APUSH Chapter 9
Terms in this set (52)
Lewis & Clark Expedition
1804-1806, 1st overland expedition to the U.S. Pacific coast and back, led by __________ and _________. Initiated by Pres. Thomas Jefferson, the expedition set out to find an overland route to the Pacific, documenting its exploration through the new Louisiana Purchase.
3rd president, wrote Dec. of Ind., Louisiana Purchase, Lewis & Clark Expedition, Anti-Federalist, repealed Alien & Sedition Acts
Secretary of the Treasury 1801-14, US House of Reps for PA 1795, created House Committee on Finance, part of Ways and Means committee, reduced national debt by 23 mil, opposes war of 1812, negotiates Treaty of Ghent in 1814, minister of France & Britain, president of National Bank of US
Judiciary Act of 1801
aka Midnight Judges Act, act reduces number of seats on the Supreme Court from 6 to 5, happened because Adams appointed federalist judges the night before he left office to try and keep Federalists in power, none of these midnight appointments were ever officially made, Marbury v. Madison is a result of one of the midnight appointments
chief judge of Maryland General Court from 1791-96, appointed by Washington to Supreme Court, impeached during Jefferson administration in 1804, for partisan conduct, establishes the principle that fed. judges can only be removed for indictable criminal acts, strengthens Judiciary branch, serves until 1811
4th Chief Justice, 1801 appointment by John Adams, served for 34 years, _______ asserts the power of the court in Marbury v. Madison to overturn legislation as unconstitutional, lawyer before Supreme Court, envoy to France in XYZ affair
Marbury v Madison
Supreme Court case, William Marbury was appointed to Justice of the Peace, in D.C. Adams appointed him as part of the Midnight Judges. Madison as Secretary of State under Jefferson refused to deliver the official papers. This court case established judicial review and ruled the Writ of Mandamus is unconstitutional.
Came from the Supreme Court case, Marbury v Madison, it is the courts way of ruling a law unconstitutional
This was the name of the transaction when Jefferson bought Louisiana from the French for $15 million dollars. This doubles the size of the United States
Explored the southern part of the Louisiana Territory, was captured by the Spanish then released; this man has a mountain named after him.
Federalist member of the US House of Representatives, leader of the Younger Federalists, he tried to make Jefferson seem like a weak president.
New members of this political party argued the Jefferson's reduction of the Army and Navy made the country weaker to rival European nations.
Served in the U.S. Senate from 1803 to 1811 and in the House of Representatives from 1813 to 1817. A leader of the Federalist Party, he was a member of the Essex Junto, and he opposed the War of 1812. After retiring from politics, he turned to experimental farming and education. Served as Secretary of State under George Washington and John Adams.
Burr challenged Hamilton because Burr ran for governor of New York and Hamilton "ran" just so Burr would not win. Hamilton really just slandered Burr throughout the race. This duel took place in Weehoken, New Jersey on July 11, 1804. They used pistols for weapons. Hamilton first shot in the air, surrendering, but Burr shot at Hamilton and killed him. Burr then fled west.
Burr was a suspect in acts of treason along with a cabal of planters, politicians, and army officers. According to the accusations against him, Burr's goal was to create an independent nation in the center of North America and/or the Southwest and parts of Mexico. Burr's explanation: To take possession of, and farm, 40,000 acres in the Texas Territory leased to him by the Spanish. When the expected war with Spain broke out, he would fight with his armed farmers; to seize some lands he could conquer in the war-all illegal by rules of warfare. Also, Believed to have talked to the British regarding an independent nation in America.
A conflict between the United States and pirates had become a normal source of income in the North African Barbary States long before the United States came into existence. The new republic adopted the common European practice of paying tribute to buy immunity from raids. When the pasha of Tripoli demanded a higher tribute than previously agreed upon, the United States refused payment. Hostilities broke out in 1801. President Thomas Jefferson then decided to settle the affair by negotiation, but his envoy could not reach an agreement. The war continued. After quarrel over the campaign, the blockade of Tripoli was lifted, and the U.S. government considered resuming tribute payments.
Impressment of American sailors
A forced enrollment of recruits for military duty. After 1800, England restricted impressment mostly to naval service. The Napoleonic Wars increased English need for sea power and led to the impressment of a large number of deserters, criminals, and British subjects who had become naturalized Americans. Frequent interception of American ships to impress American citizens was a major cause of the War of 1812.
An act passed by the United States Congress on April 18, 1806, which forbade the importation of certain British goods in an attempt to coerce Great Britain to suspend its impressment of American sailors and to respect American sovereignty and neutrality on the high seas. This was the first attempt of President Thomas Jefferson's administration to respond economically, instead of militarily, to the British actions. The act was suspended, but was quickly replaced by the Embargo Act of 1807, which imposed more trade restrictions with Britain, as well as with France.
naval conflict between the United States and Great Britain resulting in the passing of the embargo act.
Act passed by Thomas Jefferson in 1807 stopping the united states from trading with England and France. It was passed due to punish these two countries for seizing US cargo ships when the US was trying to sty neutral in the Napoleonic War. The act caused united states exports to drop by 80%, sending the United States into an economic depression.
presidential elections of 1804 and 1808
In the election of 1804 Jefferson defeated Thomas Pinckney. In 1808 James madison defeats Pinckney.
lifted all embargoes on American shipping except for those bound for British or French ports. Additionally, Thomas Jefferson also created neutrality rights which posed the opportunity, that if British or French ships were to stop impressment of U.S. ships, they would be reopen to trade with the United States.
Macon's Bill #2
A revision of the original bill proposed by Nathaniel malcom. It said that the US would re-open trade with both France and England for 3 months. If either side stopped attacking American vessels during that time then the US would trade only with them.
Leader of the Shawnee Indian tribe who fought against the US during Tecumseh's war and in the War of 1812
War of 1812
War between the US and England which started due to England taking American sailors and forcing them to fight in the British navy during the Napoleonic wars.
Great Lakes Campaign
naval campaign during the war of 1812 in which the British tried to win dominance in the Northwest Territory through a series of naval battles on the great lakes.
William H. Harrison
the ninth president of the united states, signer of the treaty of Greenville, fought in the war of 1812, and in Tecumseh's war. He was made commander of the Army of the Northwest on September 17, 1812.
Battle of the Thames
also known as the Battle of Moraviantown, and was a clear-cut American victory. It took place in Ontario Canada and resulted in the death of Tecumseh.
Invasion of Washington D.C.
The British occupied and burned the nation's capital in this attack in August 1814. Forced the Pres. Madison and his cabinet to flee. Dolly Madison stayed in town long enough to save cabinet documents and a portrait of George Washington.
Francis Scott Key
Detainee on British ship who watched the bombardment of Ft. McHenry in the War of 1812. This experience inspired him to write "The Star-Spangled Banner," which became the national anthem in 1931.
Leading general in the War of 1812, especially battles in the South. Took Horseshoe Bend, Pensacola, Mobile, and New Orleans.
Battle of Horseshoe Bend
US military victory, led by Gen. Andrew Jackson, over the Red Stick Creeks in March 1814. Helped clear land for American settlement.
Battle of New Orleans
Battle that took place two weeks after the end of the War of 1812. Jackson's forces held its ground against British forces on January 18, 1815. British had over 2000 casualties, while Americans had only 21 casualties.
