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Terms in this set (171)

◦Sociocultural psychologists believe that social and cultural environment influences behaviour.
◦States that behaviour can be influenced by the social and cultural environment.
◾For Example:
◾In a Social and Cultural Environment: you eat with a knife and fork whereas in some other places/cultures, you may eat with chopsticks or a spoon and fork
◾This further reinforces the idea that the real or imagined pressure of others influence behaviours
◾Culture can be defined as the norms and values that define a society
◦Research into conformity outlines social norms and also how, in the form of internalized standards of behaviour, they regulate our social behaviours
◾Conformity also shows that strong situational influences may cause us to put our own believes, values and morals to the side in order to fit in and be accepted by our social world (thus influencing behaviour)
◦This principle is further supported by research conducted by Asch (1951)

STUDY: Asch (1951)
Aims:
•To test the extent of conformity in a non-ambiguous task
Methods:
•1 real subject among 7 confederates
•They were asked to judge which of the 3 lines on the right corresponded to the line presented on the left (in regards to length)
•Confederates of the study were told to give incorrect answers (that were obviously incorrect)
•There was also a separate condition where the participant was told to write down their answers individually
•Also, in another part of the experiment, the subject was given a supporting confederate
Results:
•32% conformity rate
•74% of subjects conformed at least once
•When given a supporting confederate, the conformity rate dropped to 5.5%
•When participants were allowed to answer privately, conformity rate dropped again
Conclusions:
•People change their behaviour in accordance with others
Ethics/Evaluation:
•Deception
•Participant protection (distressed)
•Participant bias
Connection of Study to Principle
•Conducted a study that demonstrated conformity.
•This study thus shows that our social and cultural environments may affect us thus result in conforming to a group or social norm.
◦May result in a change in behaviour

Connection of Study to Principle
•Conducted a study that demonstrated conformity
•This study thus shows that our social and cultural environments may affect us thus result in conforming to a group or social norm
◦May result in a change in behaviour
Significance of the principle
◦Thus, because of the multicultural society we live in today; there is a need to understand the effect of culture on a person"s behaviour, because the study of culture may help us to better understand and appreciate cultural differences.
second principle the SCLA assumes is that we construct our individual and social self through our conceptions.
•This social self is how we construct our social identity and is also dependent on the types of groups that we belong and identified with.
◦These identities reflect the influence of society on oneself and have been seen to extensively affect our behaviour.
◦Building who we are around our culture and environment (studies have shown that 'norms' considered in one culture may be completely opposite in another).
◾Further links to the principle discussed above
•This principle gives rise to the fact that people not only have a individual identity but also a collective or social one.
•Likewise our social identity is important as it defines who we are and these behaviours are determined by social groups (such as memberships, communities, clubs, nationality or family).

STUDY: Zimbardo et al (1971)
•A study that supports this principle is Zimbardo et al. (1971).
•To investigate how people react in difficult situations.
Method:
•Zimbardo created a simulation of a prison in Stanford University basement.
•He randomly assigned the volunteers/participants to be either the guard or prisoner in the prison simulation. Therefore the IV was role (prisoner or guard).
•DV was behaviour observed through direct observation, video and audiotape.
Results:
•After a while, the volunteers playing the role of guards started to show acts of empowerment, aggression and a more confident attitude compared to the volunteers playing the role of the prisoners.
•Whilst the prisoners became passive, depressed, anxious and experienced loss of control over life.
•The volunteers acted like what their roles in their situation/predicament would be in real life prison conditions.
Conclusion:
•Zimbardo"s study is a prime example of how people can use either dispositional situational attribution to explain the behaviours of certain people.
•Prison environment had influenced the guards into performing brutal and sadistic behaviours even though none of the guards had shown any previous tendency before the experiment.
•People will readily conform to social roles that they are expected to play
•The roles that people play shape their attitudes and behaviours
Connection of Study to Principle
•Showing that our social self is constructed by our own conceptions (prisoner or guard) and thus we will act in a way that fits with this conceptions
◦This essay will attempt to offer a balanced review of how and why particular research methods are used at the sociocultural level of analysis (SCLA).
◦The sociocultural level of analysis (SCLA) is the scientific study of how society and culture can affect behaviour.
◦Researchers need to have a method for collecting and analysing data.
◦There are many different/various methods researchers and psychologists use to conduct their studies.
◦Research methods are ways that researchers use and manipulate to conduct their studies.
•State the main research methods used in psychological research
◦There are 6 main research methods used in psychology, which consists of the following:
◾Experiments
◾Case Studies
◾Observational Studies
◾Interviews
◾Surveys/Questionnaires
◾Correlational Studies
◾In psychological research, certain biases are present, which may affect or influence the findings of the experiment, sometimes in a positive way, but mostly in a negative light/nature.
◦In sociocultural psychology, testable theories, and assumptions of a human"s social self and how we come to communicate and interact with the environment are observed through the social environment, which, unlike in the BLA and CLA, can be undergone.
◦At the SCLA the main research methods used are experiments, observations, interviews, and questionnaires.
◦These will be further analysed in the body of the essay, looking at studies and how and why these research methods are used.
◦The research methods that will be discussed in the following essay will be experiments and observations. These will be further analysed in the body of the essay, looking at examples and the strengths and limitations of these research methods.
◦In sociocultural research, the goal is to see how people interact with each other. Though experiments are sometimes used, the majority of research today is more qualitative in nature. It is important that the behaviour of the participants is as realistic as possible, to avoid studies that lack ecological validity.
◦Therefore, a significant amount of research is naturalistic - that is, "as it really is." Much of the research is done in the environments in which the behaviour is most likely to take place.
◦Early research mostly carried out laboratory experiments, because that was considered to be the most scientific way of obtaining data.
◾Experiments are used to determine the cause and effect relationship between two variables (independent (IV) and dependent (DV) variables).
◦Researchers manipulate the independent variable (IV) and measure the dependent variable (DV)
◦Attempt to control as many extraneous variables as possible to provide controlled conditions (laboratory experiments)
◦Experiments are considered a quantitative research method, however qualitative data may be collected as well
•Types of experimental settings
◦There are three different types of experiments, which include a laboratory experiment, a natural (QUASI) experiment and a field experiment.
Design:
Lab Setting -
-strengths:
-- strict control over variables
-- easy to replicate
-- highly reliable
-weaknesses:
-- no ecological validity which is crucial to studies of SCLOA
-- more susceptible to bias (researcher, participant, guessing)
Field - Real life setting -
-strengths:
-- high ecological validity
-weaknesses:
-- not easy to replicate
-- not all extraneous factors can be controlled
-- thus cant state causal relationship only correlations
- Natural/ QUASI experiment -
-strengths:
-- ecologically valid
-- used when IV cannot be produced in lab
-weaknesses:
-- no control over variables
-- cant be replicated
-- low reliability
-- takes time

STUDY: Asch (1955)
An example of an experiment in the SCLA is by Asch (1951).
•A: To investigate conformity in an unambiguous task.
◾IV: Line Judgement Task - He manipulated the length of the "test" lines to the "original" line but since he was investigating conformity, the IV was the confederates (correct or incorrect)
◾DV: The participants' line judgement (how they match up two lines of the same length); when really Asch was measuring the level of conformity between the individuals in a group situation.
◾Experimental Type: Laboratory Experiment because the study was conducted in a laboratory setting and the IV was manipulated
◾Allowed a cause and effect relationship to be developed and recognized
◾Cause: The group situation formed when Asch asked the participants to tell what they thought each answer was in front of the group.
◾Effect: Level of conformity between the individuals in the group (How many people conformed to the answer which was the most popular, from their first or original guess).
◾The cause and effect relationship would not have been able to be found using other research methods (e.g. surveys or interviews, etc.)
◦Like experiments, another key research method used frequently in the SCLA is participant observations.
◦Today, social psychologists frequently attempt to "see the world through the eyes of the people being studied." In order to do this, participant observation is often utilised.
◦Participant observation is when researchers immerse themselves in a social setting for an extended period of time and observe people"s behaviour.
◦Participant observations are used to observe normal behaviour of participants in their normal environments.
◦Observations involve informal interviews, direct and indirect observation, collective discussions and participation in the life of a group, where the researcher/s decide if they want to be involved in the life of the person they are observing/studying.
◦Researchers try to gain the trust of the participants
◦Observations are a qualitative research method
◦Researchers sometimes use vaguely defined protocol to record behaviour
◾For example, recording descriptive notes and thoughts on a black sheet of paper
◦Analysis of data depends on data collection approach
◦Analysis aims to reduce large amounts of information into more manageable chunks and use the reduced version to make sense of behaviour
◦There are two types of participant observation - covert and overt observation.
◾Covert observation -participants are not informed that they are being observed.
◾Overt observation -participants know they are being observed.
strengths of observational studies:
◦Participants are likely to behave normally because they are in their normal environments
◦It can provide new insights and direction for research.
◦Participant observations can provide a rich source of qualitative data, including detailed conversations and descriptions of participant"s feelings.
◦Covert participant observations allow researchers to study a group that may be hostile or dishonest to an outsider observing their behaviour.
limitations of observational studies:
◦Observer bias - the researcher"s own belief, values, and thoughts affect their interpretation of behaviour.
◦Observer effects - the presence of the observer affects the behaviour of participants.
◦Demand characteristics - effects that occur from participants guessing aims of the study and acting accordingly
◦Audience effects - exaggeration or concealment of behaviour because of being watched
◦Sample sizes are usually small because a researcher can only be in one place at one time and can only obtain in-depth research on a small number of people.
◾Lacks ecological validity
◾Lacks population validity
◦Qualitative data cannot be quantified
◦Cannot be replicated due to lack of fixed procedures and interpretative skills of the researcher.
◾Low reliability
◦Cannot be used to explain cause -effect relationships like experiments.
◦Often quite costly and time-consuming
◦Covert observers have difficulty taking notes and often have to rely on memory
◾Data is open to distortion
◦In covert observations, interviews cannot be carried out for fear of being discovered
- Often unethical for the use of:
Deception
participation without consent
no right to withdraw
no debriefing

