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Biology Semester 2 Exam Review APEX
Terms in this set (164)
A version of a gene.
The third stage of the process of cell division, mitosis, in which the chromatids of a chromosome seperate and move to opposite ends of the cell.
Cell division as a form of asexual reproduction.
A disease caused by uncontrolled reproduction of cells in the body.
Any cancer-causing substance.
A series of events the take place in a cell, in which the cell divides in order to replicate.
The process of one cell splitting into two daughter cells.
The location of connection between two sister chromatids.
A copy of a chromosome that froms during DNA synthesis.
The split of cytoplasm and organelles to the daughter cells in cell division.
The structure on the inside of a cell, made of fibrous proteins.
One of two cells developed from a parent cell in cell division.
The description for a cell or organism with two copies of every chromosome.
The resting, non-dividing state for cells.
In the cell cycle, the time period before S phase when organelles and cytoplasm are duplicated
In the cell cycle, the time period after S phase when the cell checks back over the replicated chromosomes for errors.
The segment of a DNA chain the codes for all or part of a trait.
Sequences of nucleotides that indicate which traits to express.
The description for a cell or organism having one copy of each chromosome.
Having two identical chromosomes.
The phase of the cell cycle between cell divisions.
The phase of the cell cycle. M stands for mitosis.
Able to travel through the body and cause other tumors.
The second stage of the process of cell division, also called mitosis, in which the duplicated chromosomes are arranged along the middle of the cell.
To spread through the body.
A cable-like structure of the cytoskeleton
The process of cell division in which two daughter nuclei identical to the parent are produced.
A structure during prophase to pull sister chromosomes apart.
The first stage of the process of cell division (mitosis), in which the nuclear envelope breaks down and chromosomes are formed.
The phase of the cell cycle when DNA is synthesized.
One of two identical copies of a chromosome.
The last stage of the process of cell division, in which the separated chromosomes are enclosed by a nuclear membrane to form two daughter cell nuclei.
Griffith's name for the substance that introduces genetic material into a cell and causes a genetic change.
A sex chromosome that can be paired with another X chromosome to result in a female, or paired with a Y chromosome to form a male.
A chemical solution used to stain bacteria so that the bacteria can be sorted by color into one of two different group, Gram-positive (purple) or Gram-Negative (red).
The third stage of meiosis I, when the tetrads are pulled apart to opposite sides of the cell.
A heterozygous condition in which both alleles are fully expressed. The organism will show both phenotypes at the same time. EX: Blood type AB; a flower that is both red and white, but not pink.
An exchange of chromosome pieces between a homologous pair of chromosomes (having the same genes with same arrangement), which occurs during prophase I of meiosis.
The version of a gene (allele) that controls, or expresses, a trait over any other version of the gene that is present.
One life cycle, such as the young of a parent.
Differences in structure, physiology, or behavior among members of a population that occur through mutations, random assortment, and crossing over.
The study of how genes are passed on from generation to generation.
A specific combination of versions of a gene, called alleles, for a certain gene of an organism, displaying the organism's genetic makeup. Example: Yy
The genetic transfer of traits from one generation to the next.
Having two different alleles for a given trait EX: Yy
Having two identical alleles for a given trait. EX: YY
A heterozygous condition in which the dominant trait does not completely block the recessive trait. The phenotype may be an intermediate combination of the two traits. neither allele is completely dominant. EX: A pink flower with alleles for red and white colored petals.
The process in which one parent cell produces four daughter gametes, each containing half the number of chromosomes of the parent.
The first of two cell divisions in gametes.
The second of two cell divisions in gametes
The second stage of meiosis I, when the tetrads are lined up in the center of the cell.
The visible appearance of an organism, result from the combination of genetic characteristic and environment. EX: Garden peas appearing yellow or green.
The female part of a flowering plant.
The first stage of meiosis I, when the spindle and spindle fibers form.
In meiosis, there is no particular order in which chromosomes line up in the center of the cell before being separated. The new gametes receive a random combination of chromosomes.
