Principles of Anatomy and Physiology

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Terms in this set (121)
Immunologythe branch of medical science that studies the body's immune systemRespiratory physiologyfunctions of the air passageways and lungsRenal physiologythe study of the functional properties of the kidneysPathologythe branch of medical science that studies the causes and nature and effects of diseasesName the 6 levels organisationChemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organismalAtom(physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the elementMolecule2 or more atoms joined together eg deoxyribonucleic (DNA)CellBasic structural and functional units of an organism that come in various types eg muscle, nerve, epithelial, etcName the 4 basic tissue typesEpithelial, connective, muscular and nervousOrgana fully differentiated structure composed of two or more tissues in an animal that is specialized for some particular functionSystemRelated organs withacommon function eg digestiveHow many systems are there in the human body?11Name the 11 systems of the bodyIntegumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, lymphatic, reproductive, urinary and endocrineName the components of the integumentary systemSkin and associated structures eg hair, nails, sweat glands, and oil glandsFunctions of the integumentary systemProtect the body; regulate body temperature; eliminates some waste; makes vitamin D; detects sensationComponents of the skeletal systemBones, joints and their associated cartilageFunctions of the skeletal systemSupports and protects the body; provides surface area for muscle attachments; aids movement; houses cells that make blood; stores minerals and lipidsComponents of the muscular systemMuscles of skeletal muscle, so named because it is usually attached to bonesFunctions of the muscular systemprovide forces necessary for moving body parts, help maintain posture, primary source of body heatComponents of the nervous systembrain, spinal cord, nerves and sensory receptors (in eyes and ears for example)Functions of the nervous systemGenerates action potentials (nerve impulses) to regulate body activites; detects changes in body's internal and external environments; interprets change and responds by causing muscular contractions or glandular secretionsComponents of the cardiovascular systemheart, blood vessels, and bloodFunctions of the cardiovascular systemHeart pumps blood through blood vessels; blood carries oxygen and nutrients to cells, and carbon dioxide and waste away from cells and helps regulate the acid-base balance, temperature, and water content of the blood; blood components help defend against disease and repair damaged blood vesselsComponents of the endocrine systemHormone-producing glands (pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thymus, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries and testes) and hormone producing cells in several other organsFunctions of the endocrine system-Metabolism rate regulation and tissue -Ion regulation -Water balance -Immune system regulation -HR and BP regulation -Control of glucose and other nutrientsComponents of the digestive systemOrgans of GI (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small & large intestines, rectum, anus, & assisting organs; salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, & pancreas)Functions of the digestive system1. Breaks down food into molecules. 2. Molecules are absorbed into the blood and carried throughout the body. 3. Wastes are eliminatedComponents of the urinary systemkidneys, ureters, bladder, urethaFunctions of the urinary system1. regulating plasma concentrations of ions; 2. regulating blood volume and pressure by adjusting the volume of water los and releasing erythropoietin and renin; 3. helping stabilize blood ph; 4. conserving nutrients; 5. eliminating organic wastes; 6. synthesizing calcitriolComponents of the lymphatic systemlymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen and tonsilsFunctions of the lymphatic systemReturns proteins and fluids to the blood; carries lipids from the GI tract to the blood; includes structures where lymphocytes (that protect against disease causing microbes) mature and proliferateComponents of the respiratory systemnasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi and lungsFunctions of the respiratory systemexchange of gases in the body / maintains acid-base balance / production of vocal soundsComponents of the reproductive systemGonads (testes in men, ovaries in women) and associated organs (uterine tubes, uterus and vagina in females and epididymis, ductus deferens, and penis in males)Palpationan examination technique in which the examiner's hands are used to feel the texture, size, consistency, and location of certain body partsAuscultationlistening to sounds within the body (usually with a stethoscope)Percussiontapping a part of the body for diagnostic purposes6 basic life processesmetabolism, responsiveness, movement, growth, differentiation, reproductionMetabolismthe sum of all chemical processes that occur in an organismCatabolismbreakdown of more complex substances into simpler ones with release of energyAnabolismsynthesis of more complex substances from simpler onesDifferentiation(biology) the structural adaptation of some body part for a particular functionHomeostasismetabolic equilibrium actively maintained by several complex biological mechanisms that operate via the autonomic nervous system to offset disrupting changesBody fluidsDilute, watery solutions containing