STUDY: Festinger et al. (1956)
- conducted participant observations on:
◦a religious cult believed that the world would end on 21 December, and that they would be rescued by flying saucers if they followed the rituals and read sacred texts
◦Festinger and his team carried out a "covert" observation on members of the cult, by joining the cult themselves allowing them to observe the behaviours of the group"s members in their natural environment
◦Researchers participated in the lives and activities of the group
◦Researchers gained the group"s trust
◦Participants are likely to behave normally because they are in their normal environments
◦Covert observation was used because the cult would not approve of an outsider observing their behaviour
◦Cult members were not allow to interact with non-believers To study and monitor the group"s doubt, debate and rationalisation when "nothing" had occurred.
◾Participant observation allowed researchers to gain enriched qualitative data including detailed conversations and descriptions of participants' feelings
◦In depth qualitative information would not be able to be collected by using other research methods (e.g. experiments, survey, etc.)
•Ethical issues
◦Privacy may be violated by the researcher.
◦Informed consent was not obtained
◦Participants were not informed of their right to withdraw
◦Researchers used deception to study the group"s behaviour
◦Participants were not debriefed.
This essay will attempt to offer a balanced review of ethical considerations related to research at the sociocultural level of analysis (SLA).
◦The sociocultural level of analysis (SCLA) is the scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings and thus behaviours are influenced by actual, implied or imagined presence of others and the environment around them.
- In psychology, ethics must be considered to ensure participants (humans and animals) are not harmed and that research conducted is ethically valid
◦Researchers should always conduct research in an ethical manner and studies should always be critically evaluated for ethical issues.
◦Ethical standards made by the American Psychology Association (APA) that all research done in psychology must abide by.
◦These ethics are:
◾Protection of participants
◾Participants should be protected from physical and mental harm and distress
◾This includes humiliation, stress, injury, etc.
◾Participants should not be forced to reveal personal information.
◾Consent
◾Participants must be informed of the true aims and nature of research before giving consent
◾Sometimes it is not possible to give full information about research.
◾Participant bias: knowing the true aims of a study may affect participants' behaviour and thus the results of a study
◾It is considered acceptable not to give full informed consent if no harm is expected
◾A guardian or family member should also give consent to the study if the participants are
◾Children under 18 years of age
◾Adults incompetent of understanding the true nature and aims of the study
◾Right to withdraw
◾Participants should be informed of their right to withdraw their participation and data at any time in the study (even at the end) without penalty.
◾Confidentiality
◾Data collected in a study should remain confidential and anonymous to protect participants from possible consequences that may result from their data
◾Deception
◾Deception should be avoided
◾But slight deception is considered acceptable if:
◾Participant bias would result from participants knowing the true aims of the study
◾The research has potential significant contribution
◾It is unavoidable
◾The deception does not cause any distress to the participant, including upon being informed of the deception
◾If deception is involved, informed consent is not obtained
◾Any deception must be revealed at the earliest opportunity
◾Debriefing
◾Any deception must be revealed and justified
◾Participants should leave the study without undue stress
◾Findings of the research should be made available to participants as soon as possible
Milgram (1963)
Method:
•The naïve participant received the role of teacher
•Another 'participant' who was a confederate had the role of learner
•The naive participant was in a room with another confederate acting as an experimenter
•The teacher gave the learner a word, with which the learner had to identify its pair
•The teacher was to administer electric shocks when the learner provided a wrong answer
- The shock generator was never actually used on the learner in the study
◦They only pretended to receive electric shocks
•Learner gave mostly wrong answers and received shocks in silence until 300 volts when they pounded on the wall and gave no response to the next question
•When the teacher felt unsure about continuing, the experimenter would give them standard "prods" urging them to continue

Ethical issues of this study
•There were a set of ethical issues in this study, which include:
◦Withdrawal
◾Even though participants were encouraged to continue with the experiment, they were not forced
◾Milgram still abused the right for participants to withdrawal because they were told to continue when they expressed desire to stop participating in the study
◦Participant Protection
◾Participants showed signs of extreme tension
◾sweat
◾trembling
◾stuttering
◾groaning
◾Milgram did not stop the experiment when participants showed signs of distress
◦Debriefing
◾At end of experiment, participants were debriefed
◾Reunited with the learner and assured there had been no shocks
◾Told that their behaviour was normal and feelings were shared by others
◾Follow up questionnaire showed that
◾84% were glad to have participated
◾74% felt they had learned something of personal importance
◾1 participant felt sorry to have participated
◦Consent
◾Participants were not informed of the true nature and aims of the study before giving consent.
◾They did not know that the study aimed to investigate obedience to authority
◾But being fully informed of the true nature and aims of the study may result in participant bias
◦Deception
◾Participants were deceived about the aims and nature of the study
◾Participants were told the study aimed to test the effect of punishment on learning
◾But it was actually investigating obedience
◾Participants were deceived about the confederates
◾They were lead to believe that the confederate who was the learner was a participant
◾They believed the confederate in the room with them was an experimenter
Method:
•Zimbardo created a simulation of a prison in Stanford University basement
•Participants
◦University students
◦Screened for psychological normality
◦21 most stable (physically and mentally) men were selected
◦Randomly assigned to be 10 prisoners and 11 guards

•Ethical issues of this study
◦There were a set of ethical issues in this study, which include:
◾Informed consent
◾All participants signed a contract that they would play their role for two weeks.
◾The contract made clear that prisoner role would remove some basic civil rights (such as privacy and freedom)
◾Participants were informed of the nature of the experiment and their withdrawal of rights before giving consent
◾However, participants were not told they would be arrested and taken to the police station
◾Deception
◾Prisoners were "arrested" by real police and driven to a police station where they were booked and fingerprinted.
◾Zimbardo defends his experiment by saying that this was the only deception involved
◾The rest had been explained in the contract.
◾Privacy
◾Participants were blindfolded and driven to the prison, where they were stripped and deloused
◾But participants were informed of breach of privacy in the contract before the study
◾Participant protection
◾Before the study began the "guards" attended a meeting with the governor (Zimbardo) and were told they were not allowed to use physical punishment or aggression
◾In the study guards became aggressive towards prisoners
◾Guards withdrew many of the prisoners' "rights"
◾Guards and prisoners showed tendency towards increasingly negative emotions.
◾Prisoners became passive, depressed, anxious
◾5 prisoners had to be released early (by day two) because of extreme depression (crying, rage and acute anxiety etc)
◾The experiment ended after 6 days, despite the intention to continue for 2 weeks.
◾Zimbardo did not stop the study immediately when participants began feeling distressed
◾However, he argues that the decision to terminate the experiment early showed his ethical concern.
◾Withdrawal
◾Prisoner #8612 expressed desire to leave the study
◾But he was encouraged not to leave and was offered to be an informant in exchange for no guard harassment.
◾He believed that it was not possible to leave the study
◾Debriefing
◾Extensive group and individual debriefing sessions were held
◾All participants returned post-experimental questionnaires at regular intervals for years later
Asch (1955)
Method:
•A naive participant was put in a room with seven confederates, who they believed were also real participants
•In the line judgement task, each person had to say aloud which comparison line (A, B or C) was most like the target line.
•The answer was always obvious.
•Confederates gave the wrong answer in 12/18 trials.
•Asch was interested to see if the participant would conform to the majority view.

Ethical issues of this study
•There were a set of ethical issues in this study, which include:
◦Consent
◾Participants were not informed of the true nature and aims of the study before giving consent.
◾They did not know that the study aimed to investigate conformity
◾But being fully informed of the true nature and aims of the study may result in participant bias
◦Deception
◾Participants were deceived about the aims and nature of the study
◾Participants were told it was a 'visual perception study'
◾But it was actually investigating conformity
◾Participants were deceived about the confederates
◾They were lead to believe that the confederates were fellow participants
◦Debriefing
◾After the experiment, participants were debriefed
◾When asked to explain their conformity most said,
◾they had conformed in order to avoid criticism and social disapproval.
◾they did not really believe their conforming answers, but had gone along with the group for fear of being ridiculed or thought "peculiar".
◦Participant Protection
◾Participants may have experienced stress from pressure to conform
◾Participants may have felt embarrassed or lost self-esteem, upon finding out the true nature of the study
Ross et al., 1977
Aim:
•To see if student participants would make dispositional attribution even when they knew all the actors were playing a role
- worked off of fundamental attribution theory - tendency to attribute another's behaviour to dispositional qualities, rather than the situation itself."
◾And the "overestimation of dispositional attributions rather than to situational factors.."
◾Occurs even when there are clear situational factors present.
Method:
•Participants (P"s) randomly assigned the of three roles:
◦Game show host - asked to design their own questions
◦Contestant - tried to answer questions
◦Audience member - watched the game show
•After the game show, audience members were asked to rank the intelligence of the hosts and contestants
Results:
•P"s consistently ranked the host as the most intelligent, even though they knew they were randomly assigned this role and that they had written the questions
Conclusion:
•They failed to attribute the host's behavior to situational factors of the role they had been randomly assigned
◦instead attributed his performance to dispositional factors - intelligence
Evaluation:
•Limitations
◦Participants were all university students
◾They often listen to professors who ask questions and provide answers (like the game show host) and are seen as authority figures
◾The belief that authority figures who ask questions are intelligent could be a learned response, rather than attribution error
◦Sample is not representative; small sample, part of specific school
◾Findings cannot be generalized to a wider population
Connection of study to question
•This study demonstrates participants attributing the behavior of hosts and contestants to dispositional factors (intelligence), rather than situational factors (role)
•They argued that the observers and contestants had ignored the fact that the questioners had an unfair situational advantage (compiled the questions) and had overestimated dispositional factors in making their judgments.
◦Our social world is very complex and thus presents us with too much information.
◦Since our capacity to process information is limited, our social world needs to be simplified.
◦One way to avoid this information overload is through social categorisation.
◦The information is used in social categorisation forms stereotypes.
◦A "stereotype" is a mental representation and a form of social categorization made about specific individuals or a group and its members.
◦Once a set of characteristics is used to describe a group of people, those characteristics are often attributed to all members of the group, thus affecting the behaviour of the people or individual who hold the stereotype, and those who are labelled by a stereotype.
◦Gender, race, political stance, and personality contribute to the stereotypes we place on others, but they are generally based on race and gender.
•Give example, in terms of (+) & (-) stereotypes
◦This generalization may either be positive or negative, based on certain group membership or physical attributes, however most stereotypes of today are negative, exaggerating the quality and cognitively-associating such trait to all individuals that are part of the group leading to discrimination and prejudice, thus increasing self-esteem about themselves and their in-group.
◾For example, white people can"t dance; black people are stupid and uncivilized; Jewish people are greedy; women are organized, etc.
◦However, some positive stereotypes may exist such as,
◾Asians are intelligent; Christians are good people; old people have grey hair, etc.
•Stereotypes are similar to schemas
◦Stereotypes are now also argued to be a schema process that conditions those who hold the stereotype and also those labelled after the stereotype, as they are organized internal representations of individuals and or groups, therefore guiding how people act towards them.
◦There are several theories on the development of stereotypes, including social categorization and illusory correlation.
•Old Theory - Social Categorization & Social Identity Theory
◦Earlier on, it was argued that stereotypes developed through a natural process of social categorization, which is when people categorize groups of people based on common traits or characteristics.
◦However, this does not explain how it actually happens.
◦Through categorization and by being part of thoughts resistant to change, stereotypes have a tremendous potential to affect a certain group's behaviour negatively, which can be explained by stereotype threat.
◦Stereotype threat occurs when one is in a situation where there is a threat of being judged or treated stereotypically, or a fear of doing something that would inadvertently confirm that stereotype.
◦Steele (1997) claims that the stereotypes of prejudice is the cause of spotlight anxiety, an emotional stress that inhibits a stereotype-targeted individual"s performance.