A version of a gene that will not be expressed if a dominant form is present.
The male part of a flowering plant.
The last stage of meiosis I, when the separated chromosomes are enclosed by a nuclear envelope to form two daughter cell nuclei.
A group of four chromosomes (two pairs of sister chromatids) that forms during prophase I of meiosis.
Like bacteria that stain red with the gram stain. A Gram-Negative bacterium has a thing peptidoglycan cell wall surrounded by an outer layer of lipids and proteins.
Like bacteria that stain purple with the Gram-Stain. A Gram-Positive bacterium has a thick peptidoglycan cell wall.
An organism that carries a specific allele.
In Mendel's experiments, a cross between two plants with different alleles in two traits.
The first generation of crossbred plants in Mendel's experiments.
The generation resulting from breeding two F1 generation plants in Mendel's experiments.
Law of independent assortment
A law stating that the arrangement of a pair of alleles in gametes is random and independent.
An Austrian botanist who developed the foundational laws of genetics.
Traits that are controlled by only one gene and have a clear dominant and recessive form.
In Mendel's experiments, a cross between two plants that have all of the same traits except one.
Traits that do not follow Mendel's patterns of heredity.
A bell-shaped graph.
A diagram that shows the occurrence of inherited traits across two or more generations of a family.
A grid showing the possible genotypes of offspring.
A population that exhibits all of the same traits.
A cross between an organism with an unknown genotype to one with a homozygous recessive genotype to determine if the unknown genotype is heterozygous dominant or homozygous dominant.
Theory of acquired characteristics
The false idea that characteristics obtained or changed over a lifetime could be passed on to offspring.
A virus that infects bacteria.
In DNA, sets of two nitrogenous bases connected by a hydrogen bond.
The protein shell of a virus
The nitrogenous bases of DNA come in pairs: thymine pairs with adenine, and guanine pairs with cytosine
In DNA replication, the new backbone and nitrogenous bases.
The transfer of DNA between two cells joined by a pilus.
The enzyme that links pieces of replicated DNA together.
In DNA replication, an enzyme that adds single nucleotides to the growing DNA chain.
All of the genetic material that makes up an organism.
In DNA replication, the enzyme that breaks hydrogen bonds connecting the nitrogenous bases to untwists the double helix.
Human Genome Project
An international study on human genetic material. The main purpose was to figure out the sequence of bases in human chromosomes.
The process in which a virus incorporates its genome into a host's DNA in order to replicate. The virus is dormant during this cycle and does not damage the host cell.
The process in which a virus infects a host cell in order to replicate.
A thin, tubelike appendage on a prokaryotic cell that can be used to inject DNA into another cell through conjugation.
Complementary DNA, which is a strand of DNA made using mRNA and reverse transcriptase.
A test strip of cDNA made from an mRNA sequence. A cDNA probe is used to determine exactly what gene codes for a particular amino acid.
A mutation that affects entire chromosome (for example, when there are extra or missing chromosomes or pieces of chromosomes)
The process of using a single cell or piece from an organism to grow a genetically identical organism.
A mutation in which one or more DNA bases are missing.
A insertion or deletion of a base in a strand of DNA that causes the entire sequence of codons to change from there on out.
A laboratory technique used to separate biological molecules by size and charge. The technique is based on the movement of the molecules through agarose gel in an electric field.
Sections of DNA that are unique to an individual.
A mutation in which one or more DNA bases are added.
A hormone that lowers blood sugar levels.
Pictures of chromosome pairs arranged by size and shape.
A point mutation that causes a codon to code for one amino acid rather than another.
An agent that causes a mutation to DNA. EX: Radiation
When homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids fail to separate properly in mitosis or meiosis.
A point mutation resulting in a protein that is too short by creating a premature stop codon.
A process in which the nucleus of one cell is transferred into another cell whose nucleus has been removed.
A gland behind the stomach that secretes insulin into the bloodstream and enzymes into the digestive system.
A mutation that changes a single base on a strand of DNA.
Polymerase Chain Reaction
A method for making a large number of copies of a DNA fragment.
