Terms in this set (222)
What are the 2 aspects that almost all jazz styles have in common?
2) Swing feeling
To compose and perform at the same time
T or F: Jazz musicians make up their music as they go along. Much of their music is spontaneous.
How do jazz musicians make up improvisations?
They improvise their own melodies to the tunes accompaniment chords.
The feeling people get when they listen to Jazz
Jazz swing feeling: Music that makes you want to dance and clap your hands
What are 4 characteristics of Jazz Swing Feeling?
1) Steady beat
2) Lilting feeling (groove)
3) Abundance of syncopated rhythms (accenting before or after a beat
4) Continuous rising and falling in a melody line
T or F: The Jazz musicians in this book created their styles entirely by themselves.
False: Their work reflects the influence of other players in addition to their own original ideas.
T or F: Jazz history is not a single stream of styles that developed smoothly from Dixieland to swing to bebop
True: Several streams exist at the same time, and streams overlap, merge, and influence each other all the time
T or F: New jazz styles that came up rendered the other styles obsolete (no longer produced or used; out of date:)
T or F: Jazz history is merely a series of reactions in which one style made musicians angry and so they invented another to oppose it
False: Historians believe that because they look for conflict, they attach great drama and conflict to the development of new styles
T ot F: The origination of most new jazz styles cannot necessarily be traced to non-musical forces such as politics and sociocultural conflicts
T or F: Most people are unaware of the variety of styles that are considered Jazz
True: they think Jazz is just traditional jazz. But there are lots of different styles and ways it can be played
Defining Jazz is _____ because there are so _____ varieties
What are the most common elements that appear in the definitions of jazz?
2) Swing Feeling
_________ means making it up as you go along
Listeners do not always agree that a given performance is jazz... why is this?
Because jazz swing feeling in an opinion about how music feels. not a fact
The part of a jazz combo that provides the accompaniment for the soloists
Most Jazz is guided by the musicians agreeing beforehand to maintain a given _______, _______, and _________.
Tempo, key, progression of accompaniment chords
T or F: The improvised lines in a jazz piece are not usually variations on the original melody, they are entirely different melodies.
True: only thing in common is a progression of accompaniment chords
A single playing through of the structure being used to organize the music in an improvisation is the ______
The B part of an A-A-B-A composition
What is A-A-B-A?
A sequence used to structure many popular songs
Harmonies in a particular order with specified durations
In jazz styles common from the 1930's to the 1960's the bassist plucked a string once per beat. This style of playing is called ______
Syncopated chording accompaniment for an improvised solo is called ______
What is the ride cymbal?
A cymbal suspended over the right of the drum set. A time keeping function
What is a ride rhythm?
The pattern a drummer plays on the ride cymbal to keep time
Fills are _____
anything a drummer plays in addition to basic timekeeping patterns
The high hat is ________
two cymbals that strike together by means of a foot pedal
What does the drummer use to "kick and prod" soloists/dramatize their ideas?
Crash cymbal and snare drum
People can listen to jazz by....
- humming the original tune to themselves while listening
-imagining a graph of the solo line
- imagining layers of sound moving forward
- hearing improvised lines of a soloist as melodies
-listening for variations in mood, tone qualities, and rhythm
What two jazz musicians were able to improvise lines that were largely free of familiar patterns?
Jim Hall and Wayne Shorter
What 3 cities was jazz recorded in during the 1920's?
Chicago, New York, and LA
What 3 essential trends led to the birth of jazz?
1) The practice of taking liberties with the melodies and accompaniments performed (improvisation)
2) Taking liberties with tone qualities.
3) African Americans creating new types of music like ragtime and blues
A popular turn-of-the-20th century written piano music involving pronounced syncopation
A style of African American song, originally consisting of a vocal with guitar accompaniment, that often expresses a lonesome or sad feeling
What is a purposeful raising or lowering of a tone's pitch; usually done for coloration or expressive purposes?
What are a few ways in which African American tastes and traditions remained in the New World?
1) Flexibility in pitch: field hollers and work songs
2) Slaves spiced up European church hymns by altering rhythms, adding pitch bends, and new tone qualities.
T or F: There were free blacks in NOLA as early as 1722
What is a Creole of Color?
mixed French and African
Researchers believe that the Blues originated from other vocal idioms, such as ______, _______, and ______
1) field hollers
2) baallads (songs that tell stories)
3) ring shout's (dancing music)
What two instruments used in African American music led to jazz?