STUDY 1: Steele (1997)
•Method:
◦Addressed students who were affected by "emotional distress" and pressure that may undermine their school performance
•Findings:
◦Those that were under the stereotype threat often under-performed, which can therefore naturally "limit their educational prospects."
•Conclusion:
◦This shows how behaviour can be affected by stereotypes in that it manipulates how people think and therefore act.
•Connection of study to question:
•Stereotype threat can affect the members of any social or cultural group, if the members believe in the stereotype.
•Therefore believing in such stereotypes can harm the performance of these groups, cause them to underperform and fulfil the stereotype.
•Illusory Correlation (Social Cognitive Theory)
◦Hamilton and Gifford (1976) argued instead that stereotypes formed through a type of cognitive bias, "a person's tendency to make errors in judgement based on cognitive factors," which is known as illusory correlation.
•Cognitive bias may be relevant to stereotypes
◦After illusory correlations are formed, people actively seek to confirm and support their beliefs by looking for evidence in a "biased" way, which is known as confirmation bias.
◦Illusory correlation comes in many forms such as culturally based prejudice about social groups. Cognitive bias may cause us to reinforce previously developed stereotypes
◦Therefore making this bias, "stereotypical thinking resistant to change."

STUDY:
◦A study done by Hamilton and Gifford (1976), argued that stereotypes are a result of an illusory correlation, because "people see a relationship between two variables even when there is none," e.g. "blonds" or "women," etc.
◦That is, for example, that people can form "false associations between membership of a social group and specific behaviours." Hamilton & Gifford (1976)
Aim
•To investigate illusory correlation of group size and negative behaviour.
Method
•Researchers asked participants to read descriptions about two made-up groups (Group A) and (Group B).
•Descriptions were based on a number of positive and negative behaviours.
◦Group A (majority group) - twice as many members than B; performed 18 positive and 8 negative behaviours.
◦Group B (minority) - performed 9 positive and 4 negative behaviours.
•Asked to attribute behaviours to group.
Results:
•Although there was no correlation between group membership and the types of behaviours exhibited by the groups, in that the proportion of negative and positive was the same for both groups, the participants did seem to have an illusory correlation.
•More of the undesirable behaviours were attributed to the minority Group B, than the majority of Group A.
Conclusion:
•The findings are based on the idea that distinctive information draws attention.
•Group B members and negative behaviours are both numerically fewer and therefore more distinct than Group A members and negative behaviour, therefore, stands out more than the combination of Group A members performing such behaviours causing illusory correlation.
This study shows that...
•Evidence for illusory correlation, as the p's had formed an illusionary correlation between the size of the group
•Introduce by stating the underlying principle related within attribution theory
◦Humans are very social and have a need to understand why things happen and how and why people behave in certain situations.
◦Attribution is how people interpret and explain causal relationships in the social world and society.
•This has laid foundations for the attribution theory (AT), proposed by Heider (1958), which attempts to provide an understanding and explanation for how people attribute causes to their own and other people's behaviour.
◦We do this by observing others' behaviour and considering their intentions & responsibilities in that situation.
•Two types of attributions
◦When we observe somebody"s behaviour we are inclined to attribute its cause to either dispositional (internal) factors of that person or to situational (external) causes.
◾Dispositional factors are internal, psychological factors that influence behaviour
◾E.g. personality, beliefs, mood
◾For example, if you fail an exam, you could attribute it to your own lack of study (dispositional)
◾Situational factors are external factors that influence behaviour
◾E.g. roles, luck, laws
◾For example, attributing the loss of a soccer game performance to "bad weather."
•Introduce attribution errors
◦Psychologists have discovered that when attributing behaviour, people can often make errors and biases.
•Define attribution error
◦An attributional error (AE) can be defined as a false assumption or distortion in perception or judgement about the causes of our own or other people"s behaviour.
•Introduce the 2 main attribution errors which will be discussed
◦Theories and studies have shown that there are two main AE"s in attribution: the fundamental attribution error (FAE) and self-serving bias (SSB) , which will be discussed in this essay
•Define the FAE
◾The "tendency to attribute another's behaviour to dispositional qualities, rather than the situation itself."
◾And the "overestimation of dispositional attributions rather than to situational factors.."
◾Occurs even when there are clear situational factors present.
◦For example, assuming if people behave kindly towards us (i.e. greet us with a smile) we conclude they have a kind personality; as opposed to if they behave in ways that seem impolite to us (i.e. do not greet us at all) we tend to think of them as rude.

Ross et al., 1977
Aim:
•To see if student participants would make the FAE even when they knew all the actors were playing a role
Method:
•Participants (P"s) randomly assigned tne of three roles:
◦Game show host - asked to design their own questions
◦Contestant - tried to answer questions
◦Audience member - watched the game show
•After the game show, audience members were asked to rank the intelligence of the hosts and contestants
Results:
•P"s consistently ranked the host as the most intelligent, even though they knew they were randomly assigned this role and that they had written the questions
Conclusion:
•They failed to attribute the host's behaviour to situational factors of the role they had been randomly assigned
◦instead attributed his performance to dispositional factors - intelligence
Evaluation:
•Limitations
◦Participants were all university students
◾They often listen to professors who ask questions and provide answers (like the game show host) and are seen as authority figures
◾The belief that authority figures who ask questions are intelligent could be a learned response, rather than attribution error
◦Sample is not representative; small sample, part of specific school
◾Findings cannot be generalised to a wider population
Tajfel (1970) - The minimal group paradigm

Introduce study --> link to question:
•Tajfel found that when people are randomly assigned to a group - either by the flip of a coin, the drawing of a coin, the drawing of a number from a hat, or by preference for a previously unknown artist - they see themselves as being similar in attitude and behaviour + automatically think of that group as their in-group and all others as an out-group, therefore a bond is formed among group members, even if they did not know each other before their assignment to the group.
Aim:
•To demonstrate the minimal group paradigm in creating in group bias
Method:
•Schoolboys from Bristol were randomly allocated into groups (though they were told it was off a basis for a preference of artwork for Kandinsky or Klee).

•Told they were participating in a decision making experiment

•They individually assigned points based off a matrix to their group or another group.

•They were allowed no face to face contact or communication.
Results:
•Boys tended to favour ingroup members over outgroup members (ingroup favouritism)

•Boys maximised differences between groups (category accentuation effect), even if it was potentially disadvantageous to their own group
Conclusion:
•The idea of being in a group is enough to induce own group bias (minimal group paradigm)
Evaluation:
•Limitations
◦Unusual task in an artificial environment --> Lacks ecological validity
◦Might have been influenced by demand characteristics of the situation and acted in the way that they thought was expected of them.
◦Tajfel"s study has reduced this complex psychological phenomenon down to a very simple level, focusing just on minimal groups and performance of a simple experimental task.
◦Participants can"t be generalized to the wider population
◾All boys
◾Same age range & Country
◦Ethics:

◾Deception
◾Participants were told it was a study on decision making, when it was actually about group bias
◾Consent
◾Participants did not give informed consent as they did not know the true aim of the study


Connection of study to question
•This study supports SIT because the participants showed ingroup favouritism and category accentuation effect, which is an intergroup behaviour and concept of SIT
- This essay will give a brief summary of the principles that define the biological level of analysis.
- The biological level of analysis (BLA) states that all cognitions, emotions and behaviours have a physiological basis.
- There are three underlying principles that define the BLA
1.Emotions and behaviours are products of the anatomy and physiology of the nervous and endocrine systems
2.Animal research may inform our understanding of human behaviour
3.Patterns of behaviour can be inherited; behaviour is innate because it is genetically based
- These principles are the main ideas that have driven focused research on specific areas of behaviour and physiology
- They also allow us to understanding how behaviour can be caused or influenced by biological factors
- The BLA assumes that behaviour is a result of biological/physiological factors
- Links with the principle that there are biological correlates of behaviour.
- Bidirectional relationship between other levels of analysis
- Behaviour is not only a result of biological factors alone; other factors like cognitions and the environment interact with one another, resulting in specific behaviours
- Cognition can affect biology and biology can affect cognition
- The environment can also affect physiological processes and vice versa
- Nature vs. nurture debate
- Debate between whether human behaviour is attributed to biological or environmental factors
- Psychologists have an interactionist approach and take both into account
- Reductionist approach
- At the BLA, researchers break down complex human physiology and behaviour into its smallest components to study
- Two of the three principles will be outlined in the following essay.
Aim:
•To investigate the localisation of function in Phineas Gage's case of how his brain damage resulted in a change of behaviour.

•Specifically, Harlow wanted to investigate how the particular brain damage altered his behaviour.

Method:

•Phineas Gage, a 25-year-old railroad worker in the 19th century who survived the passing of an iron rod through his head/skull.

◦It entered below his left cheek and exited through the top of his skull on the frontal lobe.
•J.M Harlow nursed Gage to recovery observing his behaviour.

Results:

•Harlow observed and studied Gage, having undergone dramatic changes in personality after the injury, which he didn't show beforehand.

◦Harlow described him as having little restraint, using extremely rude language, and making grand plans for the future, which would be instantly replaced with others.

Conclusion:

•From Harlow's study of Phineas Gage, it can be concluded that Gage's frontal lobes were indeed damaged in the left pre-frontal region, which accounted for his disinhibited behaviour.

•Harlow's study exemplifies how different parts of the brain, in this case, the frontal lobe which controls personality, relating back to the theory of localization of function, which is that specific regions of the brain are responsible for different functions.

Evaluation:

Gender - It was gender biased as the study was limited to a man and at the time they did not know that both men and women's brains worked the same.
Methodology - there was no real methodology as the accident was unexpected and so they could not plan the study, only study Phineas Gage after his frontal lobe was damaged.
Ethics - There could be some bad ethic points, as all of Phineas Gage's accident and his behaviour afterwards was published, not protecting him and his identity.
Culture - Culture could affect it as Phineas lived in a culture where he was able to get medicine and psychiatric help.
- This essay will attempt to offer a balanced review of how and why particular research methods are used at the biological level of analysis (BLA).
- The biological level of analysis (BLA) states that all cognitions, emotions and behaviours have a physiological basis.
- Researchers need to have a method for collecting and analysing data.
- There are many different/various methods researchers and psychologists use to conduct their studies.
- Research methods are ways that researchers use and manipulate to conduct their studies.
- There are 6 main research methods used in psychology, which consists of the following:
◾Experiments
◾Case Studies
◾Observational Studies
◾Interviews
◾Surveys/Questionnaires
◾Correlational Studies
- Sometimes in research, researchers incorporate the use of 2 or more research methods of investigation to explore the same aspect, as using 2 or more may be more suitable and effective in finding out the necessary aims of the researcher - this is known as triangulation.
- It also increases credibility.
- There are 4 main types of triangulation:
◾Data
◾Researcher
◾Theoretical
◾Methodological
- In psychological research, certain biases are present, which may affect or influence the findings of the experiment, sometimes in a positive way, but mostly in a negative light/nature.
- There are two major types of biases, which are:
◾Researcher bias - The researcher/s sees what they are looking for, in which the expectations of the researcher consciously or unconsciously affect the findings of the study.
◾Observer bias - The participant/s act differently or accordingly due to the consciousness of being observed by people (researchers), which may influence the nature of the study.
- At the BLA the main research methods used are experiments and case studies.
- These will be further analyzed in the body of the essay, looking at studies and how and why these research methods are used
EXPERIMENTS

•Define what an experiment is?
◦What is the purpose of an experiment?
◾Experiments are used to determine the cause and effect relationship between two variables (independent (IV) and dependent (DV) variables).
•Outline how experiments are used

◦Researchers manipulate the independent variable (IV) and measure the dependent variable (DV)
◦Attempt to control as many extraneous variables as possible to provide controlled conditions (laboratory experiments)
◦Experiments are considered a quantitative research method, however qualitative data may be collected as well
•Types of experimental settings
◦There are three different types of experiments, which include a laboratory experiment, a natural (QUASI) experiment and a field experiment.