An enzyme used in recombinant DNA technology to cut DNA at a specific site.
An enzyme that uses RNA as a template for DNA synthesis rather than the other way around.
A mutation that has no effect on protein production.
An organism whose genome contains genes from more than one species.
The process in which humans select organisms with desirable traits and cause them to reproduce.
The result after a random occurrence causes a population to shrink rapidly and change in allele frequencies
An organism from which two or more species evolved.
Natural selection or sexual selection that selects for organisms with one extreme in a range of phenotypes.
Natural selection or sexual selection that selects for organisms with either extreme in a range of phenotypes.
The result after a small group of a population separates and forms a new population with allele frequencies different from those of the original population.
The exchange of genes between species, or between different populations of the same species, due to immigration or emigration.
Changes from generation to generation in allele frequencies (the percentages of a specific version of a gene) that result from random processes.
A physically similar structure that performs different functions in different species.
A fossil that is found in rock of only one particular time period.
One of several forms of an element, each with a different number of neutrons.
A trait controlled by two or more genes. EX: Height
A method of determining the age of an object by measuring the amount of a radioactive isotope it contains.
Estimating the age of an object by comparing it to something else.
Factors that give some organisms in a population the opportunity to reproduce and deny that opportunity to others.
Selection, either natural or sexual, that selects against organisms with extreme phenotypes. The result of stabilizing selection is a population with intermediate traits.
A structure in an organism that has lost all or most of the original function it had for an ancestor. Ex: A whales pelvic bone.
The change of one species of an organism in a certain geographic location into multiple new species.
A trait shared with a common ancestor.
Describes an organism that walks on two feet.
A related group of organisms with a common ancestor. A clade is determined by the presence or absence of traits.
The classification of living organisms according to generations from a common ancestor.
A branched diagram showing evolutionary relationships between species based on ancestry and physical traits.
In taxonomy, a group consisting of several orders. Class is one hierarhical level above order.
A trait not shared with a common ancestor.
When two populations become genetically different.
The largest category used to classify organisms. There are three domains. They are:
In taxonomy, a group consisting of several genera. Family is one hierarchical level above genus.
A group of closely related species. In taxonomy, the genus is one hierarchical level above the species and is listed before the species in a scientific name. The plural of genes is genera.
The process of habitats being separated into different sections.
Of, or relation to, any system that arranges subject one above another.
Members of the biological family Hominidae, including humans, apes, and extinct species of humanlike beings.
In taxonomy, the grouping of organisms below domain and above phylum. Ex: Animalia
A system developed by Carolus Linnaeus to classify organisms by domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species.
The idea that members of Homo erectus moved to different parts of the world, and evolution into modern-day humans happened separately in those places.
In taxonomy, a group consisting of several families. Order is one hierarchical level above family.
out of Africa hypothesis
The idea that all modern-day humans evolved from members of homo erectus that were living in Africa.
In a cladogram, the species in a group that shares the fewest traits with the other organisms.
A chart representing the evolutionary relationships among organisms; it is also called an evolutionary tree. The points where two branches diverge represent a common ancestor of the organisms that lie at the ends of the branches.
In taxonomy, a group consisting of several classes. Phylum is one hierarchical level above class.
Rate of speciation
The number of species that arise in a given time period.
Condition in which a population is unable to breed with other population of the same species.
The formation of a new species through evolution.
The science of identifying, naming and classifying living things.
A measure of the relative number of times something occurs in a certain situation or within a set period of time.
A measurable factor that partly defines the conditions of a simulation.
The probability that an event will occur naturally rather than by design.
A small part that is used to represent the whole for the purpose of observation.
An artificial representation of the natural world that can be used to do a controlled experiment.
It is the process of meiosis in order:
Physical or behavioral change that improves an organism's survival in a given environment.
Over many generations, unrelated or distantly related species may come to resemble each other due to —
How long is the cell cycle
Why is it important to repeat experiments or test hypotheses in different ways?
What 3 parts make up the CNS?
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