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Arts and Humanities
History of the Americas
Kilgo, Chapter 16 & 17, 5-13-15
Terms in this set (51)
Event: Fort Sumter
(P. 511) In 1861 a spark occurred at For Sumter, a federal outpost in Charleston, South Carolina, that was attacked by confederate troops, beginning the Civil War. Determined to seize the fortress--which controlled the entrance to Charleston harbor the confederate ringed the army with heavy guns. On April 12 1861, confederate guns open fire on Fort Sumter.
Idea: Border States
(P. 512) Wedged between the North and the South were key border states of Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri-- Slave states that did not join the Confederacy. Kentucky and Missouri controlled parts of important rivers. Maryland separated the union capital, Washington D.C. from the north.
People: Scott, Winfield
(P. 513) Taking advantage of the Union's strengths, General Scott developed a two- part strategy: 1. destroy the South's economy with a naval blockade of southern ports; 2. gain control of the Mississippi River to divide the south. Other leaders urged and attack on Richmond, Virginia, the Confederate Capital.
Idea: Cotton Diplomacy
(P. 513) This was the idea that Great Britain would support the confederacy because it needed the south's raw cotton to supply its booming textile industry. Cotton diplomacy did not work as the south had hoped. Britain had large supplies of cotton, and it got more from India and Egypt.
Event; First Battle of Bull Run
(P. 515) This battle was the first major battle of the Civil war, and the confederates victory. The battle is also know as Manassas. It shattered the Norths hopes of winning the war quickly.
People: McClellan, George B.
(P. 517) The shock at Bull Run persuaded Lincoln of the need for a better trained army. He put his hoped into General George B. McClellan. The genera assembled a highly discipline force of 100,000 soldiers called the Army of Potomac. The careful McClellan spent months training his soldiers.
People: Jackson, Thomas "Stonewall"
(P. 517) By July 24th all of the confederate troops had arrived at Manassas. That morning, union troops managed to cross the creek and drive back the left side of the confederate line. Yet on unity held firmly in place. "There is a Jackson standing like a stone wall!" At that moment General Thomas Jackson earned his nick name "Stonewall."
People: Lee, Robert E.
(P. 518) In June 1862 with McClellan's force poised outside Richmond, the confederate army in Virginia came under the command of General Robert E. Lee. He was a graduate of U.S. military Academy at west point. He fought in the Mexican American War and was willing to take risks and make unpredictable moves to through Union forces off balance.
Event: Seven Days' Battle
(P. 518) During the summer of 1862 Lee strengthened his positions. On June 26, Robert Lee attacked, launching a series of clashed know as the Seven Days' Battles that forced the Union to retreat from Richmond.
Event: Second Battle of Bull Run
(P. 518- 519) Jackson wanted to defeat Pope's army before it could join up with McClellan's larger Army of the Potomac. Jackson's troops met Pope's Union on the battlefield in August 1862. The tree day battle became known as the Second Battle of Bull Run.
Event: Battle of Antirtam
(P. 519) Two armies met along the Antietam creek in Maryland on September 17, 1862. The battle lasted for hours and there were thousands of causalities. This battle is know as the Battle of Sharpsburg, it was the bloodiest single day battle of the Civil War, and of U.S. history all together.
(P. 520) Hoping to take away the Union advantage in the Sea, the confederacy turned to a new type of warship. This new kind of warship was called a ironclad, or a ship heavily armored with iron.
People: Grant, Ulysses S.
(P. 522) While Lincoln fumed over cations, hesitant General McClellan, he had no such problem with Ulysses S. Grant. Bold and restless Grant grew impatient when he was asked to lead defensive maneuvers. He wanted to be on the attack. And as a commander of forces, he would get his wish.
Event: Battle of Shiloh
(P. 523) In the early morning of April 1862, the rebels sprang on Grants sleepy camp. This Began the battle of Shiloh, in which the Union army gained greater control of the Mississippi River valley.
Event: Siege of Vicksburg
(P. 524) Farragut's guns had trouble reaching the City above. It was up to General Grant. His solution wad to starve the city into surrender. Grants troops began to seige in Mid- May, 1863, cutting off the city and shelling it repeatedly. As food ran out residents and soldiers survived by eating horses, dogs and rats.
(P. 529) As President, Lincoln created emancipation, which was the freeing of slaves, this was a difficult issue. He did not believe he had constitutional power but he also worried about the effect of emancipation.
