HIST 258 - Final
Terms in this set (93)
How did the stock market affect Indian policy?
America shifted it's course on Indian affairs and brought changes in the US policies towards American Indians
Head of the Bureau of Indian Affairs who introduced the Indian New Deal and pushed congress to pass Indian Reorganization Act
Indian New Deal
Centered around internal sovereignty. 1930's legislation that gave Indians greater control of their own affairs and provided further funding for schools and hospitals, but was very watered down compared to John Collier's, head of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, original scheme. It did replace the Dawes Act, which had ruined the Indian tribes of America
Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
Part of "First" New Deal Program (1933-1935), employed young jobless men with government projects on work relief and environment
Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
The centerpiece of Indian New Deal, aimed to protect the Indians in their religion and lifestyle and represented an open admission that the Dawes Act was a mistake
Why did some people oppose Collier's reform program?
Progressives were unhappy about change of cultural modification. They argued that the new legislation perpetuated segregation, might lose ground in the struggle to become full members of American society
Navajo stock reduction and the Long Walk
Collier as part of the AIDA Cut herds by half (10% at first) which was economically and emotionally devastating
Effects on young Indians moving to the city
Weren't used to it, some would feel disconnected/confused about their homelands, some wouldn't return to reservations. Weren't used to competing or having lots of people around that weren't family, had to keep up witha new busy routine. (Eventually established indian centers)
Indian Claims Commission
1964 Would hear all Indian complaints against the Fed. govt for failing to enforce treaties, mismanaging resources, or violating standards of fair dealing. tribal domains that had been seized without payment could not be subject to suit. Allowed judges to deducct money from awards that had been spend by the US for the benefit of the claimant"
-all claims would have to be filed within 5 years and all payments would be in cash. (no land given back)
- John Collier saw it as a way to get the US government out of Indians business
Dillon S. Meyer
Commissioner of the Bureau of Indian Affairs under Truman (right after FDR)
Very conservative and a proponent of termination, wanted to eliminate Bureau of Indian Affairs
Again Indian New Deal policies
Wanted assimilation in and Industrialized America
Wanted to end federal ward relationship- US government obligation to help Native Americans
Proposed termination policies
Went back to idea of individualizing land holdings
Reduce tribal self-rule and authority
Ended revolving credit
Wanted to end the special relationship between US and Native Americans
Menominee leader. wanted to be unterminated. lobbied against the termination act. Nixon finally signed the menominee restoration act returning the tribal status. First NA woman to head the BIA. Clintons admin gave them tribal authority.
Drowning of lands/Garrison Dam
Drowned lands in Fort Berthold Res for construction of the Garrison dam, split it and drowned 90% of lands
National Indian Youth Council (NIYC)
Demanded Native American participation in determining the policies that affected Native American lives. Instead of relying on the government to run their affairs, they sought freedom to make their own decisions, their own futures, their own mistakes.
American Indian Movement (AIM)
Native American organization founded in 1968 to protest government policies and injustices suffered by Native Americans; in 1973 organized armed occupation of Wounded Knee, South Dakota.
Trail of Broken Treaties
1972 event staged by the American Indian Movement that culminated in a week-long occupation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington, D.C.
Siege @ Wounded Knee
(1973) a white man murdered an Indian and he was only charged w/ 2nd degree manslaughter. AIM fought the police and took over town of wounded knee. Govt agreed to investigate complaint. This ended AIM. Pushed liberalism for Indians. Reversed public law 280. Gained lots of media attention
The movement among American Indians during the late 1960s, and early 1970s, that sought to end the federal policy of termination and to revitalize Indians communities and cultures, often though direct action.
Indian Education Act
provided funding for Indian children who attended public schools in 1972
Menominee Restoration Act
returned the Menomiees' tribal status and restoring their access to federal programs
Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act
1971 set aside millions of acres of land for the state's native groups to be used partly for conservative purposes
Indian Self Determination and Educational Assistance Act
1975 act gives tribes, not fed govt, right to administer federal assistance programs
Integrate Native American traditions into their curriculum, providing classes in tribal language, art, philosophy, and history. Offer students access to skills needed in the modern world.
