Developmental Theories

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Piagets theory
Cognitive development goes through series of stages, Children use different schemas than adults
Schemas
A conceptual framework used to solve problems
2 Processes: Assimilation and Accommodation
assimilation
Fitting new observations into existing schemas
accomidation
Changing schemas to fit new observations that don't make sense in existing schemas
Stage 1: Sensorimotor Stage
Piaget's theory, Age 0-2, Explore the world through the senses
DO NOT have object permanence
Object Permanence
The awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived
Stage 2: Preoperational stage
Piaget's theory, 2-7 Years old, Begin to talk
Egocentric
Have object permanence
DO NOT understand the concept of conservation
Conservation
The idea that a quantity remains the same despite changes in shape
Stage 3: Concrete Operational
Piaget's Theory, 8-12 years old
Can demonstrate the concept of conservation
Learn to think logically
Stage 4: Formal operational stage
Piagets theory, 12-Adulthood
Abstract reasoning
potential for mature moral reasoning
Harry Harlow
1905-1981; Field: development; Contributions: realized that touch is preferred in development; Studies: Rhesus monkeys, studied attachment of infant monkeys (wire mothers v. cloth mothers)
Mary Ainsworth
1913-1999; Field: development; Contributions: compared effects of maternal separation, devised patterns of attachment; Studies: The Strange Situation-observation of parent/child attachment
Sigmund Frued
Belived we all have a libido and it focuses on different parts of the body during development
instinctive sexual energy
Can become fixated on a stage of development
Psychosexual Stages of Development
Oral stage
(Sigmund Freud) 0-2 years old, Seek pleasure through our mouths
people fixated on this stage tend to overeat, smoke, or have a childhood dependence on things
Anal stage
(SF) 2-4 years old, Libido is focused on controlling and expelling waste,
Fixation may cause someone to be Overly controlling (retentive) or out of control and messy (Expulsive)
Phallic Stage
(SF) 4-7, Children recognized their gender
Oedipus and Electra complexes
Fixation = Problems in later relationships
Latency Stage
(SF) 7-12 years old
libido is hidden
Cooties stage
Fixation= sexual issues
Genital stage
(SF) 12-Death
Libido is focused on their genitals
fixation= normal
Erik Erikson
Neo-freudian
personality is influenced by our experience with others
8 stages of psychosocial development
centers on a social conflict
Trust v. Mistrust
Erik Erikson, 0-1
can a baby trust the world to fufil its needs
Autonomy V. Shame and Doubt
(EE) 1-2 years old
toilet training
control temper tantrums
NO!
can they learn control or will they doubt themselves
Initiative V. Guilt
EE 3-5 years
NO to WHY
ask questions
are they encouraged or scolded?
Industry V. Inferiority
EE 6-puberty
school begins
evaluated by a formal system and peers
Can lead to use feeling bad about ourselves for the rest of our lives
Identity V. Role confusion
EE teen-20s
who am I?
May develop identity crisis
Intimacy V isolation
EE 20s - 40s
balance work and relationships
stay single or get married
Generativity V Stagnation
EE 40s - 60s
am I happy
mid life crisis
Integrity V despair
EE 60s and up
was my life meaningful
oedipus complex
According to Freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father
Electra complex
Conflict during phallic stage in which girls supposedly love their fathers romantically and want to eliminate their mothers as rivals
attachment
most important social construct an infant must develop
healthy newborn
turns head towards voices
see 8 to 12 inches away from their face
gaze longer at human like objects right from birth
maturation rate
biological growth processes
IN THE US:
25% of babies walk by 11 months
90% by 15 months
average age of conscious memory
3.5 years
sexual maturation
puberty
adolescence
period between puberty and adulthood
physical abilities
peak by our mid twenties
crystalized intellegence
Accumulated knowledge and verbal skills (increases with age)
accumulated knowledge
crystallized intelligence
fluid intellegence
our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood