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48 terms

How Safe is Our Food Supply? - Chapter 13

EXAM 3
STUDY
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CDC - Center for Disease Control
Monitors food-borne illness
FDA - Food and Drug Agency
Ensures processed foods safety
USDA - US Department of Agriculture
Ensures meat, poultry and egg safety
EPA - Environmental Protection Agency
Regulates pesticides and water quality
NMFS - National Marine Fisheries
Voluntary inspection of fish
NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Inspects seafood
ATF - Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms
Regulates and inspects alcohol production
Toxicity
Determined by dose and compound or microbe consumed. May also depend on the size, diet and health of the recipient.
National Food Safety Initiative
Seeks to reduce food-borne illness by improving practices from the farm to the fork and coordinating the efforts of Federal Agencies
HACCP - Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
Food-borne illness prevention system designed to improve food safety in US. Enforced by FDA and USDA.
Pathogens
(bacteria, viruses and molds) Cause illness in humans.
Food-borne Infection
Microbes set up and grow in GI tract may take a few days to develop illness so often under diagnosed
Salmonella
Common in raw meats, poultry & eggs - most common food-borne illness in US causing flu-like symptoms a couple days later
Campylobacter
Common fecal-to-oral causing diarrhea can cause Guillain-Barre Syndrome where immune system attacks own nerves and causes paralysis
Traveler's Diarrhea
Primarily from Eschericia coli
Food Intoxication
Microbes produce toxin that causes illness when consumed - rapid onset and often noticed quickly due to vomiting and diarrhea
Clostridium Botulinum
Most deadly intoxication causes respiratory shutdown - up to 60% fatal - may occur in improperly canned foods
Staphlococcus Areus
Most common intoxication causing vomiting and diarrhea - common in nasal passages and spread by coughing and sneezing - not usually fatal
E.Coli O157:H7
From healthy cattle is an Intoxification (caused Jack in the Box illness) that may contaminate meat or vegetables causing hemolytic uremia and damaging GI tract and kidneys and causes death in some people especially young and old
Viruses
Require a living host - their genetic material produces more viruses in victims cells do not grow and reproduce in food itself - common cause is undercooked seafood - proper cooking will kill them
Norovirus
Can cause gastroenteritis (stomach flu)
Hepatitis A
Can cause infection and liver disease
Hepatitis
Can also be transmitted in raw or undercooked seafood
Aspergillis
Mold in peanuts - can cause liver disease
Cyclospora, Giardia, Cryptosporum and Trichinella
Parasites - can be problems if undercooked foods are consumed
Bovine Spongioform Encephalopathy (BSE)
Mad cow disease is caused by prions in contaminated feed and has severely damaged the British Cattle Industry
Variant Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease
Human form of mad cow - may lead to dementia and death in about 14 months and may be transmitted by brain and nervous tissue consumption - rare disease
Danger Zone (40 - 140 F)
Temperature bacteria grow best at
Heavy Metals
Mercury and lead - environmental contaminants
Carcinogens
Polychlorinated biphenyls - environmental contaminants
Persistence
Don't break down - environmental contaminants
Bioaccumulation
Larger concentrations as they move up food chain - environmental contaminants
Recombinant Bovine Somatotrophin (rBST)
Produces up to 25% more milk, but hormones are broken down to amino acids in GI tract
Antibiotics
Added to prevent animal disease in space intensive production facilities, but do contribute to antibiotic resistant bacteria which is a problem
Pesticides
Used to produce greater quantity better quality of food - most are not a problem when used properly, but cause great consumer concern
Integrated Pest Management
Alternative in production - economical and least harmful, but not often labeled as such
Organic Food
Production is more free of pesticides, but also more expensive and may not be any more nutritious
Nutritional Adequacy Concerns
Minimize losses of vitamins in cooking and storage (exposure to time, oxygen, heat may inactivate them)
Pasteurization
Heat to kill pathogens
Canning
Kill spores and pathogens
Modified Atmosphere Packaging
Remove oxygen to delay decay - prevents oxygen from ripening or causing deterioration of food in package eliminating extreme heat or cold
Polycyclic Hydrocarbons (PHA's) and Heterocyclic Amines (HCA's)
Carcinogenic - High temperatures on grill can cause these - following cooking instructions should minimize them
Acrylamide
Formed during high temperature baking and frying
Irradiation
Major cold pasteurization/sterilization method - Inhibits DNA of bacteria but does not destroy viruses - Foods must have green RADURA label
Additives
Must be effective, detectable and safe - Require much testing by manufacturer which must prove them safe to FDA
Delaney Clause
Zero risk for carcinogens
Surface Water
Subject to contamination but easily treated (O2 & light)
Ground Water
Harder to treat and many individual wells (fragmented control & not exposed to O2 & light)