
The duodenum, ileum, and jejunum are parts of which section of the horse?
The small intestine
Where does water absorption occur in the horse?
What are the parts of the hindgut of the horse?
Cecum, large colon, small colon, rectum, and anus
What are the parts of the foregut of the horse?
mouth, esophagus, stomach, and small intestine
How long is the cecum of the horse?
How much does the cecum of the horse hold?
How long is the large colon of the horse?
How much does the large colon of the horse hold?
How long is the entire large intestine of the horse?
How much does the large intestine of the horse hold?
How long is the small colon of the horse?
How much does the small colon of the horse hold?
Where is the fiber digested in the horse?
Where does fermentative microbial digestion (bacteria and protozoa) occur in the horse?
What is the name for a practice that is used to identify mares in estrus?
When traveling long distances, how often should you offer your horse water?
every 3-4 hours
What stimulus induces the growth of a horse's winter coat hair?
Shortened photo period (daylight)
To what side of the heart does blood return to the horse's body?
What problem develops from too much vitamin D?
Soft tissue calcification
What type of martingale allows the rider to maintain contact with the bit the whole time?
Approximately how much blood does a 1000 lb. adult horse hold?
What is the function of insulin?
To control blood sugar levels and utilization of sugar in the body
What legume is noted for sometimes having a mold infection that may cause a horse to slobber?
What 2 factors determine hoof size?
Heredity and nutrition
Name 4 types of open wounds?
Incision, laceration, tears, puncture, penetrating, and abrasions
What is the difference between true and false ribs?
True ribs attach to the sternum by cartilage, while false ribs connect to each other by by cartilage and then to the sternum
Name 3 things whose length are determined by shoulder angle
Neck, back, stride, stride, and depth of heartgirth
Give 2 reasons why you do not need to add Vitamin B to a horse's ration
Good quality is a good source and significant amounts are produced in the horse's large intestine
What is the nervous system made up of?
Brain, spinal chord, associated nerves, and and special senses
Name 3 functions of the alimentary canal
Digest food, absorb nutrients, and eliminate remaining food waste
What are trace minerals?
Minerals that are found in small quantities in feed and are required in small quantities by the body
What is the first step in treating an abcess?
Open the affected area and drain it
Name 3 paths of physiological water loss from a horse's body
feces, sweat, urine, and respiration
For a horse's ration, approximately what percentage of the body weight should be long stemmed roughage?
Streptoccocus equi was first described in 1988 as the bacteria causing what disease?
What is the tissue on the outside of the coffin bone that is attached to the horny tissue?
What determines the amount of energy required by muscle?
How fast it is contracting
On what continent did Equus originate?
What is the name for the inflammation of the udder?
What is the name for dark spots on a white coronet band?
Horses with sickle hocks are predisposed to what problem?
What is the name for a protrusion of intestine through the abdominal wall into the skin pouch that holds the testicle?
What color are the eggs of a nose bot fly?
What is the main reason for using a web stall guard?
To allow more air circulation into the stall and to allow the horse to see to alleviate boredom
How many pairs of chromosomes are responsible for the sex of a foal?
Where in the horse's digestive system would you find bot larvae attached?
Describe what happens when a horse forges
The toe of the hind foot hits the sole of the forefoot on the same side
Give 2 functions of clips on horseshoes
Stabilizes the shoe on the foot and takes stress off the nails
Name 3 factors that influence the water requirements of a horse
Air temperature, activity level, feed intake, type of feed, whether they're pregnant or not
Name 5 respiratory diseases in horses
Equine influenza, EHV (rhinopneumonitis), EVA, equine adenovirus, equine rhinovirus
When do you vaccinate a pregnant mare against EHV?
5-9 months of gestation
How often should you vaccinate a foal against EHV?
every 3 months
What 3 things do you worry about in overweight horses?
Lipidosis, laminitis, and arthritis
What 3 things do you worry about in underweight horses?
Not enough feed, parasites, and teeth
Name 4 causes of laminitis
Carb overload, retained placentia, corticosteriods, and excessive work or stress
With laminitis, where is the positive hoof test at?
How can you reduce stress in the lamina with laminitis?
Wedge pad heel that reduces the pull of DDF
Why is heparin used to treat laminitis?
Because it activates the reticuloendothelial system and decreases clotting in the foot microvascular
What is the general treatment for acute laminitits?
Pain meds, frog support, heels that reduce strain on DDF, vasodialators, heparin, and anti-inflammitories
What is the surgical treatment for chronic laminitis?
Dorsal hoof wall resection, full hoof wall resection, DDF tenotomy, and inferior check ligament desmotomy
What are the causes of a subsolar abcess?
Puncture wounds at the frog and puncture wounds at the white line from gravel
Where do puncture wounds at the frog drain?
At the heel between the sensitive and insensitive frog
Where do puncture wounds at the white line drains?
At the coronary band
What do you treat Melanoma of the vulva with?
What are the causes of urine pooling?
During estrus, the cervix relaxes and uterine tone decreases so urine pooling can occur
What 3 things can urine pooling cause?
Endometrisis, vaginitis, and cervisitis
How do you treat for urine pooling?
