Upgrade to remove ads
Arts and Humanities
M20 Study Of Writing
Terms in this set (71)
The representation of a word or syllable by a picture of an object whose name resembles the sound represented in the word or syllable.
phonetic value of a symbol matters and not its meaning)
ex. belief, narmer
The earliest known system of writing consisting of wedge shapes and lines.
It was often written with a reed stylus on clay tablets or stone.
Started off as logographic (like most languages)
Cuneiform was syllabic, primarily used for the languages of Akkadian and Sumerian (was not semetic).
George Grotefend of Germany did some crucial work in translating some parts of old Persian, but he didn't have awesome credentials so he didn't get a lot of credit for it
Multi-lingual inscription located on Mount Behistun in Iran.
It was crucial to the decipherment of cuneiform because it's essentially a rosetta stone (hierogylphic, demotic, then greek)
They were copied by Rawlinson.
It depicted King Darius
Written in Babylonian (later form of Akkadian), Elamite, and Old Persian
One of the first languages used with Cuneiform.
Crucial to deciphering Egyptian Hieroglyphics, this stone was composed of 3 different scripts: Hieroglyphics on the top, demotic in the middle, and Ancient Greek on the bottom.
Because people recognized the Greek alphabet, they were able to use the stone to decipher the other two foreign scripts.
"Priests did not have to pay taxes"
commissioned by Ptolemy V at the age of 13
code of hammurabi
law code that was very harsh but also protective of its citizens, especially women and children
coulmas: social control and order
contains some of the earliest hieroglyphics ever found
thought to be a depiction of Narmer unifying Upper & Lower Egypt
hieroglyphics already being used phonetically, employing the rebus principle
palettes are used to grind cosmetics
no writing on them
specify an object
had different shapes such as spheres and cones
thought to represent ideas and quantities
often encased in clay bulla
specified a commodity
deciphered many hieroglyphics because he already knew coptic
suggested that foreign names in cartouches were written with phonetic values
identified the hieroglyphics on the rosetta stone as a mix of ideograms and phonetic signs
previously, he believed that hieroglyphics were wholly logographic
had a rivalry with Thomas Young
generally credited with deciphering Babylonian cuneiform but his journals showed that he used Edward Hinck's work without crediting him.
Mayanist, worked with Linda Schele
His work on the decipherment of Maya hieroglyphs led to a MacArthur Fellowship in 1984, at the age of 18
A pictographic form of writing in which a specific image or symbol looks like the word it represents.
The first agreed upon form of Chinese writing in which a statement or question was written onto turtle shells.
The shell was then heated until it cracked and an expert was called in to interpret its meaning.
The Shang Dynasty artifact (1200 BCE)-oracle bones, ox shoulderblades?
A form of Egyptian writing typically reserved for priestly matters. It was written on papyrus.
Used to be the common script until the rise of Demotic
A 39 page divination almanac with several dates, rulers, and gods with their names transcribed next to their picture.
It was one of the crucial artifacts used to aid in the decipherment of Mayan language.
A form of Egyptian writing used for more common purposes. It had a much more cursive element to it.
on the Rosetta Stone
Every other line of writing is flipped or reversed, with reversed letters.
A sacred Egyptian artifact in which the artistry and purpose Egyptian hieroglyphs represent is fully embodied.
The Ankh is covered in Egyptian hieroglyphs, but the hieroglyphs also appear to be part of the design of the Ankh.
A symbol placed next to a symbol, typically a logogram, to denote which semantic the logogram represents (idea, concrete, etc.).
When one symbol can have several different sounds.
An addition of a symbol, usually syllabic and usually a consonant, at the end of a word to reinforce the phonetic pronunciation of the word.
The Egyptian language written in the Greek alphabet
Used by Christian egyptians who believed hieroglyphics and the like were too pagan
When there are many symbols that represent the same sound value.
When writing first began appearing in Chinese.
4500 chinese characters
means, in Mayan, "The House of Mysterious Writing"
Above doorway are intricately carved glyphs—the "mysterious" or "obscure" writing that gives the building its name today
Under the lintel in the doorjamb is another carved panel of a seated figure surrounded by more glyphs
Inside one of the chambers, near the ceiling, is a painted hand print.
Great Seal Script
is a traditional reference to Chinese writing from before the Qin dynasty, and is now popularly understood to refer narrowly to the writing of the Western and early Eastern Zhou dynasties, and more broadly to also include the oracle bone script.