Treaty of Ghent
Signed on December 24, 1914, this treaty ended the War of 1812 and returned US-British relations to the status they had had before the war. Made no mention of free trade or sailor's rights.
an assembly of New England states during the winter of 1814-15 that discussed the possibility of secession during the War of 1812; delivered a mortal blow to the Federalist Party
Madison's National Program
this federal agenda, dubbed the American System by Henry Clay, included a national bank, improved transportation (internal improvements), and a protective tariff; meant for economic development and military expansion
Second Bank of U.S.
this part of Madison's nationalist program was chartered in 1816 to serve as a depository for federal funds and to issue currency, collect taxes, and pay the government's taxes; also oversaw local and state banks
Tariff of 1816
this protective tariff levied taxes on imported woolens and cottons, as well as on iron, leather, hats, paper, and sugar in order to aid industries that had flourished during the War of 1812 but were not threatened by overseas traders; divided North and South
this internal improvement received federal funding in an 1806 bill in Congress and was built in 1811 to run between Cumberland, Maryland and Wheeling, Virginia; construction lasted 7 years, but it was then extended to Ohio and then Indiana
this former senator, Virginian governor, and secretary of state and of war was elected to the presidency in 1816; continued with the American System and reigned during the "Era of Good Feelings"
Spain ceded Florida to the United States and gave up its claims to the Oregon Territory
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the western hemisphere from outside powers
Oliver H. Perry
American ship captain who defeated a British naval squadron on Lake Eerie in April 1813; he is famous for saying: "We have met the enemy and they are ours"
this was an attempt to have no more slaves to be brought to Missouri and provided the gradual emancipation of the children of slaves; in the mind of the South, this was a threat to the sectional balance between North and South
the issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states; the compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state; Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery
McCulloch v Maryland
Maryland passed the law saying that all banks in the state that weren't state run had to pay a tax. They also weren't allowed to issue bank notes unless it was on stamped paper from the state which they had to pay for. McCulloch (D), the cashier of the Baltimore branch of the Bank of the United States, issued bank notes without complying with the Maryland law. Maryland sued McCulloch for failing to pay the taxes due under the Maryland statute and McCulloch contested the constitutionality of that act. The state court found for Maryland and McCulloch appealed. Supreme court then ruled for McCulloch
Dartmouth college v Woodward
In 1816, the New Hampshire legislature attempted to change Dartmouth College-- a privately funded institution--into a state university. The legislature changed the school's corporate charter by transferring the control of trustee appointments to the governor. In an attempt to regain authority over the resources of Dartmouth College, the old trustees filed suit against William H. Woodward, who sided with the new appointees. Supreme court ruled for Dartmouth college.
John Q. Adams
the sixth President of the United States (1825-1829). He served as an American diplomat, Senator, and Congressional representative. He was a member of the Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, and later Anti-Masonic and Whig parties. Adams. As a diplomat, he played an important role in negotiating many international treaties, most notably the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812.
a treaty between the United States and Britain ratified by the United States Senate on April 16, 1818. The treaty provided for a large demilitarization of the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain, where many British naval arrangements and forts still remained. The treaty stipulated that the United States and British North America could each maintain one military vessel (no more than 100 tons burden) as well as one cannon (no more than eighteen pounds) on Lake Ontario and Lake Champlain.
Convention of 1818
a treaty signed in London in October and ratified in Washington, D.C., the following January. The convention gave U.S. citizens the right to fish on limited portions of the Canadian maritimes; established the Northwest boundary from the Lake of the Woods west to the Rocky Mountains along the forty-ninth parallel; stipulated that territory west of the Rockies claimed by either nation should be open equally to both for ten years; and referred U.S. claims to indemnification for slaves seized by British forces during the American Revolution to arbitration by a friendly sovereign. The convention failed to resolve the Oregon boundary issue.
a term originally used to describe members of the Twelfth Congress of the United States who advocated waging war against the British in the War of 1812
Battle of Put in Bay
fought on 10 September 1813, in Lake Erie off the coast of Ohio during the War of 1812. Nine vessels of the United States Navy defeated and captured six vessels of Great Britain's Royal Navy. This ensured American control of the lake for the rest of the war, which in turn allowed the Americans to recover Detroit and win the Battle of the Thames to break the Indian confederation of Tecumseh.
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