Laboratory - laboratory setting
1.-Strict control over variables
2.-Easy to replicate
3.-High reliability and validity
4.-Permits elimination of irrelevant factors.
Because of the artificial environment, it lacks ecological validity due to the artificial environment and nature of it. When the situation is created, it is unlikely to occur in a real life situation, so one has to wonder if there is any validity in the findings. Can be effected by bias.

Field - real-life setting
- High ecological validity, because of the very natural setting - certain measures may be more representative of reality.
1.-Not all extraneous variables can be controlledpoor control as a result of placing it in a natural or real-life setting (where large amounts of variables need to be taken into account).
2.-Not easily replicable.

Natural/QUASI - IV is naturally occurring
1.-Extremely ecologically valid
2.-Used when the IV cannot be produced in a laboratory setting (e.g. financial or ethical restrictions)
1.-No control over variables as they occur naturally.
2.-Cannot be replicated, as it occurs rarely.
3.-Low reliability
4.-Researcher may have to wait for a long period of time to measure the desired behaviour when trying to replicate it or look for similar phenomenon.

•Outline why experiments are used
◦It is considered/perceived to be the most scientific research method
◦Determines cause-effect relationship between two variables (IV & DV)
- Outline experiments used in the BLA
- Sperry
-Berthold (1849)
Sperry - Hemisphere disconnection and unity in conscious awareness
[A] Investigate behavioural, psychological and neurological consequences when the left and right hemisphere of the brain is disconnected.
[P] - Subjects were patients who had deconnection surgery to stop epileptic seizure.
- Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body.
- They were given a series of tests.
- Test one
- Visual information is presented to the left or right side for 1/10th of a second.
- Eyes will not have time to readjust hence stimulus on the right will be received by the left hemisphere, vise versa.
- Test two
- Present tactile (touch) stimulus to the left or right side.
- Screen is used to cover and remove visual identification.
- Stimulus felt on the left side will be received on the right hemisphere, vise versa.

[F] - Object shown on the left side will only be recognized when its shown on the left side again, vise versa.
- Only objects shown to the right visual field can be named verbally or written down.
- Objects shown to the left visual field cannot be named.
- Subjects were shown a Dollar Sign on the left and a Question Mark on the right.
- They were asked to draw what they see with their left hand (the cannot see their left hand), subjects drew a Dollar Sign.
- When asked what they had just drawn, they would tell the experimenter "A Question Mark".
- If an object was felt by the left hand, it can only be recognized by the left hand again.

[C] - Brain function is localised.
- Speech and writing comprehension happens in the left hemisphere.
- Processing of image and visuals happen in the right hemisphere.
- There is a different visual perception and memory storage in each hemisphere.

[E] - Made use of patients who underwent hemisphere disconnection surgery as a cure for epileptic seizure, bypassed ethical guidelines of needing to physically harm the subject (even with consent).
- Natural experiment, high in ecological validity.

Why are experiments used?
Strengths of Experiment
- Can be repeated, results tend to be more reliable
- Controlled environment, removes confounding variable
- Isolation of IV and DV give a clear cause and effect relationship
- Can always be generalised to a certain extent
- Data easily measured

Weaknesses of Experiment
- Lab environment, low in ecological validity
- May break ethical guidelines
- Lower generalising potential
- [Natural experiment] No control over variables, unpredictable
- Possibility of Demand characteristics

How it reflects an experiment:
- IV: Whether or not the participant had severing of their corpus callosum
- DV: Participants performance on a test of visual cues
- Experimental Type: QUASI/ Natural as the IV has already occurred and researchers had no choice in selection of participants
Why was experiment useful:
- Allowed a cause and effect relationship to be developed and recognized
- Cause: cutting the corpus callosum
- Effect: the rain does indeed lateralize functions such as speech, and that each hemisphere has its own perceptions, memories and experiences
- Cause and effect relationship would not be able o be found using other research methods
CASE STUDY
- Like experiments, another key research method used frequently in the BLA is a case study.
-In-depth study of an individual or small group
- Because of this, case studies obtain information that may not be identifiable by using other research methods
- Case studies are considered a qualitative research method, however quantitative data may be collected as well
- They involve the use of a combination of several research methods such as interviews and observations
- The conclusions are more valid than what may be gained from any of these research methods individually
- Case studies are used:
- To obtain enriched data
- To study unusual psychological phenomena
◦Stimulates new research into an unusual phenomena
◦To study a particular variable that cannot be produced in a laboratory. For example, due to ethical or financial restrictions.
◦To obtain other information they may not be able to get from other methods.
- limitations:
◦Researchers may develop more personal relationships with participants
◾may result in subjective data or different behaviour of participants and researchers
◦Results of case studies are affected by the researcher's interpretations
◾may be subjective and influenced by the researcher's beliefs, values, and opinions
◦May cost a lot of time, effort & money due to the amount of data and time of a case study
◦Cannot be replicated
◦Lacks population validity - extent to which findings can be generalised to the whole population
◾Small participant sample
◾Especially if study investigates a unique phenomenon
•Outline case studies used in the BLA
◦Money - "David Reimer" (1974)
◦Harlow - "Phineas Gage" (1848)
Study 1: Money - "David Reimer" (1974)
Method:
•One identical twin boy had his penis burnt off by accident during circumcision
•Money advised the boy's parents to castrate him and raise him as a female.
•Money interviewed the twins once a year and used the findings to support his theory of gender neutrality - all people are born gender neutral and the environment determines gender-specific behaviour.
•At the age of 14, Brenda was told she was born a boy, and decided to turn into a boy named David.

Ethical issues of this study:
There were a set of ethical issues in this study, which include:
- Informed consent
•Money published scientific articles using this case study as evidence to support his theory.
•Neither the twins nor their parents gave informed consent to the twins being in a study.
- Withdrawal
•Lack of knowledge of the study means they were not informed of their right to withdrawal
- Debriefing
•Family was not debriefed
- Confidentiality
•In the publications, Money revealed the case and identity of the twins, which violates the family's right to confidentiality.
-Participant protection
•Money caused physical harm by castrating Bruce.
•Bruce was forced to live as a girl
•Mental harm was inflicted as Brenda experienced confusion, bullying and trauma due to gender issues.
•The mental trauma that David experienced from the study lead to the suicide of both twins
- Deception
•The family was not informed of the true nature and aims of Money's study or that the twins were in a study.
•David was deceived into believing he was a female for most of his childhood and adolescence.
Seligman - Learned Helplessness Dog Study (Depression)
[A] Prove that Learned Helplessness can lead to depression.
[P] - A dog was trapped in an enclosed area where the floor was lined with electrodes.
- The experimenter would activate the electrode once in a while.
- The dog would jump over a low wall to the other side of the enclosed area where no electrodes were on the floor.
- The experimenter raised the wall slowly until it was too high for the dog to jump over.
- Then after a few trials, the experimenter lowered the wall again.
[F] - The dog gave the high wall a few attempts.
- But after knowing that it is impossible to jump across, the dog gave up and let itself get electrocuted.
- When the walls were lowered again, the dog did not attempt to jump across.
[C] - The dog learnt that he is incapable of jumping across.
- Learn that its are helpless therefore lowering its self esteem.
[E] - Low in ecological validity, lab experiment.
- Controlled, no confounding variable.
- Animal experiment can provide insight into human behaviour.
- Unethical, participants did not have rights to withdraw.
- Induced fear and depression into participants.
Ethics:
Misuse/ harm of animal research - American Psychological Association outlines regulations for animal research in order to ensure that animals are not harmed. These guidelines include the limitation of animal use in experimentation unless it is unavoidable and the research may potentially provide significant benefit to the health and welfare of humans or other animals. Animal welfare is also monitored to ensure optimal protection.
Aim:
•To investigate the localisation of function in Phineas Gage's case of how his brain damage resulted in a change of behaviour.
•Specifically, Harlow wanted to investigate how the particular brain damage altered his behaviour.

Method:

•Phineas Gage, a 25-year-old railroad worker in the 19th century who survived the passing of an iron rod through his head/skull.
◦It entered below his left cheek and exited through the top of his skull on the frontal lobe.
•J.M Harlow nursed Gage to recovery observing his behaviour.

Results:

•Harlow observed and studied Gage, having undergone dramatic changes in personality after the injury, which he didn't show beforehand.
◦Harlow described him as having little restraint, using extremely rude language, and making grand plans for the future, which would be instantly replaced with others.

Conclusion:

•From Harlow's study of Phineas Gage, it can be concluded that Gage's frontal lobes were indeed damaged in the left pre-frontal region, which accounted for his disinhibited behaviour.
- affected Ventromedial region of the frontal lobes on both sides - causing a defect in rational decision making and the processing of emotion
•Harlow's study exemplifies how different parts of the brain, in this case, the frontal lobe which controls personality, relating back to the theory of localization of function, which is that specific regions of the brain are responsible for different functions.

Evaluation:

Gender - It was gender biased as the study was limited to a man and at the time they did not know that both men and women's brains worked the same.
Methodology - there was no real methodology as the accident was unexpected and so they could not plan the study, only study Phineas Gage after his frontal lobe was damaged.
Ethics - There could be some bad ethic points, as all of Phineas Gage's accident and his behaviour afterwards was published, not protecting him and his identity.
Culture - Culture could affect it as Phineas lived in a culture where he was able to get medicine and psychiatric help.
Milner - The Case Study of HM
Important study cuz proves that there are different memory systems in the brain.
Description - HM suffered from epilepsy.
- Went through lesioning to remove temporal lobe.
- Surgeon accidentally removed parts of the Hippocampus (responsible for LTM retrieval).
- Caused anterograde and retrograde amnesia.
- Retrograde amnesia: memory loss of the past; only affected memory up to 11 years before surgery.
- Anterograde amnesia: cant form new memories
- He can remember things 12 years before the accident.
- Discovered that the cortex and hippocampus is connected
- also discovered that the hippocampus and areas around the hippocampus play a critical role in converting memories of experiences fro short term memory to long term memory.
- Since he was able to remember things before the surgery this shows that the hippocampus is temporary memory storage.
- shows that hippocampus is part of memory system and since defect in this effected only some memory, it shows that other memory systems are located else where across the brain.
- memory processing is much more complex than originally assumed and although the hippocampus is important in storage of new memories it is not the only structure involved in the process.
- Emotional memory was intact, at the mention of the death of his favorite uncle, he experienced distress.

