29 terms

APWH Chapter 28: The Islamic Empires

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Aurangzeb
Mughal emperor in India and great-grandson of Akbar 'the Great', under whom the empire reached its greatest extent, only to collapse after his death. Decentralized the government
Janissaries
Christian boys were taken from families, converted to Islam, and then rigorously trained to serve the sultan
Ghazi
A warrior for Islam
Chaldiran
Important battle between the Safavids and Ottomans in 1514; Ottoman victory demonstrated the importance of firearms and checked the western advance of their Shi'a state.
Shah Jahan
the fifth Mogul emperor of India. During his reign, from 1628 to 1658, the Mogul Empire reached its zenith in prosperity and luxury. He is remembered as the builder of the Taj Mahal.
Devshirme
Ottoman policy of taking boys from Christian peoples to be trained as Muslim soldiers
Jizya
tax paid by Christians and Jews who lived in Muslim communities to allow them to continue to practice their own religion
Pasha
a civil or military authority in Turkey or Egypt
Taj Mahal
beautiful mausoleum at Agra built by the Mogul emperor Shah Jahan (completed in 1649) in memory of his favorite wife
Peacock Throne
A priceless seat of gold encrusted with diamonds, rubies, emeralds, and peals. The throne has a canopy that displays the figure of the peacock lines with blue sapphires.
Mughals
This was the name of a Islamic people who established an empire in India in the late 1400's to the mid- 1700's. At its height, this empire controlled most of the Indian sub-continent.
Twelver Shiism
A belief that there were 12 infallible imam (religious leaders) after Muhammad and the 12th went into hiding and would return to take power and spread the true religion.
Dhimmi
Literally "people of the book"; applied as inclusive term to Jews and Christians in Islamic territories; later extended to Zoroastrians and even Hindus & Buddhists
Kanun
Highly detailed system of Ottoman administrative law that jurists developed to deal with matters not treated in the religious law of Islam.
Sikhs
Nonviolent religous group that blended Buddhism, Hinduism and Sufism
Shah Jahan
Mogul emperor of India during whose reign the finest monuments of Mogul architecture were built (including the Taj Mahal at Agra) (1592-1666)
Osman Bey
founder of Ottoman Empire in 1289; bey of a semi-nomadic tribe of Turks, who migrated to northwest Anatolia in the 13th century; Seized Bursa, then moved into the Balkans; organized the ghazi into a formidable military machine;
Mehmed the second
took control of the ottomon empire. best known for conquering Constantinople. he renamed the city Istanbul
Selim the grim
After Isma'il destroyed the Sunni population in Baghdad, ____________ responded by killing 40,000 Shi'a throughout the Ottoman Empire.
Suleyman the Magnificent
Ottoman Sultan (1512-20) expansion in Asia and Europe, helped Ottomans become a naval power, challegned Christian vessles througout the Mediterranian. 16th Century. The "lawgiver" who was so culturally aware yet exacted murder on two of his sons and a grandson in order to prevent civil war. Ottoman.
Shah Ismail
Founder of Safavid Empire in 1501, ruled until 1524; made Twelver Shiism the official religion of the empire and imposed it upon his Sunni subjects; his followers became known as qizilbash;
Safi al-Din
Sufi mystic and first ruler of the Safavid dynasty.
Safavid Dynasty
Originally a Turkic nomadic group; family originated in Sufi mystic group; espoused Shi'ism; conquered territory and established kingdom in region equivalent to modern Iran; lasted until 1722.
Sufi
A Muslim who seeks to achieve direct contact with God through mystical means
Shah Abbas the great
Late 16th Century-Early 17th Century. The best known Shah. He centralized the government and created a powerful military force similar to the Janissaries of the Ottoman. He used a mixture of peace and war against the Ottomans, and created many alliances. He reduced taxes and encouraged the growth of industry.
Akbar
Most illustrious sultan of the Mughal Empire in India (r. 1556-1605). He expanded the empire and pursued a policy of conciliation with Hindus.
Aurangzeb
Mughal emperor in India and great-grandson of Akbar 'the Great', under whom the empire reached its greatest extent, only to collapse after his death
Sinan Pasha
Architect of a vast religious complex called the Suleymaniye. SIGNIFICANCE- He was able to blend Islamic and Byzantine architectural elements in his construction
Ottomans
a Turk