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pulmonary ventilation

the exchange of air between the atmosphere and the alveoli

external gas exchange

the exchange of specific gases between the alveoli and the blood

internal gas exchange

the exchange of specific gases between the blood and the cells

cellular respiration

the process by which cells use oxygen and nutrients to generate energy


the opening of the nose


the three projections arising from the lateral walls of each nasal cavity


the specific name for the voice box


the leaf-shaped structure that helps to prevent the entrance of food into the trachea


Cavity within a bone, filled with air and lined with mucous membrane.


one of the two branches formed by division of the trachea


the notch or depression where the bronchus, blood vessels, and nerves enter the lung


the area bellow the nasal cavities that is common to both the digestive and respiratory systems


a small air-conducting tube containing a smooth muscle layer but little or no cartilage


A substance that decreases the surface tension in the alveoli, allowing the lungs to expand. The substance in the fluid lining the alveoli that prevents their collapse


the phase of pulmoary ventilations in which air is expelled from the alveoli


is the active phase of breathing. the phase of pulmoary ventilations in which the diaphragm contracts


serous membrane around each lung.


the microscopic sacs of the lungs where gas exchange with the bloodstream takes place

tidal volume

The amount of air inhaled and exhaled in a normal, resting breath, typically about 500 mL.


ease with which the lungs and thorax can be expanded

vital capacity

The maximum volume of air that can be exhalated after maximum inspiration.

pariental pleura

is attached to the chest

visceral pleura

is attached to the lung surface


the process by which oxygen moves from the blood into tissues

bicarbonate ion

Most importan buffer in human blood produced from carbon dioxide


the substance that carries most of the oxygen in the blood

carbon dioxide

the gas that is more concentrated in the blood than in metabolically active tissues

hydrogen ion

an ion that renders blood more acidic


the proportion of total blood carbon dioxide dissolved in plasma


the proportion of total blood carbon dioxide transported in the form of bicarbonate


the proportion of total blood carbon dioxide carried on plasma proteins


the location of the central chemeoreceptors


a rise in the blood carbon dioxide concentration

aortic arch

the location of a peripheral chemoreceptors

phrenic nerve

the nerve that controls the diaphragm


the breathing pattern that cause hypocapnia and resulting from respiratory obstruction


the breathing pattern that cause hypercapnia


difficult or labored breathing


an abnormal increase in the depth and rate of breathing


a temporary cessation of breathing


difficult breathing that is relieved by sitting upright


an abnormal decrease in the depth and rate of breathing


rapid breathing observed during exercise

external exchange of gases

carbon dioxid will diffuse out of the blood during the phase

alveoli, bronchioles, bronchi

gas exchange occurs in the


which of the following terms does not apply to the cells that line the conducting passages of the respiratory tract

more hydrogen ions in the blood

an increase in blood carbon dioxide levels would result in

the residual volume

the amount of air remanding in the lungs after a normal exhalation

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