[E] - Ecological validity: High, study of a real life case.
- Low potential ability to generalise because cases are individual.
- Ethics: Patient's name was kept confidential until he died.
- surgery done to stop seizures which worked but also damaged memory
◦This essay will explain the effects of neurotransmission on human behaviour.
◦One of the most important discoveries that have influenced psychology is the role of neurotransmission in behaviour, thought and emotion.
◦To understand the effect of neurotransmission on human behaviour, the physiology or method of neurotransmission should be understood.
◦Neurons are nerve cells - one of the building blocks of behaviour.
◦Send electrochemical messages to the brain so that people can respond to stimuli:
◾Either from external stimuli (environment)
◾From internal changes in the body
◦This transferral of messages is known as neurotransmission.
◦Neurotransmission is the method by which messages are sent through the central nervous
◦When an electrical impulse travels down the axon (body of neuron), it releases neurotransmitters which cross the gap between two neurons known as a synapse.
◦Neurotransmitters are the body's natural chemical messengers which transmit information from one neuron to another.
◦They are stored in the neurons' terminal buttons.
◦After crossing synapse, neurotransmitters fir into receptor sites on the post synaptic membrane (like a key in a lock).
◦Once the message has been passed on, they are either broken down or reabsorbed by terminal buttons known as reuptake.
•So what is the significance of neurotransmitters in the BLA?
◦Neurotransmitters have been shown to have a range of different effects on human behaviour.
◦Neurotransmission underlies behaviour as varied as mood, memory, sexual arousal and mental illness.
◦There are various types of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and acetylcholine that influence behaviour.
◦Several studies have been undertaken to demonstrate the effects of neurotransmission on human behaviour.
◦Serotonin and acetylcholine will be explained in the following essay.
◦One example of a neurotransmitter is serotonin, which is commonly associated with depression and aggression.
◦Serotonin is a body regulator it controls bodily processes such as sleep and body temperature.
◦It protects us from negative emotions such as anxiety and depression.
◦Serotonin is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, employed by the nervous system in mediation of pain, sleep control, and regulation of mood.
◦Secreted into the human body by the pineal glands.
◦Low levels of serotonin due to efficient re-uptake in the pre-synaptic neuron leads to low levels of arousal and lack of positive emotion, hence symptoms of depression
- While high levels of Serotonin are associated with feelings of well being and happiness, and of being at peace with the world.
- Study by Kasamatsu and Hirai
- One example of how the neurotransmitter serotonin can affect behaviour was seen by researchers, Kasamatsu and Hirai, 1999.
Aim:
•To see how sensory deprivation affects the brain
•Also to see how the serotonin affects behaviour

Methods:

•Studied a group of Buddhist monks who went on a 72-hour pilgrimage to a holy mountain in Japan.
•Monks did not consume water or food; did not speak and were also exposed to cold weather.
•Researchers took a blood sample before monks ascended into the mountain and immediately after they reported having hallucinations

Results:

•After about 48 hours, monks began to have hallucinations, seeing ancient ancestors or feeling their presence by their sides.
•They found that serotonin levels had increased in the monks' brains thus the higher levels of serotonin activated the hypothalamus and frontal cortex resulting in the hallucinations.

Conclusion:

•Researchers concluded that sensory deprivation triggered the release of serotonin, which altered the way that the monks experienced the world, a behaviour expressed by humans.

Connection of study to question
◦Thus, this study shows that the neurotransmitter serotonin affects the human behaviour of increased arousal causing hallucinations (as demonstrated by monks after a spike in serotonin), therefore affecting human behaviour in terms of arousal and emotion.
◦Another example of a neurotransmitter is acetylcholine (Ach).
◦Serotonin is associated with the brain - in how it involved in learning and memory.
◦Present in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and acetylcholine receptors are found widely throughout the body and brain.
◦Effects of Ach in the body include:
◾stimulates muscle contractions; excites nerves
◦An increase in Ach causes
◾Decreased heart rate
◾Increased production of saliva
◾High doses - convulsions and tremors
◾Deficient levels - contribute to motor dysfunction
- Study done by Martinez and Kesner
- Introduce Study (Signpost):
•One example of how the acetylcholine can affect behaviour was seen by researchers, Martinez & Kesner, 1991.
•Aim:
◦To determine role of neurotransmitter acetylcholine on memory, specifically memory formation.

•Methods:
◦Rats were trained to go through maze and get to the end where they received food.
◦After rats were able to do this, he injected:
◾1st group -scopolamine, which blocks acetylcholine receptor sites. ( no ACh)
◾2nd group - physostigmine, blocks production of cholinesterase (does 'clean-up' of - acetylcholine from synapse and returns neuron to its 'resting state'). (too much ACh)
◾3rd group - control (no injections).

•Results:
◦Group 1 - Scopolamine - slower at finding way round maze and made more errors than control/physostigmine group.
◦Group 2 - Physostigmine - ran faster compared to both groups and made fewer wrong turns.

•Conclusion:
◦Acetylcholine played an important role in creating a memory of the maze.

•Evaluation

◦Strengths:
◾Design and application
◾Use of an experimental method with a control group made it possible to establish cause- and-effect relationship between levels of acetylcholine and memory.
◦Limitations:
◾Questionable to what extent these findings can be generalized to humans. (Possible to apply research on rats to human beings)
◾Assumed that memory processes are the same for all animals.

•Connection of study to question
◦Thus, this study shows that the neurotransmitter acetylcholine affects the human behaviour of memory causing an increase in memory functions with higher amounts of Ach compared to lower levels of Ach, which decreases memory functioning.
◦A hormone which can affect human behaviour is testosterone.
◦Secreted by the testes in males
◦Testosterone is mainly known for supporting male traits as it influences aggressiveness and aggression in general.
◦In males, it is responsible for factors such as:
◾The deepening of the voice
◾Facial hair growth
◾Increasing overall body mass and size of the male's penis and testes.
◾Responsible for maintaining a male's sex drive.
◦ Although linked profoundly in males, testosterone is also found in females.
◾It plays a less important role
◾Secreted in small amounts from the ovaries
◦Stimulates the production of red blood cells.
◦Increases the incorporation of amino acids & protein synthesis in muscles, liver, & kidneys, thus stimulating their growth & metabolism.
◦Increases cell division in certain tissues.
◦Essential for reproduction & maintenance of male characteristics, organs & behaviour
- Study by Berthold
•An early indication of a study demonstrating the effects of testosterone on animal behaviour is a study conducted by Berthold (1849).
Aims:
•The aim of this experiment was to test the effects of testosterone through the castration of roosters.

Methods:
•Quasi Experiment
•6 healthy roosters
•Surgically castrated them (removing testicles thus stopping the production of testosterone)
•He then divided them into 3 groups of 2 roosters
◦Group 1 - control group- roosters were left in their own capons
◦Group 2 - transplanted with testicles of another rooster
◦Group 3 - reimplanted with their own testicles

Results:
•Berthold observed that the castrated roosters displayed different behaviour, where they were less masculine and less aggressive towards other roosters.
◦Such behaviours included a lack of crowing, fighting, and showed a less desire to mate.
•Those roosters that reacquired testicles behaved like normal roosters again.
•Autopsy of roosters revealed that the testicles did not re-establish nerve connections with the rest of the body.

Conclusions:
•Berthold concluded that the testicles must have produced a biochemical that influences aggression and dominant male behaviours.

Connection of study to question
•This study relates to the function of testosterone because when roosters had testes (which secrete testosterone) they displayed dominant male behaviours and aggression.
•However, when they were removed it showed that the evolutionary and dominant "male" behaviours of the roosters (aggression) decreased, which indicates the connection that testosterone affects behaviour.
•Evaluation:
- unethical
Because he tested the effects of testosterone on animals but not humans, some people may argue that his findings cannot be generalised to humans.
◦Although this is the case, Berthold still found significant results relating to the influence of testosterone and was a good early indicator, which generated more research into this biological area into humans.
◦Adrenaline is secreted in the Adrenal glands, located above both kidneys.
◦This hormone is known for the "flight or fight" reaction and arousal.
◦Thus adrenaline is a hormone that helps an organism deal with an external threat (in the environment) in preparing the body to fight it or run away.
◦Adrenaline can increase flow of oxygen and blood to the brain (increasing activity in the heart and dilating blood vessels).
◦Some symptoms which adrenaline causes the body to do are:
◾Increase in heart rate and blood pressure.
◾Dilation of pupils in eyes.
◦Transfers key resources (such as oxygen and glucose) away from internal organs to the extremities of the body
◦Functions like digestion are less important thus slowed down being focused in helping an organism fight or run away from danger
◦Increases alertness
◦It has been suggested that adrenaline may be responsible for the creation of emotion
- Study by Schacter and Singer
•A study looking into the effects of adrenaline on humans was conducted by Schacter and Singer (1962)
Aims:
•To test the two factor theory of emotion (that emotion arises from a combination of a cognition and arousal), using the hormone, adrenaline.

Methods:
•Test 184 college males
•Divided into 4 groups
◦All groups were told that they were going to be given an injection of Suproxin in order to test its effect on vision and that the aim of the experiment was to test the effect of vitamin injection on visual skills.
◦Even though men were really receiving adrenaline and tested the two factor theory of emotion.
◾First three groups were given an injection of adrenaline
◾Last group was given a placebo
•4 Groups divided into one of four conditions:
- adrenaline ignorant: with adrenaline but told no side effects
- adrenaline informed: with adrenaline and told side effects
- adrenaline misinformed: with adrenaline but told wrong side effects
- control group: placedo without knowing effects
Then those 4 groups were allocated into either:
◦Condition 1 - euphoria
◾Confederate encouraged participant to play with games inside the waiting room (with office equipment)
◦Condition 2 - anger
◾Confederate completed a questionnaire at the same pace as the participant but became more and more angry as the questions became more personal
◦During this time, participants were observed for changes in emotion
◦Participants were then asked to fill out a questionnaire detailing their state of emotion

Results:
- measured by subtracting "anger level" with "happiness level"
•Euphoric states: misinformed followed by ignorant were happiest since they had no way to explain why they felt that way thus communicating and engaging more with the person in the room
- Anger states: ignorant followed by placebo angry as they had no idea why they were feeling these effects. Mistook those chemical changes as the emotion of anger thus wrongly labeling their physiological responses.

Conclusions:
•Researchers concluded that emotion occurs by a process of cognitive labelling: the interpretation of physiological cues is combined with contextual cues to construct a person's subjective experience of emotion. When explaining this study, do not go this much in-depth as in the above. State only the most relevant things that the examiner should know.