2) Banjo (invented by new world african slaves)
T or F: In the beginning, blues was a form of unaccompanied solo singing.
The blues tradition contributed to jazz in at least 3 important respects....
1) modeling novel sounds
2) offering a standard set of accompaniment harmonies
3) furnishing part of the jazz repertory
T or F: Blues and Jazz occasionally overlapped
T or F: Brass bands only allowed brass instruments to be performed
False: Bass drum, cymbal, and snare drum.
Early Louisiana brass bands included clarinet and a saxophone
T or F: Brass bands began after the Civil War
FALSE: were around the New Orleans area long before the civil war
What does the term "to rag" mean?
giving the rhythms in a piece of music a distinctly syncopated feeling
"Ragtime ordinarily refers to a kind of written piano music that appeared in the ____
Famous ragtime composer
T or F: Ragtime is a style of jazz
False: ragtime does not qualify as a jazz style by the strictest definition
How did ragtime contribute to jazz
introduced using accents before and after the beat as opposed to directly on it
Who is John Philip Sousa?
Famous bandleader who included ragtime pieces in his band concerts
What two reasons made NOLA an ideal setting for the birth of Jazz?
1) the brass band movement
2) center of commerce because of the Mississippi river so there was lots of travel. Aka NOLA maintained a party atmosphere.
Large demand for live music
What is New Orleans jazz or Dixieland?
Music to satisfy the demands of dancers
Small bands trying to perform music written for large bands became the ______ style
When did Jazz originate in NOLA?
beginning of the 20th century
NOLA musicians combined diverse materials... Why?
To please people who had a taste for special kinds of musical excitement
Early Jazz, how does it differ from ragtime, blues, and brass band roots?
1) MUCH of each performance was improvised
2) Rhythmic feeling was looser and more relaxed
3) generated much of its own refer tory of compositions.
4) Collective improvisation
Collective Improvisation is...
simultaneous improvisation by all members of a group together
The best known musicians from NOLA
Trumpeter Louis Armstrong
Composer-arranger Jelly Roll Morton
In collective improv, what instruments held what role?
1) Trumpet on melody
2) Clarinet played busy figures w/ many notes
3) Trombone played simpler figures.
Where was New Orleans jazz first recorded?
Chicago and New York, NOT NOLA
Which band made the first jazz recordings?
The Original Dixieland Jazz Band
What was the Original Dixieland Jazz Band?
A collection of white New Orleans musicians who organized a band in Chicago during 1916 and played in NY in 1917.
Cornet, Clarinet, Trombone, Piano, Drums
Jazz Musicians in Chicago in the 1920's could be described in 3 categories, which are....
1) The transplanted N.O. African American Musicians
2) Their white N.O. counterparts
3) young white Chicagoans who imitated the older players
The Chicago School is...
A group of young white Chicagoans who emulated the styles of NOLA musicians in the mid-1920's
Left hand style used by early jazz pianists. It usually employs a bass note on the first and third beats of each measure and a chord on the second and fourth
The _________ of most early jazz combos included trumpet, clarinet, trombone, and occasionally saxophone
Jelly Roll Morton
-Pianist, composer-arranger, and bandleader from NOLA
-First jazz composer and pianist
-Played with a lighter and more swinging feeling
-FIRST STYLE OF PIANO PLAYING THAT WARRANTS THE LABEL OF JAZZ
Why is Jelly Roll Morton historically notable?
1) the FIRST important jazz composer
2) one of the first to balance improv with composition
3) Recorded piano solos that were well organized, forcefully executed musical statements with horn-like lines
4) bridged the gap between the piano styles of ragtime and jazz
James P. Johnson
The Father of Stride Piano
Part of the East Coast jazz piano tradition that was developing at about the same time as combo jazz was developing in NOLA
Known for song writing, piano playing, and entertainment
Most popular jazz pianist-composer of the 20's and 30's
6 of his recordings hit #1 position on the sales charts and many more rose into the top 10
Most important to jazz as an improvising
Early Jazz pianist. Known for his trumpet style approach to improvising
Significantly influenced the piano styles of the 30s and 40s
Trumpeter called "The Father of Jazz"
Born in NOLA, left to join Joe Oliver's New Orleans style band in Chicago
Most widely imitated trumpeter
"What a Wonderful World"
What are a few aspects of Armstrong's work that musicians appreciate so much?
