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an apparent but false association between variables (the observed relationship is explained by some third variable).
does your measurement tool measure what it is supposed to measure? ex: does church attendance measure "religiosity" or does it measure attendance?
1 of the 4 most common research methods: highly controlled conditions, studies cause & effect, applies random selection, random assignment (exp. & control groups), pretests dependent variables, applies a stimulus, and post-tests to measure change.
1 of the 4 most common research methods: most popular to measure intangibles (attitudes, beliefs, values), quantitative in nature (analysis based on interpretation of numerical data), uses population, sample, and EPSEM. Forms: questionnaires and interviews.
1 of the 4 most common research methods: qualitative in nature, inquiry based on subjective interpretation (joining a cult to research that cult).
competence (trained), objectivity, full disclosure as a researcher (hawthorne effect's problem), be ethical and terminate all research if danger threatens a participant (zimbardo), confidentiality & anonymity (codebook), state full purpose of research.
the idea that data will be skewed when the subjects are aware that you're studying them.
random selection, random assignment of exp. & control groups, pretest the depend. variable, apply a stimulus, post-test to measure change.
equal probability of selection method: eliminates conscious and unconscious bias when it comes to selecting a sample
observable phenomena verifiable with our senses, grounded in fact rather than theoretical in nature
to establish a relationship
determine time order, co-variation (vary together in a systematic, non-chance way), eliminate the co-variation being explained by some 3rd variable.
making imprecise notions (concepts) precise by specifying exactly what we mean when we use particular terms
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