Evaluation:
- study really messed up
- unethical (deception, etc)
- lacked ecological validity
- only pulse measured, results gotten in the most unscientific way
- replicated and failed to get same results
- inconsistent controls
- unorganized too many variables being tested
- lacked focus and loss of main point
- inconsistent as test for misinformed not included for anger condition.
- mood wasn't measured before the experiment
- some participants data removed from study

Connection of study to question
•This study shows that adrenaline can contribute to changes in emotion, a behaviour expressed by humans.
Cortisol - a Hormone produced by the adrenal cortex in response to stress and to restore homeostasis ( the body's normal balance). Chronic stress may result in prolonged cortisol secretion and this can lead to physiological changes such as damaged immune system and impairment of learning and memory. This is because high amounts of cortisol results in atrophy if the hippocampus.
Study by Newcomer analyzes its effect on memory:
Aim: To investigate how levels of cortisol interfere with verbal declarative memory.
Procedure:
- a self selected sample, recruited through advertisements, of 51 normal and healthy people aged 18 - 30 was used.
- randomized, controlled, double blind experiment running for four days.
- all participants given informed consent
- three experimental conditions:
1. a high level of cortisol (160 mg tablet per day) (equivalent to cortisol levels in blood when very stressed)
2. a low level of cortisol (40 mg per day)( equivalent to cortisol levels in blood when mildly stressed)
3. a placebo (no active ingredients)
Results: The high level group performed worse on the verbal declarative memory test than the low level group. They performed below placebo levels after day 1. The low level group (mild stress) showed no memory decreased.
Evaluation: This was a controlled randomized experiment so it was possible to establish a cause-effect relationship between levels of cortisol and scores on a verbal declarative memory test. Ethical issues were observed with informed consent. The negative effect of taking high dosages of cortisol was reversible so no harm was done. All participants were gave informed consent.
◦The first effect of an environment on physiological processes that will be discussed is brain plasticity.
◦The brain's ability to rearrange its connections with its neurons; that is the changes that occur in the structure of the brain as a result of learning or experience (exposure to different environments).
◦The changes that can take place are related to the challenges of the environment and thus represent an adaptation to it.
◦Brain plasticity, or neuroplasticity, is the lifelong ability of the brain to reorganize neural pathways based on new experiences.
◦It is stimulated by the environment.
◦Plasticity occurs every time something new is learnt
◦Brain plasticity is explicitly shown after brain injury when the brain reorganizes and forms new connections with healthy neurons to compensate for the functions of the damaged area.
- An example of a study which investigates the effects of a deprived or enriched environment on neuroplasticity is an experiment conducted by Rosenzweig and Bennet (1972).
- Aim: To investigate the effects of a deprived or enriched environment on neuroplasticity, in particular, the development of neurons in the cerebral cortex.
- Method: The participants used were rats (unspecified type).
- The independent variable was the type of environment that the rats were exposed to.
- Stimulating environment contained interesting toys
- Deprived environment had no toys
- The dependent variable was the weight of the rats' brains, showing the amount of brain plasticity that occurred in the rats.
- The rats were separated and exposed to the two environments for 30-60 days before being euthanized.
- Results: Rats in the stimulating environment had a thicker cortex and heavier frontal lobe (associated with thinking, planning, and decision-making) compared to rats in the deprived environment.
- Conclusion: This may have resulted from the exposure to the toys in the stimulating environment, which helped to develop neural connections in the rat's brain.
- Evaluation:
- Limitations: Lacks ecological validity
- the findings cannot be generalized to humans
- follow up experiment showed that just 2 hours a day in an enriched environment produced he same effects in brains of rats which shows that the brain can change and adapt to new situations
- implications of study are that human brains will also be affected by environmental factors such as intellectual and social stimulation.
- research challenged that brain weight doesn't change
- unethical (animal research) but since results were significant, experiment justified

- Connection of study to question:
This study showed the effect of the environment on physiology because more enriched environments helped develop neurons in brains of the rats.
◦This essay will attempt to uncover the assumptions and interrelationships of the interaction between cognition and physiology in terms of amnesia.
◦To examine the interaction between cognition and physiology in terms of amnesia, one must first understand that:
◾Cognition is the mental process of acquiring and processing knowledge and understanding through thought, experience and the senses. Cognitive processes include perception, attention, language, memory and thinking.
◾Physiology is the internal, biological mechanisms of living organisms - the way the organism functions
◦Amnesia can be defined as the inability to learn new information or retrieve information that has already been stored in memory.
◦Amnesia is the condition in which people lose their ability to memorize/recall information.
◦There is an interaction between biological and cognitive factors in amnesia
◾Amnesia has a biological cause (e.g. brain damage) and affects cognition (e.g. memory)
◦In amnesia patients, episodic memory is affected to a greater extent than semantic memory.
◾Episodic memories are memories linked to a certain time and place.
◾Semantic memories are memories for the meaning of information.
◦Amnesia can be caused by brain damage through:
◾injury
◾strokes
◾infections
◾specific drugs - usually sedative
◾Closed head injuries
◦Regions affected in the brain:
◾Hippocampus
◦Amnesia may also be a symptom of some degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease.
◦Neuroscientists distinguish between two key types of amnesia, anterograde: not able to form new memories
retrograde: not able to recall old memories
Milner & Scoville (1957) - HM
•Introduce Study - Link To Question:
◦An important/key study in explaining amnesia is the rare case of H.M, conducted by Milner and Scoville in 1957.
Background:
•H.M first fell off a bicycle at 9 years old resulting in brain damage.
•Epileptic seizures started at age 10
•Major seizures happened since age 16
-Drugs failed to control seizures
Method:
•At age 27 (1953) H.M had brain surgery to control his epilepsy and to stop seizures.
•He had a bilateral medial temporal lobectomy.
◦They removed tissue from the temporal lobe, including the hippocampus.
•H.M. was studied extensively for 40 years.
•In 1997, researchers used an MRI scan
Results:
•After the operation, HM had anterograde amnesia - he was unable to create new memories
◦Nothing could be stored in his long-term memory (LTM).
•His childhood memories were intact
•Memories immediately before the operation were lost.
•His working memory was intact.
•MRI Scan Results (1997) -
◦Brain damage was pervasive and included the hippocampus, the amygdala, and other areas close to the hippocampus.
Conclusion:
•The hippocampus is needed for memories to be transferred to long-term memory.
•The case of HM reveals the interaction of cognition (memory) and physiology (brain damage in the hippocampus) in amnesia.
◦Brain damage in relevant areas caused memory impairment
◦This study suggests that certain brain regions are responsible for the cognitive process of memory
Evaluation:
Strengths:
- supports interactions between cognition and physiology in amnesia
- indepth study
- enriched data
- studied phenomenon that could not be studied ethically in lab
- MRI scan excellent resolution
◦The first brain imaging technology, MRI scans, will be firstly investigated in its relation to the biological process of neuroplasticity.
◦This technique uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce 3D computer-generated images.
◦MRI scans involve people to remove all metal objects and clothing where they lie within an MRI machine.
◦It can distinguish among different types of soft tissue and allows researchers to see structures within the brain.
- Strengths:
excellent resolution
noninvasive
practical
safer
can be tested repeatedly
fast
provides controlled experimental conditions
- Weaknesses:
expensive
limited to activation studies
correlation but not causation
can be inaccurate as slight movements affect clarity of image
cant be used on everyone (can cause anxiety, obese people cant fit, people with pacemakers or metallic implants)

•A study which utilizes MRI scans to investigate a physiological process is a study conducted by Milner and Scoville (1957).

Background:
•HM suffered epileptic seizures after a head injury at age 9
•Doctors performed surgery to stop seizures
•Tissue from temporal lobe, and hippocampus was removed
•HM suffered anterograde amnesia
◦He could recall information from early life but could not form new memories
•HM was studied using an MRI in 1997

Findings:
•The brain scan showed that there was damage to the hippocampus, amygdala, and areas close to the hippocampus

Connection of study to question
•By using MRI scanning technology, researchers were able to investigate the effects of biological factors on behaviour and make a correlation between certain brain areas and memory and other behaviour.
•MRI scans were used to see the structures of the brain to determine the extent of brain damage
◦The structures would not be able to be clearly seen using other technologies such as EEGs or CTs.
◦The next biological factor which will be discussed with the brain imaging technology of PET Scans are brain interactions and functions.
◦PET scans require patients to be injected with a radioactive glucose tracer which shows the areas where glucose is absorbed in the active brain.
◦More glucose metabolism means more brain activity.
◦PET scans show a coloured visual display of brain activity; where radioactive tracer is absorbed
◾Red indicates areas with the most activity
◾Blue indicates areas with the least activity
Advantages -
- sensitive good resolution
- receptor mapping possible
Disadvantages -
- invasive (injection)
- expensive
- takes longer than an MRI
- limit number of injections
- cant do longitudinal studies
- some people allergic to tracer
•Another study which uses PET scans to investigate the result of brain damage on behaviour/personality is a well-known study conducted by Raine et al. (1997).
Aims:
•The aim of the experiment was to discover (using PET scans) if murderers who pleaded not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) show evidence of brain abnormalities.
Methods:
•41 participants (39 male, 2 female) NGRI's (average age of 34.3)
•41 participants (controls), selected based on sex, age and matched to a NGRI participant
•Each participant was injected with a glucose tracer (bonds to glucose) (for PET scans)
◦Glucose tracers tracks brain activity as the brain absorbs glucose (as energy)
◦Radioactive glucose tracer emits positively charged particles called positrons, which are picked up by the scan
◦PET scans show colourful maps of brain activity; red = most active, blue = least active.
•They had to perform tasks requiring them to detect target signals for 32 minutes
Results:
•NGRIs had less activity in the pre-frontal cortex
◦Linked to self-control and emotion
•NGRIs had lower activity in the amygdala and medial temporal hippocampus
◦Lack of inhibition of violent behaviour
◦Fearlessness - Inappropriate emotional expression
◦Failure to learn consequences for violence
•Connection of study to outcome
•Raine utilised PET scan technology to investigate relationships between biological factor in criminals (NGRI's) and their behaviour.
Through Raine's study, which involved PET scans, psychologists were able to determine a link between the amygdala (biological factor) and crime (behaviour).
•Biological factor: damage to specific brain areas
•Behaviour attributed/linked to: Criminal/unlawful acts
◦Lack of inhibition of violent behaviour
◦Fearlessness - inappropriate emotional expression
◦Failure to learn consequences for violence
◦Aggressive behaviour
Conclusion
◦In conclusion, brain imaging technologies are very useful in determining the relationship between biological factors and behaviour
◦Useful in different situations.
◦All these methods have their own advantages and disadvantages, primarily involving invasiveness and levels of radioactivity.
◦However, all of these methods contribute to investigating the relationship between biological factors and behaviour
•...a study lacking informed consent for genetic research by Dr. Money (1974).

Background:
•Money was contacted by parents of identical twin boys, one of whom (Bruce) had his penis burnt off in a circumcision accident.
•Money advised parents to castrate Bruce and turn him into a girl (Brenda).

Ethical considerations:
•Genetically, Brenda was still a boy, but she was lied to and forced to live as a girl without informed consent.
•In genetic research, there is a risk that participants may learn something about themselves they are not prepared to deal with.
◦Counselling should be offered as part of a full debriefing to genetic studies.
◦Neither Brenda nor her parents were debriefed about the case study that the twins were involved in.
•Money used this case as a study for his publication without knowledge of the parents
◦violation of informed consent
◦deception
◦lack of confidentiality and privacy

3) Confidentiality of participants
•Participants should know how their privacy and confidentiality will be protected, and what will happen to any information obtained from the study.
◦As there might be consequences for any individual who finds out that they have a genetic predisposition to a disorder or behaviour, which they might consider unpleasant or harmful.
◦Additional problems include future disadvantages regarding work and applying for other things - where the knowledge of a person's genetic disorder or behaviour by other parties, such as insurance companies, who might prevent a person from receiving life insurance, or employers, who might refuse employment due to this regard.
•Confidentiality and privacy of participants can be protected by:
◦Coding information (so that only a small number of researchers have access to the information)
◦Fully anonymizing the sample (where researchers cannot link results to particular participants).
◾Anonymizing the sample can limit the scientific value of the study by preventing follow up investigation.
◾But it protects participants from insurance companies, employers, police, and others.