Great Seal Script flourished
period of disunity (politically and administrative-wise)
Longest lasting Chinese dynasty, followed Shang dynasty
Copán is an archaeological site of the Maya civilization located in the Copán Department of western Honduras, not far from the border with Guatemala.
Have hieroglyphic stairway
It was the capital city of a major Classic period kingdom from the 5th to 9th centuries AD.
The Philae obelisk is one of two obelisks found at Philae in Upper Egypt in 1815 and soon afterward acquired by William John Bankes.
He noted two inscriptions on it, one in Egyptian hieroglyphs, the other in ancient Greek.
Diego de Landa
A Spanish Inquisitor who, with the help of a Mayan translator, discovered that the Maya language was both alphabetic and syllabic.
^actually he never discovered it was syllabic, that happened many years later by Knorosov
The consonant/glyphs for the sounds he was asking to be translated may have been syllabic glyphs instead
Lord Shield was the name given to the Maya ruler whose crypt aided in the decipherment of Mayan writing.
King Pacal's tomb:
the outside has his name written phonetically, the inside of the tomb has his name written in a single glyph
Classical Mayan Phase
Most of the 5000 texts date to this period
Vast majority of Early Indus Writing signs come from the two largest sites: Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa
one of the main deities of Hinduism
supreme god in Shaivism, a denomination of Hinduism
language family spoken mostly in Southern India and parts of eastern and central India
one of the major language groups of the world
"Unicorn Bull" is most common type (discovered late 19th century)
· consists of writing (on top), zoomorphic image or diety and standard or other symbols
· very small seals made of soak stone (a very soft type of stone); take hard rock to inscribe in them; a lot are made out of copper as well; some are on amulets (worn around next perhaps for protection)
· beyond stone seals, main corpus of inscription are ceramic vessels
o all we have on these vessels are fish and vegetation (very decorative) leading some to conclude that it gave rise to largely pictographic signs found on stone seals
· Economic Function
o Stone seals arise with urbanization of indus valley; rise of writing in major cities of indus valley coincide with peak of settlement
o One possibility is that these seals represent economic
o Used to stamp something in order to ensure that receiver knew what he or she was receiving
o Seals might display some sort of offering to a diety so it'd have religious and economic function (offerings to Gods)
Be able to describe some of the functions of writing, according to Coulmas:
Mnemonic Function: Writing aided in the memory of a given population. It is extremely impressive that illiterate cultures were capable of remembering long narrations, stories, as well as day to day accounting necessities. Writing helped alleviate some of the pressure on human memory by providing a written record of what needed to be remembered.
Distancing Function: Writing allowed communication to expand its range from simple interaction with those who lived within walking distance, to cities away.
Reifying Function: It allows for a more clear and direct communication between one person and another. The messages sent would no longer be altered or misspoken by a middle man.
Social Control Function: Writing provided a clear defining characteristic in the stratification of writing societies. It allowed the hierarchy to maintain clarity and control by only allowing the elite the privilege of reading and writing.
Interactional Function: Writing allowed for indirect interaction between a single "speaker" and several "listeners" through methods such as cookbooks, wills, instruction manuals, etc.
Aesthetic Function: In cultures where art was highly valued, writing in itself provided an aesthetic appreciation through the literature it told and the visuals of writing in elegant letters.
In cultures where art was highly valued, writing in itself provided an aesthetic appreciation through the literature it told and the visuals of writing in elegant letters.
Writing allowed for indirect interaction between a single "speaker" and several "listeners" through methods such as cookbooks, wills, instruction manuals, etc.
Social Control Function
Writing provided a clear defining characteristic in the stratification of writing societies. It allowed the hierarchy to maintain clarity and control by only allowing the elite the privilege of reading and writing.
It allows for a more clear and direct communication between one person and another. The messages sent would no longer be altered or misspoken by a middle man.
Writing allowed communication to expand its range from simple interaction with those who lived within walking distance, to cities away.
Writing aided in the memory of a given population. It is extremely impressive that illiterate cultures were capable of remembering long narrations, stories, as well as day to day accounting necessities. Writing helped alleviate some of the pressure on human memory by providing a written record of what needed to be remembered.
Two consequences of the invention of writing, according to Coulmas
One of the biggest consequences of writing was the new ability to very clearly separate, distinguish, and control the social classes from those worthy enough to learn how to write and those who were peasants.
