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32 terms

Sociology - Chapter 2

STUDY
PLAY
spurious
an apparent but false association between variables (the observed relationship is explained by some third variable).
range
the "spread" of a set of data
mean
the straight average
mode
the most common quantity/quality in a set of data
median
the middle quantity/quality in a set of data
reliability
consistency (weight scale)
validity
does your measurement tool measure what it is supposed to measure? ex: does church attendance measure "religiosity" or does it measure attendance?
science
a logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation
experiments
1 of the 4 most common research methods: highly controlled conditions, studies cause & effect, applies random selection, random assignment (exp. & control groups), pretests dependent variables, applies a stimulus, and post-tests to measure change.
survey research
1 of the 4 most common research methods: most popular to measure intangibles (attitudes, beliefs, values), quantitative in nature (analysis based on interpretation of numerical data), uses population, sample, and EPSEM. Forms: questionnaires and interviews.
participant observation
1 of the 4 most common research methods: qualitative in nature, inquiry based on subjective interpretation (joining a cult to research that cult).
secondary analysis
1 of the 4 most common research methods: utilizes other people's data (gss)
research ethics
competence (trained), objectivity, full disclosure as a researcher (hawthorne effect's problem), be ethical and terminate all research if danger threatens a participant (zimbardo), confidentiality & anonymity (codebook), state full purpose of research.
hawthorne effect
the idea that data will be skewed when the subjects are aware that you're studying them.
sample
the group of people/things in a population that you physically study
population
the total number of people/things that the study is about.
research design
random selection, random assignment of exp. & control groups, pretest the depend. variable, apply a stimulus, post-test to measure change.
dependent variable
the variable that changes according to the independent variable (y)
independent variable
the variable that does not change (gender, race, etc.) (x)
theory
how things are
hypothesis
how things might be
open-ended questions
allows subject to freely respond
closed-ended questions
answers are provided, easier to compute/analyze
EPSEM
equal probability of selection method: eliminates conscious and unconscious bias when it comes to selecting a sample
univariate analysis
one variable
bivariate analysis
two variables
PHI
personal human inquiry: our own thoughts (jocks = athletic, teachers = typically female, etc).
shortcomings of PHI
politics, gender, limited sample, ideologies, logic, wanting to prove something
empirical evidence
observable phenomena verifiable with our senses, grounded in fact rather than theoretical in nature
to establish a relationship
determine time order, co-variation (vary together in a systematic, non-chance way), eliminate the co-variation being explained by some 3rd variable.
conceptualization
making imprecise notions (concepts) precise by specifying exactly what we mean when we use particular terms
operationalization
defining how to measure a concept