Idea: Emancipation Proclamation
(P. 529) Fro several weeks in 1862, Lincoln worked intensively, thinking, writing, and rewriting. He finally wrote the Emancipation Proclamation which was the order to free confederate slaves.
(P. 531) Congress began allowing the army to sign up African American volunteers as laborers in July 1862. The war department also gave Contrabands, or escaped slaves the right to join the Union army in South Carolina.
Event: 54th Massachusetts Infantry
(P. 531) The 54th Massachusetts Infantry consisted mostly of free African Americans. In July 1836 this regiment led to a heroic charge on south Carolina for Wagner. The 54th took heavy fire and suffered huge casualties in the failed operation.
(P. 532) In 1861, Many copperheads were mid westerners that sympathized with the south and opposed abolition. They believed that war was not necessary and called for its end.
Idea: Habeas Corpus
(P. 532) Habeas Corpus is a constitutional protection against unlawful imprisonment. Ignoring this protection, Union officials jailed their enemies, including some copperheads, without evidence or trial. Lincolns actions greatly angered Democrats and some republicans.
People: Barton, Clara
(P. 534) One women brought strength and comfort to countless wounded Union soldiers. Volunteer Clara Barton organized the collection of medicine and supplies for delivery to the battlefield. At the field hospitals "the angle of the battlefield" soothed the patience.
Event: Battle of Gettysburg
(P. 537- 538) This battle, the battle of Gettysburg, which was a key battle that finally turned the tide against confederates. The battle began on July 1, 1863, when confederate raiding party and the Union forces began to push the Union troops back through Gettysburg.
People: Pickett, George
(P. 539) The task of charging the Union center fell to three divisions of confederate soldiers. General George Pickett commanded the largest uni. In the late after noon nearly 15,000 took part in the Pickett's Charge. This Charge took place in 1863.
Event: Pickett's Charge
(P. 539) In the late afternoon, in 1836, nearly 15,000 men took part on Pickett's Charge. For one mile, the confederates marched slowly up toward Cemetery Ridge. Showered with canon and rifle fire, they suffered severe losses. But eventually some of them almost reached their destination.
Idea: Gettysburg Address
(P. 540) On November 19, 1863, President Lincoln gave a speech called the Gettysburg Address. In this speech he praised that bravery of Union Soldiers and renewed his commitment to winning the Civil war. This short but moving speech is one of the most famous in American History.
Idea: Wilderness Campaign
(P. 540) In 1836, From May through June, the armies fought in northern and central Virginia. Union troops launched the wilderness campaign, which was a series of battles designed to capture the confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia. The first battle took place in early May.
People: Sherman, William Tecumseh
(P. 541) Lincoln needed a victory for the Union Army to help him win re-election in 1864. The bold Campaign of General William Tecumseh Sherman provided this Key Victory. Sherman carried out the Union Plan to destroy southern railroads and industries.
Idea: Total War
(P. 542) During his march to the sea in 1864, Sherman, practiced total war. This was the idea of destroying civilian and economic resources. Sherman believed that total war would ruin the Souths economy and its ability tot fight.
Idea: Appomattox Courthouse
(P. 542) On April 9, 1865, the Union and Confederate leaders met at a home in the small town of Appomattox Court house where Lee surrendered to Ulysses Grant, thus ending the Civil War. During the meeting Ulysses assured Lee that his troops would be fed and aloud to keep their horses and they would not be tried for treason.
People: Farragut, David
(P. 524) With 18 ships and 700 men, Admiral David Farragut approached the two forts that guarded the entrance to New Orleans from the Gulf Of Mexico. Unable to destroy the forts Farragut decided to race past them.
(P. 552) After the Civil war ended in 1865, the U.S. government dealt with the problem of defeated southern states. The process of readmitting the former confederate states to the Union was called the reconstruction. This lasted from 1865- 1877.
Idea: Ten Percent Plan
(P. 553) Lincoln had proposed a plan for readmitting the southern states even before the war ended. This plan was called Te Percent Plan. It offered southerners amnesty, or official pardon, for all illegal acts supporting rebellion. To receive amnesty, southerners had to do two things, they had to swear an oath of loyalty and agree that slaves were illegal.
