Environmental Bio. Test 2
Terms in this set (55)
Which of the following is NOT a good predictor of population growth in a country?
the land mass of a country
Which event 10,000 years ago resulted in a dramatic growth spurt in global human population?
Which statement is FALSE?
a high infant mortality rate contributes to lower fertility
Which of the following are issues that a country with a bottom-heavy age structure diagram would face?
built in population momentum, so the population will continue to grow
Which of the following is TRUE regarding values for demographic factors between developing nations and developed nations?
crude birth rates are higher in developing countries
The average number of children that a woman has over her lifetime is called?
total fertility rate
Which zone in the graph represents a nation that has lowered death rate and increased food supply, but still maintains a high birth rate?
The industrializing stage of the demographic transition is characterized by ____ population growth.
The rate at which children must be born to replace those dying in the population is called?
replacement level fertility
_____ have already undergone the demographic transition.
In terms of reaching Earth's carrying capacity, developing countries exacerbate the problem due to their _____ while developed countries also aggravate the situation due to their _____.
high fertility rates; overconsumption
Which zone in the graph is most consistent with a less developed country with slow population growth?
What phenomenon does the graph represent?
In addition to survivor-ship, ___ and ___ of the population play a role in determining whether or not the population grows.
Which of the following results in decreased TFR?
education for women
Which of the following is a description of a population's age structure?
the proportion of pre-reproductive, reproductive, and post-reproductive individuals
Even if every country on Earth reached replacement level fertility tomorrow, WORLD population would continue to grow. Why?
the large proportion of people under the age of 20 in the global population
The current medium projection for Earth's carrying capacity is~10 billion. Which of these could cause that projection to actually be lower?
global achievement of a Western standard of living
The sensitivity of a species to changes in the environment is often what makes them a useful ____ species for the management of an ecosystem.
Which of the following is true about Figure 2?
the fact that each transfer of energy as you move up the food wed results in a loss of about 90%
Human alterations of the Everglades system resulted in?
changes in food webs
Which of the following options includes two of the other options?
The introduced species is aggressive and the superior competitor. What is your prediction for the long-term future of this interaction?
a shift in the diet composition of the native species
Compared to 1872, the 1949 grassland community shows?
a decrease in species evenness
A study examined the bird community composition of four different mangrove forests. Which forest community would you conclude shows a high species diversity in birds? One with ____.
high richness, high evenness
A survey of morphological diversity among 3 weasel species in Minnesota showed some interesting patterns in skull size with the length of skulls ranging from 25 mm to 55 mm and little to no overlap between species. The assumption in the study was that skull size is related to the size of prey a weasel can handle (primarily small rodents). This appears to be a good example of ______.
Owls hunt for field mice in a field at night. Foxes hunt for field mice in the same field during the day. The term that best describes the interaction between the owls and field mice is _____.
The primary law under which biodiversity is protected in the US is known as the ____; CFC's were banned (to address thinning of the ozone layer) under the ____.
Endangered Species Act; Montreal Protocol
When matching two species that both have a positive effect on each other, it is called?
When matching two species that both have a negative effect on each other, it is called?
When matching two species that both have a neutral effect on each other, it is called?
The hierarchy of diversity from largest to smallest scale is?
ecological diversity-->species diversity-->genetic diversity
Which of the following would help a species avoid inbreeding and disease?
When a storm hits a coastal wetland, the wetland ecosystem acts as a buffer between the storm damage and developed inner land. The buffer provided by the wetland is a(n) ______.
Scientists have identified approximately ____ species; most of these are _____.
1.8 million; insects
A species that is locally extinct in one or more areas but still has populations in other areas is _____.
Biodiversity hotspots cover a small percentage of land and water areas, but they are home to more than ____ of all plants and vertebrate endemic animal species.
Which of the following would you classify as a biodiversity hotspot?
Area A: 15,000 endemic plants; 2,000 endemic molluscs; 500 endemic vertebrates
Why has the scientific community shifted from the single species approach of conservation to the ecosystem approach?
entire communities can benefit from a holistic approach
Debt-for-nature swaps are _____.
wealthy nations forgiving the debts of another country in exchange for environmental protection in those countries
Different versions of genes in a population are called ______.
A road that cuts through a forest is an example of _____.
Species are considered ______ when they face a high risk of extinction in the immediate future. Species are considered ________ when they are in danger of becoming _______ in the near future.
endangered; threatened; endangered
Which of the following provided evidence in support of the hypothesis that the accidentally introduced brown tree snake became invasive and caused the extinction of four bird species on Guam?
all of the above; the geographic location of the snakes correlated strongly with the birds' disappearance, baited-bird traps showed brown tree snakes liked to eat birds, and other small mammal populations also went missing after the snakes' arrival
The acronym HIPPO (used to remember primary causes of extinction) was coined by _____, one of the foremost biologists of our time.
E. O. Wilson
It is estimated that _____ of all species that have ever lived on this planet have gone extinct.
Information obtained from the fossil record sets the background rate of extinction per year at _____ species out of every million species.
In Earth's history there have been ____ major extinction events leading to the loss of 50% or more of the species present.
Large predators and omnivores, such as mountain lions and bears, roam these mountain ranges. Which of the following statements is true?
Because of habitat fragmentation, the individual populations of these Sky Islands have less genetic diversity than they did in the past.
The tendency of humans to want to live in these Sky Islands, visit them for recreation, and use them for lumber or for wood pulp, causes _____.
increased habitat fragmentation
Regarding the Sky Islands, it is likely that _____.
there is more biodiversity in the southern end of the mountain ranges because of the latitudinal gradient
Which of the following would make the best nature reserve according to island biogeography?
a large, round park with wildlife corridors to the nearest wilderness area
The World Conservation Union's Red List includes several species of birds and amphibians that live in these Sky Islands. This indicates that these species ______.
face high risks of extinction
Sloths (you know, those slow-moving mammals from Central and South America) are a rare example of a green mammal. They are green because of an algae that grows on their fur. Based on what you know about algae, for the algae the relationship is __________; for the sloth it is likely to be ________.
Which of the following best describes the goal of community-based conservation?
to actively engage the local community in the management of biodiversity resources