Accounting and trade became much easier.
Give an example of Rebus Principle
An eye for "I" and a bee for "Be" and leaf for "leave"
What were the main functions of writing in early Mesopotamia?
means of actively bookkeeping
keeping track of receipts/noting expenditures
What role did the Rosetta Stone play in the decipherment of Egyptian Hieroglyphs?
The Rosetta Stone provided side by side comparisons of known languages and writing to Egyptian hieroglyphs, allowing for decipherment of key glyphs that would allow them to piece together other sections of writing.
What role did the Dresden Codex play in the decipherment of Mayan texts?
The Dresden Codex was a 39 page divination almanac that contained many dates, facilitating the decipherment of the Mayan number system. It also had images of their gods with their names written next to it, allowing for a side by side comparison.
Stages of decipherment of Mayan glyphs
Knorosov's looks at the codices and realizes the writing is logo-syllabic
Linda Schele discovers the use of verbs (100+ known verbs)
David Stuart--one of the most important decipherers, works on polyvalents (different signs that represent same sound)
What does it mean to say that Chinese characters have both a semantic and phonetic components?
They form the majority of Chinese characters by far—over 90%, and were created by combining a rebus with a determinative—that is, a character with approximately the correct pronunciation (the phonetic element, similar to a phonetic complement) with one of a limited number of determinative characters which supplied an element of meaning (the semantic element)
What does the term "compound representational" mean in relation to early Chinese?
a combination of two or more symbols to create a new character with a new meaning. (Ex. sun + moon= bright)
Old Persian cuneiform is mainly blocky and alphabetic
thought of as the oldest form of writing. This is debateable
began as a logographic script
Persepolis and Behistun inscription
Rosetta stone, obelisks
Cursive writing on papyrus, priestly writing
Popular writing, later form of hieratic, on the Rosetta Stone
mainly logographic with phonetic complements
Dresden and other codices
1200 BCE (Shang period)
First evidence found scratched onto bones and turtle shells (oracle bones), used for divination in late Shang Period
5 Different Classifications of Chinese Writing
Pictograms or hieroglyphs - some sort of picture they want to put into writing
Self explanatory characters
Associative compounds/compound representations
Combo of two or more symbols to create a new character with a new meaning
Using the word's sounds, but not its meaning
when new word is formed based on two parts: one symbol based on meaning and one symbol based on sound
The production of law codes such as the Code of Hammurabi (huge stele that included first copy of law) in Mesopotamia writing would be an example of which function of writing, according to Coulmas?
It would attest to social control function; writing used to organize society, law codes represent attempt by king to employ writing in order to control society
The inscribing of admonitions to future kinds on royal monuments would be an example of which function of writing according to coulmas?
Coulmas talks about important role writing plays as technology that distances speaker from audience - writing allows us to speak across huge spatial distances - writing has distancing function so king can use writing on monumental stella to talk to all future people
Logograms are marked in Egyptian hieroglyphs by what is often referred to as
A hieroglyphs that is used to indicate 3 phomenes is usually referred to as which kind of sign?
The behistun inscription was commissioned by
The Persian King Darius
What is the name of the mayan site where the so-called hieroglyphic stairway was discovered
The combo of signs representing words to form ideas in chinese writing is often referred to as
Associative Compounds/Compound Representational
What is the chronological relationship between hieroglyphs, Coptic and demotic?
Hieroglyphic, Demotic and Coptic
What is the diff between glyphs and hieratic in terms of their function in ancient egypt?
Glyphs on monumental architecture; hieratic used by priests on papyrus (what artifact showed function of hieratic- book of dead); main diff of glyphs and hieratic is hieratic is cursive and glyph is more 90 degree
Which part of the Behistun inscription was first to be deciphered?
Old Persian part because its mostly alphabetical so easier
What language was represented by the cuneiform inscription at Persepolis?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Asian M20 - The Study of Writing
Asian M20 - The Study of Writing
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
EDLL 3352 Final
Contemporary Linguistics, Chapter 16
Mass Comm Quiz 3
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Mgmt 180 Fixed Rate Mortgages
Mgmt 180 Time Value of Money
Mgmt 180 Notes & Mortgages
Mgmt 180 Basic Legal Concepts
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
*Patient Care- Exam 2 Chapter 5