Idea: Thirteenth Amendment
(P. 554) On January 31, 1865, at President Lincolns urging, Congress proposed the Thirteenth Amendment. This Amendment made slavery illegal throughout the United States. The amendment was ratified and took effect on December 18, 1856.
Idea: Freedmen's Bureau
(P. 556) In 1865 Congress established the Freedman's Bureau. This was an agency providing relief for freed people and certain poor people in the South. The Bureau had a difficult job. At its high point, about 900 agents served the entire south.
People: Johnson, Andrew
(P. 557) On the evening of April 14, 1865, Vice President Andrew Johnson was sworn into office quickly. Reconstruction had now become his responsibility. He would have to win the trust of a nation shocked at its leaders death.
Idea: Black Codes
(P. 557) Soon, by 1866 every southern state had passed Black Codes. These codes were laws that greatly limited the freedom of African Americans. They required African Americans to sign work contacts, creating work conditions similar to those under slavery.
Idea: Radical Republicans
(P. 559) Radial Republicans were people who took a harsher stance, they wanted the federal government to force change in the south. Like the Moderates, they thought the black codes were cruel and unjust. The radicals however, wanted the federal government to be much more involved in Reconstruction. They feared that too many southern leaders remained loyal to the former confederacy and would not enforce the new laws.
Event: Civil Rights Act of 1866
(P. 560) Republicans responded to the Johnson Versus Congress with the Civil Rights Act of 1866. This Act provided African Americans with the same legal rights as white Americans. President Johnson once again used his veto power. He urged that the act gave to much power to the federal government.
Idea: Fourteenth Amendment
(P. 561) Many Republicans worried about what would happen when the Southern states were readmitted. Fearing that the Civil Right act of 1866 would be overturned, the Republicans proposed the Fourteenth Amendment in the summer of 1866. It included many provisions, 1. It defined all people within the United states a citizen. 2. It guaranteed citizens equal protection of the law. 3. States could not deprive personal life. 4. It banned former confederate officials. 5. It made state laws subject to federal court. and Lastly 6. It gave congress the power to pass any law needed.
Idea: Reconstruction Acts
(P. 561) In March 1867, Congress passed the first of several Reconstruction Acts. These laws divided the south into five districts. A U.S. military commander controlled each district. The military would remain in control of the south until the southern states rejoined the Union.
(P. 562) For the first time in United States history, the house of Representatives responded by voting to impeach the president. Impeachment is the processes used by legislative body to bring charged of wrong doing against the public office.
Idea: Fifteenth Amendment
(P. 563) In 1869 Congress proposed the Fifteenth Amendment, which gave African American men the right to vote. Abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison praised what he saw as "this wonderful, quiet, sudden transformation of four millions of human begins from the auction block to the ballot- box.
People: Revels, Hiram
(P. 565) African Americans politicians came from many backgrounds. Hiram Revels was born free in North Carolina and went to college in Illinois. He became a Methodists minister and served as a chaplain in the Union Army. In 1790's Revels became the First African American in the U.S. senate.
People: Klu Klux Klan
(P. 566) In 1866 a group of white southerners in Tennessee created the Klu Klux Klan. This secret society opposed civil rights, particularity suffrage for African Americans. The Klu Klux Klan used violence and Terror against African American.
Event: Compromise of 1877
(P. 567- 568) In the compromise of 1877, the democrats agreed to accept Hayes's victory. In return, they wanted all remaining federal troops removed from the south. They also asked for funding for internal improvements in the south and the appointment of southern Democrats to the presidents cabinet.
Idea: Poll Tax
(P. 568) Redeemers set up the poll tax in an effort to deny the vote to African Americans. The Poll Tax was special tax people had to pay before they could vote.
(P. 568) Redeemers governments also introduced legal segregation, they forced separation of whites and African Americans in public places.
Ideas: Jim Crow Laws
(P. 568) Jim Crow laws were laws that enforced segregation, they became common in southern states in the 1880's.
Event: Plessy v. Ferguson
(P. 569) In 1896 the Supreme court returned to the issue of Segregation in the court case Plessy v. Ferguson. The Supreme court ruled against Plessy in this case. "Segregation would now be aloud", Said the court if "Separate but equal" faculties were provided. Among the justices only john Marshal disagreed.
(P. 569) African Americans who stayed on plantations often became part of a system known as sharecropping. This was the sharing of crops. The landowners provided the land, tools, and supplies, and the sharecroppers provided the labor.
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