1) One of the first great soloists in jazz history
2) refined a rhythmic conception that abandoned stiffness of ragtime, used 8th note patterns, gracefully syncopated
3) had great command and control of the trumpet
Trumpeter of the 1920's
Had a contrasting style from Armstrong
played more subdued that Armstrongs loud style
Put solo's together intelligently like Armstrong but played with more restraint
KNOWN FOR STRINGING TOGETHER UNUSUAL NOTE CHOICES
Was Early Jazz popular?
Had a wide appeal to young audience and particularly to social dancers
Early Jazz Recap.. the first forms of jazz resulted from blending________
ragtime, blues, spirituals, marches, and popular tunes
A looser, less stiff rhythmic feeling developed in jazz during the 1920's called _____
How does Swing differ from Early Jazz?
1) Swing favored big band rather than combo. Means greater reliance on written arrangements
2) Saxophones were more common
3) Bass Viol appeared more
4) High-hat cymbals were used more
5) Collective improv was RARE
6) Rhythmic feeling was smoother
7) Swing musicians showed a higher level of instrumental proficiency
______ were made up of 10 or more musicians whose instruments fall under 3 categories: Brass, Saxophones, and rhythm section
How many musicians did the sax section contain?
T or F: Big bands relied heavily on improvisation because of the large number of musicians
FALSE: the number of written arrangements highly increased.
A compositional technique in which one section states a theme as a question and another section states another theme as an answer is called _______
Call and response
Guitarist strumming one chord on each beat is _______.
What instrument in the rhythm section played the melody in swing?
What role did guitar and bass play in Swing?
Two-beat style is....
Bassist playing on the first and third of every 4 beats
Walking style is....
Bassist playing a note on every beat
Trumpeter who is considered to be the "link between swing and modern jazz"
Fiery and agressive style
He produced long lines that are easy to execute on a saxophone but very difficult on a trumpet
Liked to play in the high register
_________ is the portion of a piece in which all band members stop playing except the soloist
The first important Jazz tenor saxophonist
Because of him, the saxophone became important in jazz
Loved complex chord progressions
During the 1920's and 30's there was a thriving jazz scene in Kansas City, Missouri. Musicians who worked there are associated with
Kansas city style
Who are the most famous musicians associated with Kansas City Style
Lighter, more relaxed, exceptionally swinging
Give a description of Kansas City Style
1) arrangements based on short musical phrases called riffs
Riffs serve 2 functions:
1) Theme statements
2) backgrounds for improvised solos
some were written down but most were created throughout the performance
Band arrangement created extemporaneously by the musicians and not written down....
Big band leader and pianist
Was said that his band was "the most swinging big band"
Had a unique touch, was light and extremely precise.
Actually began his career as a drummer so had perfect timing
Special qualities of Count Basie's rhythm section were...
1) excellent sense of tempo
2) ability to keep time and swing consistently
3) quiet relaxed playing
4) emphasis on buoyancy rather than intensity
Tenor saxophonist who played with Count Basie.
Nicknamed "Prez" aka president of tenor sax
Young offered a clear alternative to the complicated style of Coleman Hawkins
Great improvisor: Seemed to float and made it sound easy as opposed to Coleman Hawkins who "chugged" along
Lester Young's Sax style served as a model for _________.
Bebop and "cool" styles
Drummer who played with Count Basie
Led the best-known jazz oriented big band
MOST POPULAR MUSICAN OF SWING ERA
Led a jazz oriented big band from 1923-1974
MOST STABLE AND LONGEST LIVED BAND IN JAZZ HISTORY
Who was the single most creative and prolific composer-arranger in jazz history?
Wrote more than 2,000 compositions
Performed often in stride style
unusual harmonies, swing feeling
TOOK JAZZ INTO THE FORMAT OF EXTENDED WORKS
An important part of the Ellington sound is what is called voicing across sections of the band. What is this?
When arrangers routinely write passages that pit the sound of one section of the band, such as the saxes, against another section, such a brasses.
Ellington wrote passages to be played by combinations of instruments drawn from different sections of the band
Example: Mood Indigo
A notable Ellington technique was placing a ________ in an arrangement. Sometimes called ______.
wordless vocal, instrumentalized voice
Who was famous for their "jungle sounds"?
Who were 2 big name vocalists of the swing era?
Billie Holiday & Ella Fitzgerald
Most influential singer associates with jazz since the early 30's.
Didn't possess power, a rich voice, or great range
People loved her because the sincerity of emotion that she communicated when she sang
Near flawless technique. Mastery of swing 8th notes and perfect timing.
