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Chapter 30 - The Cold War
Terms in this set (24)
Cold War (and general time period)
An intense competition for global power and influence that lasted more than 40 years. The conflict was called a "cold" war because the United States and the Soviet Union engaged in intense military competition without ever fighting each other directly.
"Iron Curtain" (who said this, and what did it mean?
Winston Churchill warned that "an iron curtain has descended across the continent," meaning: an iron curtain divided the free world of the West from the Soviet-dominated world of the East.
The Soviet Union was born out of the Russian Revolution of 1917. That year, revolutionaries known as Bolsheviks overthrew the Russian government and later killed Russia's royal family. Lead by the leader Joseph Stalin, the Soviet union stamped out all individual ownership of farms and businesses. The government took over all economic planning. The Soviet people were forced to work for government-run farms and factories. Stalin turned the Soviet Union into a vast police state.
Marx was a German philosopher and inspired the Bolsheviks through his writings. Marx called on the workers of the world to unite and overthrow the capitalist economic system. According to Marx, wealthy capitalists took advantage of the labor of workers to enrich themselves.
An economic system based on private ownership of farms and businesses.
An economic system based on the idea that farms and businesses should be owned in common by the workers who do the labor.
The U.S. policy of fighting the spread of communism by limiting it to countries where it already existed.
A U.S. aid plan designed to promote economic recovery in Europe after WWII.
The effort to contain communism suffered a major setback in 1949 when Mao Zedong;s communist revolutionaries seized control of China, the world's most populous nation. With the success of this revolution, over 500 million people came under communist rule.
Poorer, less developed nations such as Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Many of these countries gained their independence from colonial rulers in the 1950s and 1960s. Both the Soviet Union and the United States tried to convince these nations to join their "team" in the Cold War. Both superpowers also intervened, often secretly, in Third World nations throughout the COld War when they felt the interests of their side were threatened. But many Third World countries, such as India, remained nonaligned nations-countries that refused to line up with either side.
Both the Soviet Union and the United States tried to convince Third World nations to join their "team" in the Cold War. Both superpowers also intervened, often secretly, in Third World nations throughout the COld War when they felt the interests of their side were threatened. But many Third World countries, such as India, remained nonaligned nations-countries that refused to line up with either side.
The Cold War saw powerful new alliances led by the U.S. and the Soviet Union. These alliances came about as a result of the first great confrontation of the Cold War-the Berlin Blockade.
Berlin continued to be a potential flashpoint throughout much of the Cold War. In 1961, East Germany and the Soviet Union tried to stem the tide of East Germans fleeing to West Berlin by putting up a wall between the two parts of the city. On the eastern side of the Berlin Wall, armed guards stood ready to shoot anyone trying to escape to freedom in West Berlin. For the next 30 years, the Berlin Wall served as a grim symbol of a divided Europe.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization. In April 1949, ten Western European countries, the United States, and Canada formed the NATO This organization agreed that if someone attacks one county, it would be seen as an attack on all of the NATO countries.
The Warsaw Pact (named after the capital of Poland) called for military cooperation among the Soviet Union, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and East Germany. If any one of these nations was attacked, the others promised to come to its defense. As part of this agreement, Soviet troops were stationed throughout Eastern Europe.
Senator Joseph McCarthy took advantage of AMericans' feats to gain political power He launched a well-publicized campaign to uncover suspected communists. Without any real evidence, McCarthy accused many people of being communists and working for the Soviet Union. Those who questioned McCarthy or his charges were branded communist sympathizers. The Senator's practice of publicly accusing people of being disloyal with little or no evidence became known as "McCarthyism."
A competition to develop and manufacture more and more powerful weapons. This was seen around the world starting after WWII.
Mutual Assured Destruction. MAD is displayed in the instance that two opposing sides both have atomic weapons. In the case of the U.S. and the Soviet Union, both sides had nuclear weapons and if one side dropped their weapon on the other side, the other side would drop their bomb too.
Proxy wars (know how each of the following countries functioned as a "proxy war": Korean War (and year); Cuba; Vietnam War (and years of conflict)
A war in which the superpowers backed different sides, which acted as substitutes (proxies) for the superpowers themselves. The first major proxy war erupted in Korea in 1950. The Second was in Cuba in 1956.
Cuban President Fidel Castro had a powerful ally in Nikita Khrushchev, the leader of the Soviet Union. Khrushchev sent Soviet advisers and weapons to Cuba, including nuclear missiles.
Cuban Missile Crisis
In October 1962, U.S. spy planes photographed secret missile bases built by the Soviets in Cuba. Missiles launched from these bases could reach U.S. cities in a matter of minutes.
When Gorbachev took office in 1985, the Soviet economy was not working well. Gorbachev came into power hoping to reform the communist system and make it work better. He began a policy of glasnost (openness), which led to increased freedom of the press, speech, and religion.
Reagan (and years of presidency)
President Ronald Reagan, who took office in 1981, had no doubts about fighting communism. Reagan publicly denounced the Soviet Union as an "evil empire" and greatly increased military spending. In his second term, however, Reagan's attitude toward the Soviet Union softened. The reason was a new leader in the Soviet Union named Mikhail Gorbachev.
Boris Yeltsin (February 1, 1931 - April 23, 2007) was a Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
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