dissolved chemicals inside or outside the cellICFintracellular fluid, fluid within cellsECFextracellular fluid, fluid outside of cellsInterstitial fluidECF between cells and tissuesBlood plasmaECF within blood vesselsLymphECF within lymphatic vesselsCerebrospinal fluid (CSF)ECF in the brain and spinal cordSynovial fluidECF in the jointsAqueous humor and vitreous bodyECF in the eyes3 components of the feedback systemReceptor, control centre and effectorReceptorspecialized cell that monitors conditions in the body or external environment; relays message of change to control centreControl centreBrain; sets the range of values to be maintained; evaluates input received from receptors and generates output commandEffectorReceives output from the control centre and produces a response or effect that changes the controlled conditionNegative feedback systemReverses a change in a controlled condition. e.g. regulation of (high) blood pressure.Positive feedback systemStrengthens or reinforces a change in one of the body's controlled conditions. e.g. bodily responses during normal childbirthEpidemiologythe branch of medical science dealing with the transmission and control of diseasePharmacologythe science or study of drugs: their preparation and properties and uses and effectsPronelying face downwardSupinelying face upwardAnteriorfront of the bodyPosteriorToward the backSuperiorToward the head, upper part of a structureInferiorAway from the head, lower part of a structureMedialNearer to the midlineLateralFarther from the midlineIntermediateBetween two structuresIpsilateralOn the same side of the body as another structureContra lateralOn the opposite side of the body as another structureProximalNearer to the attachment of the limb to the trunk, nearer to the heartDistalFarther from the attachment of the limb to the trunk, farther from the heartSuperficialToward the surface of the bodyDeepAway from the surface of the bodySagittal planevertical division of the body into right and left portionsMidsagittal planedivides the body into equal right and left sidesParasagittal planeDivides body into unequal right and left sidesCoronal planevertical division of the body into front (anterior) and back (posterior) portions, aka frontal planeTransverse planedivides the body into superior and inferior portionsOblique planepasses through the body or an organ at an angle between the transverse plane and either a sagittal or frontal planeSectionsCuts of the body along a plane3 major body cavitiesCranial, thoracic and abdonminopelvicCranial cavityFormed by the cranial bones and contains bonesVetebral cavityFormed by vertebral column and contains spinal cord and beginning of the spinal nervesThoracic cavitythe cavity in the vertebrate body enclosed by the ribs between the diaphragm and the neck and containing the lungs and heartPleural cavitythe cavity in the thorax that contains the lungsPericardial cavitythe space between the layers of the pericardium that contains fluid that lubricates the membrane surfaces and allows easy heart movementMediastinumThe part of the thoracic cavity between the lungs that contains the heart and aorta and esophagus and trachea and thymusAbdominal cavityspace below the chest containing organs such as the liver, stomach, gallbladder, and intestines; also called the abdomenPelvic cavityContains the urinary bladder, the reproductive organs, and the last part of the large intestineMeningesa membrane (one of 3) that envelops the brain and spinal cordWhat forms the thoracic cavity?Ribs, muscles of the chest, strum and vertebral columnViscerainternal organs collectively (especially those in the abdominal cavity)Serous membranea thin membrane lining the closed cavities of the bodyParietal layerthe portion of a serous membrane that lines the walls of a body cavityVisceral layerSerous membrane that covers the viscera within the body cavitiesPleurathe thin serous membrane around the lungs and inner walls of the chestPericardiuma double-layered serous membrane that surrounds the heartPeritoneuma transparent membrane that lines the abdominal cavity in mammals and covers most of the visceraSynovial cavitiesjoint cavitiesNine abdominopelvic regions1. right hypochondriac region 2. right lumbar region 3. right iliac (inguinal) region 4. epigastric region 5. umbilical region 6. hypogastric region 7. Left hypochondriac 8. left lumbar region 9. left iliac (inguinal) regionMRIa technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brainCT-scanCmputerized tomography - a series of x-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of a slice through the bodyUltrasound scanningSonogram - high frequency sound waves produced by hand held wand relect off body tissuesRadionuclide scanningan imaging technique using an IV radioactive substance that generates a color video image, with areas of intense color representing high tissue activity and areas of less intense color representing low tissue activity; used to study the activity of a tissue or organ such as the brain, heart, lungs, and liverPET scanPositron emission tomography - visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given taskEndoscopyinspection of body organs or cavities using a lighted scope that may be inserted through an existing opening or through a small incisionColonoscopyvisual examination of the colon (with a colonoscope) from the cecum to the rectumLaproscopyexploration of the abdomen and pelvic cavities using a scope placed through a small incision into the abdominal wallArthroscopya minimally invasive operation to repair a damaged joint