Most outstanding non-operatic singer in the 20th century
Leading popularizer of scat singing
The most widely admired piano virtuoso in jazz history
Changed chords during his performances (called chord substitution)
Mary Lou Williams
Boogie woogie piano player/compose-arranger in the swing style of Count Basie
Penned arrangements for big bands led by Benny Goodman, Dizzy Gillespie, Woody Herman, and Duke Ellington
Sing differs form early jazz how?
1) no more collective imporv
2) saxophone becoming predominant instrument
3)emphasis on big band
Important big bands during the swing era were led by _____, ________, and _______.
Duke Ellington, Count Basie, and Benny Goodman
Who was the most creative and prolific composer-arranger in history?
________'s rhythm section played lightly and swung with great ease.
Who were the most influential saxophonists of the Swing era?
Coleman Hawkins and Lester Young
Roy Eldridge paved the way for _________
What was pianist Art Tatum known for?
possessing phenomenal speed and changing/adding chords in pop tune accompaniments
_______ is the name of the first Modern Jazz style
How does Bebop differ from Swing?
1)Preferred small combo as opposed to big band
3)Clarinet was RARE
4) Display of virtuosity was a high priority for Bebop musicians
5) Rhythm Guitar was RARE
6) Less emphasis placed on arrangements in bebop
Bebop differed from swing in a number of stylistic respects
1) Melodies more complex in Bebop
2) Harmonies more complex
3)Drummers played rhythms on suspended cymbal rather than snare drum or high hat
4) Bebop enjoyed leaving phrases in tunes unresolved
5) Improv was more complex
6) Surprise highly valued in bebop
Bebop improvisations were composed mostly of melody lines that seemed.....
Jumpy and full of twits & turns
Who was the leading Bebop drummer?
Alto Saxophonist who contributed most to the development of bebop.
Most important saxophonist in jazz history
Wrote tunes himself
Great trumpet players in jazz (in order)
Armstrong, Eldridge, Gillespie
High register playing trumpet virtuoso
harmonic skills, phrases were full of surprises and playful changes of direction
Co-led a combo with Charlie Parker and began a series of bebop big bands
What kind of music was of interest to Gillespie?
Pianist who wrote compositions whose melodies were unorthodox and whose accompaniment chords severely challenged improvisors
Most original of all jazz improvisors
Was the most influential bebop pianist
first recognized Bebop tenor saxophonist
Deep dark tone
Most popular Jazz tenor saxophonist
Sometimes considered a cool jazz or bossa nova player
Bebop era singer
Tone quality was darker and richly textured
Also a pro pianist and a scat singer
Popularity of Bebop
appreciated by a small elite
The originators of bebop were alto saxophonist __________, trumpeter ________, and pianist __________.
Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Thelonious Monk
accent that falls in an unexpected place
Drummer accent in an unexpected place
What style of jazz refers to Modern Jazz that tends to be softer and easier than the bebop?
West Coast Jazz
aka Cool Jazz cause some musicians were in Cali
Pianist, Composer, bandleader
Created a modern alternative to bebop
The jazz style associated with Dave Brubeck, Paul Desmond, Gerry Mulligan, and Chet Baker during the 50's often applied to classify cool jazz by california based white musicians
West Coast Jazz
Who was Lennie Tristano's most talent student?
Alto saxophonist Lee Konitz
Inspired by Tristiano's piano style
Miles Davis Nonet. Nine piece band in NY, also called ________
The birth of the cool
Who was the birth of the cool led by
trumpeter Miles Davis
Saxophonis Lee Konitz
saxophonist Gerry Mulligan
primary composer-arranger on the Birth of the Cool recordings
Pianist who led the best known of all cool jazz groups
Performed in San Fran
Led the best known succession of big bands in modern jazz
Coined the term "progressive jazz"
Loudest big band
Progressive jazz is
a term coined by Stan Kenton to describe his own music
Cool Jazz is more ______ than bebop
Who influenced cool jazz but wasn't a cool jazz musician?
Count Basie and Lester Young
Who were the first musicians to devise styles that came to be called "cool"
Lennie Tristano, Lee Konitz, and Miles Davis
Who was the most famous Cool Jazz musician?
Dave Brubeck. Had his own quartet
What is "funky jazz"?
How does Hard bop differ from bebop?
