AP US History: 1790-1860 (Chapter 14)
Forging the National Economy: 1790-1860
Terms in this set (34)
a social class separated from others by distinctions of hereditary rank or profession or wealth
a person who advocates the perpetuation of native societies, a person who favors those born in his country and is opposed to immigrants
a distinctive characteristic or attribute, a formally registered symbol identifying the manufacturer or distributor of a product
the quality of being something that holds you back, an obligation to pay money to another party, the state of being legally obliged and responsible
Application of portions of the Bill of Rights to the states under Amend. XIV
the sphere of work by women, the staff on which wool or flax is wound before spinning
(from 16th to 19th centuries) gates set across a road to prevent passage until a toll had been paid
enduring a very short time
a person who invests capital in a business (especially a large business)
(economics) the ratio of the quantity and quality of units produced to the labor per unit of time, the quantity of goods and services produced from each unit of labor input, the degree to which resources are being used efficiently to produce goods and services
He was a British mechanic that moved to America and in 1791 invented the first American machine for spinning cotton. He is known as "the Father of the Factory System" and he started the idea of child labor in America's factories.
the German liberal who came to America in the mid-1800s, was a relentless foe of slavery and public corruption, and contributed richly to the elevation of American political life.
United States politician who as governor of New York supported the project to build the Erie Canal (1769-1828), Governor of New York who started the Erie Canal project. His leadership helped complete the canal, which boosted the economy greatly by cutting time traveled from west New York to the Hudson.
United States inventor and manufacturer of a mechanical harvester (1809-1884), Irish-American inventor that developed the mechanical reaper. The reaper replaced scythes as the preferred method of cutting crops for harvest, and it was much more efficient and much quicker. The invention helped the agricultural growth of America.
American inventor who designed the first commercially successful steamboat and the first steam warship (1765-1815)
Female reformer that pushed for female employment as teachers; however, she still embraced the role of a good homemaker for women. She was an example of the fact that not all women were pushing for radical reforms.
United States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin (1765-1825)
United States portrait painter who patented the telegraph and developed the Morse code (1791-1872)
the transformation from an agricultural to an industrial nation, Change in technology, brought about by improvements in machinery and by use of steam power
requirement in which an owner's responsibility for a company's debts is limited to the size of the owner's investment in the firm
rapid growth in the speed and convenience of transportation; in the United States this began in the early 1800s, Began with the improvements in road construction and expansion of canal systems.
the policy of perpetuating native cultures (in opposition to acculturation)
cult of domesticity
the ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house
a machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers
name of Fulton's steam engine, nicknamed Fulton's Folly, Fulton's steamboat in 1807 which powered on/by a newly designed engine. It took this steamboat 32 hours to go 150 miles from New York to Albany., the first full-sized commercial steamboat
15 Boston families that dominated textile, railroad, insurance, and banking industries, They were a group of Boston families who joined to form one of the earliest and most powerful joint-capital ventures. They eventually came to dominate the textile industry, the railroad, insurance, and banking business' in all of Massachusetts. With Pride, considered their textile mill in Lowell, Massachusetts a showplace factory. The labor there was mostly New England farm girls who were supervised on and off the job and worked from "dark to dark."
Second quarter of 1800s. Long, narrow, wooden ships with tall masts and enormous sails. Unequalled in speed and were used for trade, especially for transporting perishable products from distant countries like China and between the eastern and western United States., American boats, built during the 1840's in Boston, that were sleek and fast but inefficient in carrying a lot of cargo or passengers.
Ancient Order of Hibernians
Originally founded to protect the destitute Irish from landowners in Ireland, this society also functioned in America, helping the despised Irish.
A secret Irish organization of coal miners in regions of western Pennsylvania and West Virgina in the mid to late 1800's. The miners worked together to achieve better working conditions, and when demands weren't met, they protested by destroying mining equipment and other activities. They were eventually brought down by a Pinkerton detective, and some alleged members had trials and were hanged.
General Incorporation Law
Laws that said no need to apply for charter from legislative to start a corporation., This was a law created to greatly help in "building" capitalism. It stated that businesspeople could create a corporation if they complied with the terms of the law.
Established in 1860 to carry mail quickly from Missouri to Sacramento. Tiny people would ride ponies to stations ten miles apart and it would only take 10 days. The enterprise lost money and collapsed after 18 months, but it boosted technology later leading to machinery.
Commonwealth v. Hunt
A Massachusetts Supreme Court case regarding the issue of worker unions; it ruled that unions were not illegal conspiracies provided that their actions were honorable and peaceful. While this did not legalize the worker strikes, it was a milestone for later acts regarding worker unions.
Political machine in New York, headed by Boss Tweed.
Order of the Star Spangled Banner
Group protesting the mass immigration of Irish, Roman Catholics, and Germans into America, The noisier American "Nativists" rallied for political action. In 1849 they formed this, which soon developed into the formidable American, or "Know-Nothing," party—a name derived from its secretiveness.