4) Stigmatization of individuals on basis of knowledge of genetic conditions
•If other people know about an individual's genetic predisposition to a disease, the individual can be stigmatized.
•Stigmatization is another ethical consideration as it may lead to institutionalization and differential treatment from others.
◦For example, an insurance company may deny insurance to individuals due to a genetic predisposition of a disease.
◦Or employers might refuse employment.
Social identity theory:self-concept is based on knowledge of our membership to one or more social groups.
SIT is based on four interrelated concepts:
a) social categorisation
b) social identity
c) social comparison
d) positive distinctiveness
a) Social categorisation
Divides the social environment into:
- ingroups: to which an individual belongs
- outgroups: to which an individual does not belong
- Category accentuation effect: Reduces perceived variability within groups but increases perceived variability between groups.
b) Social identity
- Social identity is related to intergroup behaviours (not interpersonal behaviours). When we relate towards one another as members of separate groups, our social identities determine our behaviours.
c) Social comparison
- Positive social identities may result from the process of SOCIAL COMPARISON. We continuously compare our ingroups with relevant outgroups.

d) Positive distinctiveness
- This social process comparison is fuelled by our need for POSITIVE DISTINCTIVENESS: the motivation to show that our ingroup is preferable to an outgroup.
- Ingroup favouritism
- Intergroup differentiation
- Stereotypical thinking
- Conformity to ingroup norms
1) Cialidini et al (1976): demonstrated this phenomenon among college football supporters. After a successful football match, the supporters were more likely to be seen wearing college insignia and clothing than after defeats. It is assumed that our need for a positive self-concept will result in a bias in these intergroup comparisons, so that you are more positive towards anything that your own group represents.
2) Tajfel et al (1971) - Minimal group paradigm: observed that boys who were assigned randomly to a group, based on their supposed preference for the art of either Kandinsky or Klee, were more likely to identify with the boys in their group, and were willing to give higher awards to members of their own group. Asked for ratings of in-group and out-group on traits such as likeability, psychologists found that the out-group was rated as less likeable, but was never actually disliked.
3) Sherman et al. (2009) - individuals pay more attention to those in-group and out-group members who maximize positive distinctiveness.
Formation of stereotypes:
- Tajfel argues that it occurs due to social categorisation, but this does not explain how it actually happens.
- Campbell (1967)
- 2 key sources of stereotypes:
- personal experience with individual groups
- gatekeepers (the media, parents and other members of our culture)
- argues that stereotypes have a basis in some reality. GRAIN OF TRUTH HYPOTHESIS argues that an experience with an individual from a group will then be generalised to the group. The theory has been criticised however since errors in attribution are common.
Hamilton and Gifford (1976)
- Argues that stereotypes are the result of an ILLUSORY CORRELATION - people see a relationship between two variables even when there is none.
- Once illusory correlations are made, people tend to seek out or remember information that supports this relationship. This is an example of CONFIRMATION BIAS.
Effects:
- Confirmation bias makes stereotypical thinking resistant to change.
- Stereotype threat: Occurs when one is in a situation where there is a threat of being judged or treated stereotypically, or a fear of doing something that would inadvertently confirm that stereotype.
- Spotlight anxiety: Turned on by stereotype threat. Causes emotional distress and pressure that may undermine performance.
2) According to Steele (1997), stereotype threat turns on spotlight anxiety, which causes emotional distress and pressure that may undermine performance. Students under the stereotype threat often under-perform and this can naturally limit their educational prospects.
Limitations:
Research on stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination is difficult to carry out.
Social desirability effect is a confounding variable in such research - are people's responses truly indicative of them, or are they just guarding against being viewed as politically incorrect?
Remedy: Researchers are moving away from self-report methods and are looking at other means to study this behavior, e.g. focus groups, Implicit Association Tests (IAT).
Conformity: the tendency to adjust one's thoughts, feelings, or behaviour in ways that are in agreement with those of a particular individual or group, or with accepted standards about how a person should behave in specific situations (social norms).
-Factors influencing conformity:
Dispositional and situational explanations of conformity
Dispositional:
- low self-esteem
- high need for social support and approval
- high anxiety
- feelings of low status in the group
Situational
- Unanimity: Conformity most likely when all confederates agreed (Asch, 1956).
- Confidence: When individuals feel that they are more competent to make decisions with regard to a field or expertise, they are less likely to conform.
- Self-esteem: Stang (1973) found that participants with high self-esteem were less likely to conform to incorrect responses.
INFORMATIONAL SOCIAL INFLUENCE and NORMATIVE SOCIAL INFLUENCE.
2) Festinger (1954) said that people evaluate their own opinions and ideas through SOCIAL COMPARISON - that is, by looking at what others do. When one notices that others are not behaving in the same way, or that they think differently, it causes anxiety, Festinger called this COGNITIVE DISSONANCE.

INFORMATIONAL INFLUENCE: when we accept the views and attitudes of others as valid evidence about how things are in a particular situation (Sherif, 1935) - ambiguous.

NORMATIVE INFLUENCE: underlies our conformity to the expectations of others. (Asch, 1951) - unambiguous.

DUAL-PROCESS MODELS: people conform because they want to be right and they want to be liked. Criticized by those who try to explain conformity by SIT but supported by Asch and Sherif.

REFERENT INFORMATIONAL INFLUENCE: forms basis of SIT explanation to conformity.
- People conform due to their membership of groups, not to be right/liked as DPM suggests.
- Do not conform to people but to a norm.
RISKY SHIFT: tendency for group discussions to produce riskier decisions than those reached by group members working on their own. Later showed to not necessarily be more risky, thus GROUP POLARIZATION: tendency to make more extreme decisions in groups than by self.
GROUPTHINK: A mode of thinking that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members' strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action.
Explain: Give a detailed account including reasons or causes.
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Principle 1 - behaviour can be innate because it's based on genetics

1) Heston, 1966 - Is Schizophrenia genetic?
Aim: To study whether or not schizophrenia is genetic.
Method: Adoption study/Correlational study
Procedure: Herston looked at the incidence of schizophrenia in children who lived in foster homes. He correlated this incidence with the diagnosis of schizophrenia in their biological mothers. The specific interest in this study was whether schizophrenia is genetic or not. If the condition were genetic, it would be expected that adoption would not affect the number of children who were later diagnosed with schizophrenia. But because of biological inheritance, a higher incidence of schizophrenia would be expected among the adopted children of schizophrenia mothers than among adoptees whose mothers did not have a diagnosis of schizophrenia. If nurture were more important, it might be hoped that adoption would reduce the number of children who were later diagnosed with schizophrenia, and the incidence would be approximately the same as among the other adoptees.
Findings: The incidence of schizophrenia in the general population is about 1% and it was similar for those people who were adopted with no family history of schizophrenia. Heston found that over 10% of the adopted children with a family history of schizophrenia were later diagnosed with it. This is considered strong evidence that schizophrenia has a genetic component.
Principle: Behaviour can be innate because it is based on genetics.

2) The Minnesota Twin Study (Bouchard et al. 1990)
Bouchard et al. (1990), aimed to investigate the role of genetics in intelligence, through a correlational Study. In this study, MZAs (identical twins raised apart) are compared to MZTs (identical twins raised together). Each twin completed approximately 50 hours of testing and interviews. Bouchard et al. determined a heritability estimate of 70 per cent - that is 70 per cent of intelligence can be attributed to genetic inheritance. This means that 30 per cent of intelligence may be attributed to other factors. Much research has supported the findings of the Minnesota Twin Study.


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Principle 2 - Animal research can provide insight into human behaviour

1) Martinez and Kesner (1991)
- Determining the role of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine on memory (in rats).

- Rats were trained to go through a maze and get to the end, where they received food. Once the rats were able to do this, the researcher injected one group of rats with scopolamine, which blocks acetylcholine receptor sites thus decreasing available acetylcholine. He then injected a second group of rats with physostigmine, which blocks the production of cholinesterase. Cholinesterase does the "clean-up" of acetycholine from the synapse and returns the neuron to its "resting state". The third group, the control group, were not given any injections.
4. What are the effects on behaviour, cognition or memory? (findings)
The results showed that those rats that were injected with scopolamine were slower at finding their way round the maze and made more errors than either the control group or the physostigmine group. The physostigmine group, on the other hand, ran thought the maze and found the food even more quickly than the control group, and took fewer wrong turns. The researchers concluded that aceylcholine played an important role in creating a memory of the maze.
Principle: There are biological correlates of behaviour. Animal research can provide insight into human behaviour.

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Principle 3 - There are biological correlates of behavior.

1) The Case of HM (Ogden 2005)
Brain localisation is presented through the case of HM. The aim of the case study was to observe the role of the temporal lobes on memory. HM underwent surgery to remove the medial temporal lobes in order to reduce the frequency of his epileptic seizures. Unfortunately, problems occurred because it was not clear what role the temporal lobes had in relation to memory. HM's operation resulted in the removal of more of his brain than was intended. HM became unable to create long-term memories (retrograde amnesia) and became unable to detect that time had passed, probably because he was not forming new memories (anterograde amnesia). Damage to the amygdalae may have prevented the kind of anger that others have felt at being unable to exist beyond a single moment in time. The damage to the hippocampus and amygdalae presumably caused memory failure because the amygdalae helps one remember emotional memories, and the hippocampus helps remember concepts.
Explain: give a detailed account including reasons or causes.
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Localization of brain function refers to the idea that behaviour, emotions and thoughts originate in specific locations in the brain.

1) HM

Aim: To observe the role of the TEMPORAL LOBES on memory.
Method: Case study
Procedure: HM's changes in behaviour, which occurred due to surgery, were analysed. The surgery aimed to remove the medial temporal lobes in order to reduce the frequency of HM's epileptic seizures, instead entire hippocampus was removed.
Findings: HM became unable to create long-term memories (retrograde amnesia) and became unable to detect that time had passed, probably because he was not forming new memories (anterograde amnesia). Damage to the amygdalae may have prevented the kind of anger that others have felt at being unable to exist beyond a single moment in time.

Physiology and cognition connection: HM's entire hippocampus was removed. Amygdalae helped him remember few emotional memories.

Amygdalae - helps you remember emotional memories

Hippocampus - memory of concepts (school stuff)

Anterograde amnesia: a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.

Retrograde amnesia: a loss of access to events that occurred, or information that was learned, before an injury or the onset of a disease.

Principle
There are biological correlates of behaviour.
Explain: give a detailed account including reasons or causes
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NEURONS send electrochemical messages to the brain so that people can respond to stimuli. This process is called NEUROTRANSMISSION.

Neurotransmitters have been shown to have a range of effects on human behaviour. E.g. mood, memory, sexual arousal, and mental illness.