State with the highest proportion of native population
Legislation enacted in the United States to define membership in Native American tribes or nations. Example: 1/4 is considered Omaha.
Indian Tribal Energy Development and Self-Determination Act
National Indian Gaming Association
Protected the Native American casinos from legislation that would chip away their rights as sovereign nations
Drug and alcohol problem in tribes
They would turn to alcohol/drugs to deal with problems
Native American Language Act
1990 - declares that it is the policy of the US to "preserve, protect, and promote the rights and freedom of Native Americans to use, practice, and develop Native American languages"
a condition in which many cultures coexist within a society and maintain their cultural differences
Crisis in Indian Affairs Convention in 1953
address threat or failures of termination program, hired lobbyists to talk to government
Relocation Program and it's basic elements
Enacted as a means of ending reservation poverty and accelerating the pace of assimilation (moved to cities)
All Pueblo Council
lobbied successfully against the Bursum bill that had threatened to deprive the Pueblos of land and water rights by placing jurisdiction over those rights i the state courts and legitimizing the claims of many non Indians on Pueblo lands
American Indian Religious Freedom Act
a 1978 law that directed federal agencies not to interfere with Native Americans religious practices.
The leader of the AIM who adopted the strategies of early black power organizations with more militant and aggressive behavior toward federal authorities and critics, and promoted the idea of Native American racial and cultural pride. Led the siege at wounded knee
Chairman of the Tribal Council, organized Goon Squads, used Federal money for own benefit.
American Indian Renaissance
A time when Indians used cultural expression
body as cultural subject and research device
Medicine man of Lakota Sioux, cousin of Crazy Horse, witnessed Wounded Knee, Catholic
What tribe is the most dispersed?
What tribe is the most populous?
Certification Degree of Indian Blood
Pine Ridge in South Dakota
poorest community in North America
Promised to the Sioux people at the treaty of Fort Laramie, but they are still fighting for ownership, A mountain range in South Dakota and Wyming, this area was promised to the Sioux in the Dakota territory but this promise was broken when gold was discovered there.
What is the main goal of Indian gaming?
to provide jobs for Indian tribe members
Council of Energy Resource Tribes, purpose was a pan-indian group to come together and manage & sustain resources. Made up of primarily US western tribes
Who coined the term "red power"?
Mid 20th century US government policy toward American Indians that was enacted to facilitate the long standing goals of assimilation and self determination to end government programs supporting tribes. When terminated, they would eventually become dependent on the federal government through another channel
A tribe of severely mistreated Indians in North Carolina, fought against the KKK
National Museum of American Indian
Smithsonian (Wash, DC); Native American exhibitions
type of religion which involves consumption of the drug peyote; believed that it opens up communication with the spiritual world; doesn't have any hierarchy (men/women equal), opposed by tribal leaders - saw it as a challenge to authority
Why did the navajos reject the New Deal?
prior program to destroy their sheep herds
Who were common applicants of relocation program?
young males, leaving families behind and sending money back from city jobs
Why are more people claiming to be Indian on the census?
Wanted benefits, could check more than one box, aren't ashamed of being Indian anymore
American Indian Defense Association
Made by John Collier, fought to protect religious freedom and tribal property. Made in response to the Dance Order. Opposed allotment and in favor of self determination, cultural pluralism, acculturation and assimilation is wrong/impossible
Indian Rights Association
Social activist group that wanted acculturation, didn't really help because they lacked knowledge of the actual culture; seems to lose power after John Collier rises
Difference between acculturation and assimilation
acculturation trades cultural aspects but still remains distinct where as assimilation the culture is absorbed into another and loses original
3 parts of The New Deal
1. end to allotment
2. end to campaign of cultural modification
3. internal sovereignty
Indians in the War
1. pride in communities
2. sacrifices during war lends credibility to social injustices at home
3. left communities to fight
NCAI: National Congress of American Indians
pantribal political organization and federally recognized. Protected indigenous rights
How would the termination program ultimately make the tribes more dependent on federal government?
