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AP Euro Ch 21(22)
Terms in this set (54)
A term first coined in the 1830s to describe the burst of major inventions and economic expansion that took place in certain industries, such as cotton textiles and iron. Began in Great Britain
form of capitalism characterized by trade in commodities and a highly organized system of banking, credit, stock, and insurance services
A gifted carpenter who invented the cotton-spinning jenny
A barber-turned-manufacturer invented the water frame
A smiple inexpensive, hand powered spinning machine created in 1765
A spinning machine that had a capacity of several hundred spindles and used waterpower; it therefore required a larger and more specialized mill - a factory
1779, a Brit who combined the best features of the spinning jenny with the water frame -> spinning mule/Crompton's mule.
English clergyman who invented the power loom (1743-1823)
Among the best-paid workers in England. As a result, large numbers of agricultural laborers became this
good(s) that became much cheaper and was increasingly bought and treasured by all classes. By 1831, accounted for 22 percent of countrys entire industrial production
a local church community. officers would "apprentice" children to factory owners who would treat them like slaves
A breakthrough invention by Thomas Savery in 1698 and Thomas Newcomen in 1705 that burned coal to produce steam, which was then used to operate a ump; early models were superseded by James Watt's more efficient steam engine patented in 1769
English inventor of one of the first primitive steam engines in 1698. It burned coal to produce steam and operated in English and Scottish mines but was terribly inefficient.
1705 invented steam engine that used coal, very inefficient.
A Scottish engineer who created the steam engine that worked faster and more efficiently than earlier engines, this man continued improving the engine, inventing a new type of governor to control steam pressure and attaching a flywheel.
Wealthy English industrialist who teamed up with Watt to help make a precise cylinders for Watt's steam engine. He also suggested ideas to make the engine not only good for pumping water but also for running a factory
English industrialist whose pottery works were the first to produce fine-quality pottery by industrial methods. (p. 603)
a cannon manufacturer who watt and Boulton consulted to find ways to drill the precise metal cylinders required by Watt's design
In the 1780s, developed the puddling furnace, which allowed pig iron to be refined in turn with coke (made from coal, not the drink or drug). Also developed heavy-duty steam-powered rolling mills, which were capable of spewing out finished iron in every shape and form.
1814, a Brit who built the first successful steam locomotive. By 1829 his Rocket travelled on the world's first railroad line from Manchester to Liverpool at average speed of 16mph. By the 1840s the era of railroad construction had begun in Europe and the US.
The name given to George Stephenson's effective locomotive that was first tested in 1830 on the Liverpool and Manchester Railway at 16 miles per hour
The location of the Great Exhibition in 1851 in London, an architectural masterpiece made entirely of glass and iron
an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (1766-1834) Wrote the famous and influential "Essay on the Principle of Population"
English economist who argued that the laws of supply and demand should operate in a free market (1772-1823)
iron law of wages
Theory proposed suggesting that the pressure of population growth prevents wages from rising above the subsistence level
An aggressive British businessman moved to Belgium & established a highy-profitable industrial plant in 1817.
German business pioneer who served in Britain and brought their ideas to Germany; set up a steam engine shop that failed because he had to import British workers, but important in bringing ideas over
A government's way of supporting and aiding its own economy by laying high taxes on imported goods from other countries, as when the French responded to cheaper British goods flooding their country by imposing high tariffs on some imported products
a German journalist and thinker. He promoted government's greater role in industrialization on the continent. thought that the growth of the modern industry was most important because manufacturing was the way to increase the well being of people and relieve poverty. He was a nationalist. He wrote "wider the gap between the backward and advanced nations, the more dangerous it is to remain behind." To promote industry was to defend the nation. The practical policies that he focused on in articles and in his influential National System of Political Economy (1841) were railroad building and the protective tariff. (738)
policies aimed at protecting and developing a country's economy
an individual's sense of class differentiation
Credit Mobilier of Paris
A bank who advertised extensively and used the savings of its many small investors and the resources of its big investors. It built railroads all over France and Europe.
new overarching interpretation regarding social relationships
Group of handicraft workers who attacked whole factories in northern England in 1812 and after, smashing the new machines that they believed were putting them out of work
visionary British poet and painter (1757-1827) who called the early factories "satanic mills" amd protested against the hard life of the London poor
a romantic English poet whose work was inspired by the Lake District where he spent most of his life (1770-1850) Lamented the destruction of the rural way of life and the pollution of the land and water
another German communist who aided Marx in writing The Communist Manifesto; German social scientist, author, political theorist, philosopher, and father of communist theory, alongside Karl Marx. Published "The Condition of the Working Class In England."
believed that conditions were improving for the working people. wrote in 1835 in his study of the cotton industry that conditions in most factories were not harsh and were even quite good.
a great and conscientious government official well acquainted with the problems of the working population, concluded that the "whole mass of the laboring community" was increasingly able to buy more of the necessities and minor luxuries of life
the principal ideas of this movement were equality and liberty; demanded representative government and equality before the law as well as individual freedoms such as freedom of the press, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, freedom from arbitrary arrest
a doctrine of economic liberalism that believes in unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy
the idea that each people had its own genuis and its own specific inity, which manifested itself especially in a common language and history, and often led to the desire for an idependent political state
Johann Gottfried von Herder
German philosopher who advocated intuition over reason (1744-1803)
A backlash against the emergence of individualism and the fragmentation of society, and a move toward cooperation and a sense of community; the key ideas were economic planning, greater economic equality, and state regulation of property
Henri de Saint Simon
One of the most influential socialist thinkers was a nobleman. He was an early utopian socialist, who advocated industrial development. Saint-Simon also stressed in highly moralistic terms that every social institution ought to have its main goal improved for the poor. Saint-Simon's stress on industry and science inspired middle-class industrialists and bankers such as the Pereire brothers, founders of the Crédit Mobilier. (p.764)
French sociologist and reformer who hoped to achieve universal harmony by reorganizing society (1772-1837) He was a lonely, saintly man, envisaged a socialist utopia of mathematically precise, self-sufficient communites made up of 1,620
sharp-eyed, intelligent journalist, focused on practical improvements-"Organization of Work": urged workers to agitate for universal voting rights and to take control of the state peacefully-believed state should set up govt.-blocked workshops and factories to guarantee full employment
Pierre Joseph Proudhon
What is Property?-self-educated printer who wrote a pamphlet-answer was that it was nothing but theft-property was profit that was stolen from the worker (source of all wealth)-feared power of state and was an anarchist
The Communist Manifesto
The book written by Karl Marx and Frederich Engels that outlined how every society in the world would eventually reach communism.
German philosopher, economist, and revolutionary. With the help and support of Friedrich Engels he wrote The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Das Kapital (1867-1894). These works explain historical development in terms of the interaction of contradictory economic forces, form the basis of all communist theory, and have had a profound influence on the social sciences.
middle-class minority who owned the means of production and, according to Marx, exploited the working-class proletariat
industrial working class who, according to Marx, were unfairly exploited by the profit seeking bourgeoisie
German Philosopher and historian (1770-1831) he believed in the Hegelian Dialectic, that ideas are the driving force of history, and in history being progressive. Even though Marx and Engels disagreed with the Hegelian Dialectic they respected Hegel.
Factory Acts of 1833
Movement in Great Britain that outlawed the employment of children under the age of nine in textile mills; also limited the work days for those aged nine to thirteen to nine hours a day, and teenagers to twelve hours a day
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