Dopamine: Function: voluntary movement, learning, feelings of pleasure
Serotonin: Function: sleep, arousal levels, emotion
Endorphins: Endorphins inhibit pain messages from being sent to the brain.
Acetylcholine: muscle contraction, and a role in development of memory in hippocampus
Noradrenaline: arousal, alertness, and stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system

Kasamatsu and Hirai (1999)
- Studied how sensory deprivation affects the brain.
- Group of Buddhist monks went on a 72-hour pilgrimage to a holy mountain in Japan.
- Did not consume food or water, did not speak, and were exposed to the cold, late autumn weather.
- After about 48 hours began hallucinating.
- The researchers took blood samples before the monks ascended the mountain, and then again immediately after the monks reported having hallucinations.
- Serotonin levels had increased in the monks' brains. These higher levels of serotonin activated the parts of the brain called the hypothalamus and the frontal cortex, resulting in hallucinations.
- From this study, researchers concluded that sensory deprivation triggered the release of serotonin, which actually altered the way that the monks experienced the world.

Principle: There are biological correlates to behaviour.

2) Martinez and Kesner (1991)
Researchers tested the memory of rats in a maze when injected with either scopolamine (blocks acetylcholine receptors) or physostigmine (blocks cholinesterase production which cleans up acetylcholine), or nothing for the control group. Concluded that acetylcholine played an important role in creating a memory of the maze.

It is assumed that memory processes are the same for all animals, and research on Alzheimer's disease may indicate the same effect of acetylcholine on memory. Nonetheless, we cannot generalize these findings to humans but it is a relevant hypothesis and if it is true then acetylcholine (a neurotransmitter) plays a role on human behaviour.

Animal research can provide insight into human behaviour. There are biological correlates to behaviour.
Explain: give a detailed account including reasons or causes
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Hormones are chemicals, produced by the glands that make up the endocrine system, that affect behaviour.

Oxytocin: Pituitary and hypothalamus. Mother-child attachment/love/trust/affection.
Melatonin: Pineal. Regulation of sleep.
Adrenaline: Adrenals. Fight or flight response, arousal, memory.
Cortisol: Adrenals. Arousal, stress hormone, memory.
Testosterone and oestrogen: development

1) Schachter and Singer (1962)
- Volunteers recruited under the impression that they would receive a vitamin injection and would be participating in visual experiments.
- Instead, three groups received an adrenaline shot and the fourth received a placebo.
- The groups consisted of the informed group, the ignorant group, the misinformed group, and the placebo group.
- In order to manipulate the emotion the participants were either placed in a euphoria situation or anger situation.
- EUPHORIA: misinformed participants felt happier than the rest. Ignorant group was second happiest. The informed group felt the least happy because they understood why they were feeling euphoric.
- ANGER: ignorant and placebo group were angrier than the informed group.

THEREFORE, BIO factors primed the participant, but they did not feel a certain way without a cognitive appraisal of the biological factor (two-factor theory of emotion).

SAD - 2001 - Avery
Aim: To study the effect of MELATONIN on SAD patients.
Method: Laboratory experiment
Procedure: Avery et al. (2001) randomly assigned 95 SAD patients to three groups: one to receive dawn simulation, one to receive a more traditional bright-light therapy, and one to receive a placebo of a dim red light at dawn.
Used a structured interview that results in a depression rating.
Findings:
- Avery et al. found that those who received traditional bright-light therapy or the placebo showed less improvement and more side effects than the group who experienced dawn simulation.
- Members of the placebo group complained of insomnia significantly more than the other groups after four weeks of the study. This added to the conclusion that indeed the symptoms were related to a shift in the participants' sleep patterns: they found themselves in winter getting up before they were ready to wake up because of a lack of light at their normal waking time.
- Bright-light therapy and dawn simulation were both able to help realign the sleep patterns with participants' lifestyles by encouraging the inhibition of melatonin secretion at an appropriate time, but dawn simulation was more likely to have positive therapeutic benefits and less likely to cause the side-effects of nausea and headache than bright-light therapy.
Principle: There are biological correlates to behaviour.
Discuss: Offer a considered and balanced review that includes a range of arguments, factors or hypotheses. Opinions or conclusions should be presented clearly and supported by appropriate evidence.

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- The brain is a dynamic system that interacts with the environment.
- physically sculpted by experience
- brain can determine and change behaviour, but behaviour and environment can change the brain.
- BRAIN PLASTICITY: the brain's ability to rearrange the connections between its neurons - (as a result of learning or experience).
- Changes that take place are related to the challenges of the environment and therefore represent an adaptation to it.
- Every time we learn something new, the neurons connect to create a new trace in the brain. This is called dendritic branching - dendrites of the neurons grow in numbers and connect with other neurons.

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MRI: When body is exposed to magnetic field, protons in water inside body will adjust alignment. Detected by scanner and transformed into a visual representation of the area of study.

1) London Taxi Drivers (Maguire et al. 2000)
Aim:
to see if fully licensed London taxi drivers will have structural differences in their hippocampi as a result of the special training they undergo in which they learn the roads and routes of places.
Procedure:
- structural MRI scans
3 groups:
- fully licensed male taxi drivers
- range of years experience in driving
- control subjects: existing scans of healthy non-taxi driver males.
Findings:
- both the left and right hippocami were significantly higher in volume in taxi drivers' brains (although some parts of the hippocami were smaller)
- the researchers ran a correlation between the volume of hippocami and time spent as a taxi driver, and found a positive correlation that could not be accounted for by age differences
- there has been a redistribution of grey matter in the hippocampi as a result of intense development and use of spatial memory skills

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Positron emission tomography (PET) scans rely on the knowledge that parts of the brain metabolize radioactive substance at different rates according to region activity.

2) Tierney et al. 2001
- evaluate bilingual language compensation following early childhood brain damage.
- Compared MA and 12 control participants using PET scans.
- MA's right hemisphere was more active than control subjects' during the production of speech and sign language.
- MA's right hemisphere seemed to be responsible for his production of sign language.
- The PET scans pinpointed what part of the brain was active during the production of speech and sign language, which allowed researchers to investigate the relationship between biological factors and behaviour. - The researchers found that MA's language abilities, usually located in the frontal left hemisphere, may have developed in the right hemisphere as a form of adaptation following brain damage. This demonstrates the plasticity of the brain and demonstrates that there are biological correlates to behaviour.

MA's lesion was in the frontal lobe, which is where the area linked to speech production, known as Broca's area is situated.
Examine: consider an argument or concept in a way that uncovers the assumptions and interrelationships of the issue.
Evaluate: Make an appraisal by weighing up strengths and limitations.
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- Cognition: The mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses.
- Physiology: deals with biological parts and their functions.
- Brain localization: Localization of brain function refers to the idea that behaviour, emotions and thoughts originate in specific locations in the brain.

1)Clive Wearing
- Clive Wearing was struck by a brain infection (herpes encephalitis) which affected especially the parts of his brain concerned with memory.
- Memory span of only seconds - the most devastating case of amnesia ever recorded.
- Suffered from ANTEROGRADE and RETROGRADE amnesia.
- MRI scanning of Clive Wearing's brain shows damage to the hippocampus and some of the frontal lobes.

- RETROGRADE AMNESIA could be explained as "trauma that disrupts consolidation of memory".
- The case of Clive Wearing provides insight into the biological foundation of different memory systems.
- Wearing's episodic memory and some of his semantic memory are lost. He cannot transfer new information into long-term memory either. Wearing can still play the piano and conduct the music that he knew before his illness. These skills are part of implicit memory. The fact that he can do this is evidence of a distributed memory system, since implicit memory is linked to a brain structure other than the hippocampus. His emotional memory is also intact (amygdala was not damaged), which is clearly demonstrated in the affection he constantly shows for his wife.


2) The case study of HM
Aim: To observe the role of the TEMPORAL LOBES on memory.
Method: Case study
Procedure: HM's changes in behaviour, which occurred due to surgery, were analysed. The surgery aimed to remove the medial temporal lobes in order to reduce the frequency of HM's epileptic seizures, instead entire hippocampus was removed.
Findings: HM became unable to create long-term memories (retrograde amnesia) and became unable to detect that time had passed, probably because he was not forming new memories (anterograde amnesia). Damage to the amygdalae may have prevented the kind of anger that others have felt at being unable to exist beyond a single moment in time.

Physiology and cognition connection: HM's entire hippocampus was removed. Amygdalae helped him remember few emotional memories.

Amygdalae - helps you remember emotional memories

Hippocampus - memory of concepts (school stuff)

Anterograde amnesia: a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.

Retrograde amnesia: a loss of access to events that occurred, or information that was learned, before an injury or the onset of a disease.

DAMAGE TO HIPPOCAMPUS -> AMNESIA
Discuss: offer a considered and balanced review that includes a range of arguments, factors or hypotheses. Opinions or conclusions should be presented clearly and supported by appropriate evidence.
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Relationship between bio and behaviour. Brain imaging technologies.

Make sure to have strengths and limitations and evaluations.

Can include advancements in technology, used to drill brains and such. Lesioning.
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Brain localization: Localization of brain function refers to the idea that behaviour, emotions and thoughts originate in specific locations in the brain.

Limited to case studies, because altering physiology would be unethical. Difficult to establish cause-effect relationship.

Modern technology allows us to build a better understanding of how the brain works. E.g. MRI and PET scans.
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MRI: When body is exposed to magnetic field, protons in water inside body will adjust alignment. Detected by scanner and transformed into a visual representation of the area of study.

1) London Taxi Drivers (Maguire et al. 2000)
Aim:
to see if fully licensed London taxi drivers will have structural differences in their hippocampi as a result of the special training they undergo in which they learn the roads and routes of places.
Procedure:
- structural MRI scans
3 groups:
- fully licensed male taxi drivers
- range of years experience in driving
- control subjects: existing scans of healthy non-taxi driver males.
Findings:
- both the left and right hippocami were significantly higher in volume in taxi drivers' brains (although some parts of the hippocami were smaller)
- the researchers ran a correlation between the volume of hippocami and time spent as a taxi driver, and found a positive correlation that could not be accounted for by age differences
- there has been a redistribution of grey matter in the hippocampi as a result of intense development and use of spatial memory skills

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Positron emission tomography (PET) scans rely on the knowledge that parts of the brain metabolize radioactive substance at different rates according to region activity.

Evaluation:
2) Tierney et al. 2001
- evaluate bilingual language compensation following early childhood brain damage.
- Compared MA and 12 control participants using PET scans.
- MA's right hemisphere was more active than control subjects' during the production of speech and sign language.
- MA's right hemisphere seemed to be responsible for his production of sign language.
- The PET scans pinpointed what part of the brain was active during the production of speech and sign language, which allowed researchers to investigate the relationship between biological factors and behaviour. - The researchers found that MA's language abilities, usually located in the frontal left hemisphere, may have developed in the right hemisphere as a form of adaptation following brain damage. This demonstrates the plasticity of the brain and demonstrates that there are biological correlates to behaviour.

MA's lesion was in the frontal lobe, which is where the area linked to speech production, known as Broca's area is situated.
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