Lost their tax exemption, so they would have to sell off land base, apply for welfare, health and education services closed, students bussed to white schools & most would drop out, fishing/gaming laws (1972 the program was reversed)
How would government try to persuade people to relocate?
2. offer people free or low cost of transportation to the cities
3. provide help with job placement
Why was it not easy for Indians in the new cities thanks to relocation?
required drastic change, poor conditions, rapid transition, new escapes like alcohol and drugs, created conflict with racial prejudices, racism/segregation still apparent
Blue Lake is a holy place for the Pueblos and US said they would honor the Spanish promise that it would be theres but Pres Roosevelt claimed it as part of a national park and took land away but then gave it back during Nixon's administration
AIM's first order of business
recorded instances of police brutality
Went there for a publicity stunt to prove that they were having horrible conditions on their lands/communities, lasted 19 months
art given to people in prison, crafting narratives through art
What made up the literary renaissance of the 19th and 20th centuries?
Memoirs and auto-ethnography
Indian Gaming regulatory act of 1988
bring order to growing industry, permits Indians from opening casinos
Indigenous rights activist and green party politician
Oliphant v. Suquamish
1978. Repealled Marshall's ruling of Indian law on reserves, compromising sovereignty. Indian tribes lacked criminal jurisdiction over non-Indians on reservations. Interfered with reservations abilities to control their people.
-tribal courts do not have jurisdiction to try and punish non-Indians; this jurisdiction would violate their status of domestic dependence
-if a non-native person commits a crime on native reservation can they be tried there, the court said Indian courts do not have the jurisdiction to punish non natives, even if on reservation
Alaska v. Native Village of Venetie Tribal Government
AFter the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, the SC ruled that Venetie's 1.8 mil acres of fee simple land and the lands held by native corporations were not indian country and consequently the tribal government lacked authority to taxa non native contractor who was building a school int he village
United States v. Lara
indian tribes have the authority to prosecute members of other tribes.
California v. Cabazon
Said that despite public law 280, any state that permitted any sort of gambling could not prohibit Indians from operating gambling facilities.
Navajo Nation v. US Forest Service
operators of the arizona snowbowl, a ski resort, couldn't extend its season by making artificial snow from wastewater
Worcester v. Georgia
before invasion, indians were distinct, separate, and independent nations, governed by their own laws and with their own institutions.
Montoya v. US
tribe is a body of indians of the same or similar race, united in community under one leadership or government, and inhabiting a particular though sometimes ill defined territory
Native American Right Fund. 1970. Worked on fishing rights, tribal land claims, and taxing tribal profits.
What did the Meriam Report do?
Said the Indian policy failed and that Indian communities were at an all time low -> sparked the Indian New Deal
Leslie Mormon Silko
Ceremony, a departure and return work, uses murals and paintings to relay the literacy
Rev. Samson Occom
A Mohegan, wrote a sermon that plead for change in the way N. England whites dealt with Indians, this was one of the first influential writings published by an Indian
first native american novelist, part of gold rush, wrote The Life and Adventures of Joaquin Murieta: The Celebrated California Bandit
1st novel written that focused on Indian topics was Queen of the Woods
1st american indian woman writer that wrote The Half Blood
1st modern NI novel participating in modern and mature writing was The Surrounded
sparked literacy renascence, wrote House Made of Dawn. Won him a pulitzer prize
Departure and return literature, wrote Winter in the Blood
concentrated on homelands of very little space
reside on the north plains with very concentrated reserves, large numbers of them in urban areas like Minneapolis
Santa Clara Pueblo v. Martinez
Ultimately strengthened tribal self-determination by further proving that generally, the federal government played no enforcement role over the tribal governments.
When did self determination start?
Stemmed from the New Deal but gained momentum with the end of Termination under Richard Nixon
Wheeler Howard Act
June 18, 1934. Reversal of the dawes act, return to self government, management of assets/land given back
First record of a woman's side of Native life, Crow Nation - "sore lips",1932, autobiography with help of Frank B. Linderman
1993 by Sherman Alexie, short stories of Victor and his father + Thomas and his grandfather + life on the rez, Spokane