1)Drummers more active
2) Darker tones
3) less of the start and stop quality
4) Hard driving feeling with emphasis on swinging
leading pianist/composer in hardbop
Prolific and versatile
Composed catchy themes for his quintets
Swung with crispness and bounce
Harb bop drummer
His groups played with hard driving and unrelenting force, always swinging with supercharged energy
Trumpeter and bandleader
1) creating an original and substantial trumpet style
2) large body of recordings
3) Made a change in the 60's of his original trumpet style
4) part of birth of the cool
5) modal jazz
6) jazz-rock fusioin styles
T or F: Davis's musicians often produced the best work of their careers while in his bands?
The Classic Miles Davis Quintet
tenor sax: John Coltrane
pianist: Red Garland
bassist: Paul Chambers
drummer: Philly Joe Jones
The Miles Davis Trumpet Style
The second wave of hardtop musicians in the 1960's were unique because
their approaches had little to do with bebop
Piano's and guitars are usually absent in recordings of free jazz in the 60's... why?
it allowed the soloist more harmonic freedom
Who is the drummer who performed with John Coltrane in his iconic quartet
Ornette Coleman had a very distinct sound on the alto sax, what caused this
Herbie Hancock first gained popularity in....
the miles davis quintet
Modal Jazz means...
to compose scale based improvisations and compositions
What made Sonny Rollins unique?
His improvisations were dramatic and story like
An impressive aspect of Miles Davis' playing is _____
the simplicity of his phrases
One aspect of Cecil Taylors Playing is _____
Does not play with a jazz swing feel
Which of the following ins NOT an element of Art Blakey's playing?
Plays very quiet and subdued
Who won an academy award for an original movie score?
The most established and prominent musical to adopt a free jazz approach.....
Universal of free jazz music....
Extensive manipulation of pitch and tone quality
Compelling feature of the tune "Giant Steps" is its
complex chord progression
The Bill Evans trio created an avant garde concept by ________
playing with a non obvious pulse
Critics described whose music as "sheets of sound?"
Legendary saxophonist/improvisor still living today
Member of Miles Band in 60's who had an Avant-Garde compositional style
Soulful Jazz organist who sold a lot of records for blue note
Many in jazz history apprenticed with him
Played piano with Miles Davis in the 50's
One of the most influential jazz guitarists
Played drums with Miles Davis in the 60's
Trumpet style is a departure from conventional bebop methods
Pianist led a trio that played with non obvious pulse
Alto sax improvisor
tenor and soprano saxophonist
Hard bop evolved directly from bebop during the 50's, mainly along ________
East Coast and Midwest Musicians
When hard bop differs from bebop, it is _______
______ is a sub category of
white plastic sax
pianist, composer, bandleader
adapted the chords of debussy
non obvious pulse
_____ is a stream of styles that emerged during the 1960's. It became the most popular jazz for the next 30 years and the first to have widespread popularity since the swing era
How did jazz and rock merge?
Mixed jazz improv with the rhythms of R&B
Besides Miles Davis, who from the hard bop era participated in fusion?
Davis' drummer Tony Williams
born in england
recorded with miles davis
began playing in Lifetime, Tony Williams band
pianist Joe Zawinul joined saxophonist Wayne Shorter and Miroslav Vitous
presented collective improv in ways that steered clear of conventional jazz roles
electronically synthesized sounds as a funk style
a major force in acoustic and jazz rock fusion styles
coined by disk jockeys Gilles Peterson and Chris Bangs
was made to accompany taking acid
takes funky accompaniments that have been synthesized and then raps and jazz improv. over them
A new recording placed on top of an earlier source
In acid jazz, lifting an entire part rom an earlier recording to form the basis of a new creation
Title for disc jockey who wiggles turn table
A recording technique n which a short musical phrase is repeated
operates two turntables simultaneously. DJ.
Smooth jazz became the easy listening variant of jazz rock fusion with __________ as its best known practitioner
Who is the most popular saxophonist IN HISTORY?
What is Klezmer music?
Eastern European Jewish instrumental music for weddings
Afro Cuban music
developed in Cube that shows the influence of African and Hispanic Immigrants
________ Was the second most popular saxophonist during the 80's and 90's
Michael Brecker, Joe Henderson, and Wayne Shorter all played _________
A swing dance craze in the 90's boosted interest in _____ band styles and ___________ of the late 40's/early 50's
1930, "jump bands"
Backwards looking ________________ musicians and their repertory bands received the most media attention through substantial record sales
Fresh styles were devised by saxophonist John Zorn, trumpeter ________, and their colleagues incorporating Yiddish Klezmer music with Ornette Coleman and Don Cherry approaches
Carla Bley and Maria Schneider wrote distinctive works for their ___________
contemporary big bands