Flush large volumes of salines or antibiotics before cover or surgical correction a urethral extension
In horses anesthetized with halothane or isoflurane, dobutamine administration may result in:
What is the primary reason to fasting prior to anesthesia?
Minimize extent of lung collapse
What are some of the effects of using atracurium during intraculor surgery in horses?
paralysis of extraocular mm, keeps eye in central position in the orbit
Which cranial nerves are blocked with a properly placed Peterson eye block?
III, IV, V, and VI
What is one of the most common ocular diseases in horses?
Equine recurrent uveitis
What is the most common cause of blindness in horses worldwide?
equine recurrent uveitis (due to the changes secondary to chronic inflammation)
What are 2 surgical procedures that are sometimes used in the treatment of chronic uveitis in horses?
core vitrectomy and cyclosporine implant
What is myositis?
acute infammatory disease of the muscle caused by exertion or change in diet or excersise
What are some clinical signs of heaves?
labored breathing, coughing, flared nostrils, nasal discharge, and wheezing
What are the clinical signs of equine influenze?
fever up to 105, depression, anorexia, nasal dischare, cough, and fever spike 5-6 days later
What are the clinical signs of viral encephalitis?
fever, lethargy, and stiffness followed by neurological signs
How do you prevent viral encephalitis?
What are the clinical signs of west nile virus?
muscle fasciculation, rear limb ataxia, and hypersensitivity to touch or sound
What are the clinical signs of rabies?
ataxia, stupor, muscle fasciculation, and excess salivation
How do you diagnose rabies?
you must remove the head and test the brain tissue
How do you prevent rabies and what is the treatment?
vaccinate and there is no treatment
What are the clinical signs of tetanus?
"lock jaw", rigid muscles, easily startled by noises, 3rd eyelid is up, ears erect, nostrils flared
How is EPM spread?
by infected possums in their feces
What are the clinical signs of EPM?
subtle lameness issues, muscle atrophy, and ataxia
Which grain when fed in excess may form a dough-ball in the horse's stomach?
What are the clinical signs of equine viral arteritis (EVA)?
fever, edema of limbs and ventral abdomen, nasal and oscular discharge, and abortion
How do you diagnose a superficial corneal ulcer?
How much of the body weight does the thoracic limb support?
What is another term for the distal sesamoid?
What is the function of the stay apparatus?
allows the horse to support the weight of the body using a small amount of muscle strength
What is the epidermis of a horse's foot?
What are the 3 components that make up the hoof?
hoof wall, sole, and frog
What is the term for the junction between the wall and sole on the ground surface?
What is the dermis of the foot known as?
Where does 65% of the digestion occur in the horse?
cecum and colon
What is an ergot?
a small point on the back of each fetlock
What is the length of the equine estrous cycle?
What is the length of estrus in a horse?
What is the range in age when estrous cycle begins in a mare?
What is the most popular months for to go through estrus?
november through january
What are the signs of estrus?
receptive towards stallion, frequent urination, squatting posture, raised tail, and vulva "blinking"
What are the possible complications of multiple foalings
pneumovagina, urine pooling, and anatomical changes in the vagina and vulva
What is a maiden mare?
a mare that has never been bred
What is the most critical time after parturition for mare and foal?
the first 24 hours
How long does involution of the uterus take?
Unlike human neonatal care, what should not be manually broken after parturition?
T of F: foals with high levels of circulating antibody will remain healthy while foals with low levels of antibody will develop septicemia
A non-power dental float for the use on the dental arcade typically has:
a long straight handle and blade
Which muscle groups should not be used for IM injection in a horse being used for race training?
gluteals and triceps
What are the signs of dehydration in the foal?
entropian, prolonged skin turgor test, sunken eyes, and delayed CRT
T or F: retained placentas are rarely associated with complications in the mare?
What is the optimum time to determine the sex of the fetus in a pregnant mare via rectal ultrasound?
The main concern when applying a tail wrap/bandage is to:
avoid strangulation of the coccygeal artery
The immediate concern after delivering a foal is:
to ensure a clear airway
The most common cause of infertility in the mare is:
The basic prerequisite for castration is:
the palpable prescence of 2 fully descended testicles
A patent urachus is normally expected to close:
within 48 hours after birth
What is the most common cause of dystocia in the mare is:
malposition of the fetus
A normal foal should be nursing within:
1-3 hours maximum
T or F: foals may be infected with bacteria while still in the uterus
The most common complications after castration are:
hemorrhage and swelling
The only available test to determine what bacteria are in a foal's bloodstream is:
a blood culture
IV jugular injections are preferably given in:
the cranial half of the jugular groove where a muscle seperates the jugular and the carotid
When placing a dose syringe in the mouth of a horse, the syringe should be placed:
between the commissures of the lips then directed caudally between cheek and cheek teeth
A typical sawhorse stance can be seen in which diseases?
IM injection is contraindicated in what muscles of a nursing foal?
lateral cervical muscles
equine infectious anemia is transmitted by:
The most commonly predescribed treatment for Potomac horse fever is:
A normal foal usually nurses every:
What are the clinical signs of dental disease?
quidding, foul odor to the breath, tilting the head while eating
endometrial (urine) biopsy is used to:
collect a tissue specimen for histopathology