SGU LAS: Final Set 3
Terms in this set (107)
What is the Caslick index?
distance between dorsal commisure and pelvic floor..multiplied by the angle of declination of the vulva
What Caslick index indicates higher incidence of reproductive failure?
What is the cause of penumovagina in horses?
poor perineal conformation
What are techniques for treating pneumovagina in horses?
perineal body reconstruction.
perineal body transection (perineoplasty)
What is caslick vulvoplasty?
labia sutured together to the level of the ischial arch
If a horse had a caslick vulvoplasty, when is the breeding stitch removed?
once the horse is pregnant
When should caslick be opened?
2 weeks before foaling date
What procedure is good for correcting pneumovagina in horses if the vulvar and vestibular constrictor muscles have become ineffective?
perineal body reconstruction
What is the goal of perineal body reconstruction?
restore integrity to dorsal vestibule.
return function to vestibular sphincter
What is perineal body transection used to treat?
pneumovagina and urovagina
What are possible etiologies for urovagina in horses?
poor perineal conformation.
What are some techniques for fixing urovagina in horses?
caudal relocation of transverse fold.
What is the cause of most horse dystocias?
fetal posture abnormalities
What cause of dystocia can be corrected with a standing flank laparotomy?
What is the most common approach for a horse c-section?
*close uterus with utrecht suture pattern
A first degree perineal laceration involves what layers?
mucosa of vestibule.
skin of dorsal commissure of vulva
A second degree perineal laceration involves what layers?
vestibular mucosa and submucosa.
muscles of perineal body.
constrictor vulva muscle
What is the treatment for a second degree perineal laceration?
surgical reconstruction of perineal body and Caslick's
What are causes of a third degree perineal laceration?
excitable primiparous mares.
What layers are involved in a third degree perineal laceration?
penetration into rectum.
rectovestibular shelf disrupted.
How should third degree perineal lacerations be treated?
initial medical management followed by delayed surgical repair 3-4 weeks later.
**do NOT attempt immediate repair
What are the 2 stages of a two-stage repair of third degree perineal laceration?
first stage: rectovestibular shelf reconstructed.
second stage (3-4wk later): perineal body reconstructed
During the first stage of third degree perineal laceration repair, which layer must not be penetrated?
What are causes of recto-vaginal fistulas in horses?
failure of 3rd degree perineal laceration repair to heal
What are repair options for a recto-vaginal fistula?
conversion to 3rd degree perineal laceration if fistula is caudal.
horizontal approach through perineal body if fistula is cranial.
direct suture techniques.
mucosal pedicle flap
How are defects of a recto-vaginal fistula closed using a horizontal approach through the perineal body?
defect in rectal tissue closed transversely with interrupted lembert pattern.
defect in vesibular tissue closed longitudinally with continuous horizonta mattress pattern
How much of the horse cervix can have a laceration heal without interfering with fertility?
up to 2/3 thickness
When should cervix lacerations be repaired in horses?
repair at 60 days post foaling.
*minimum 30 days following parturition.
*during diestrus when cervix is contracted and tight
What is the most common ovarian neoplasm in horses?
granulosa cell tumor
What are surgical approaches for ovarian surgery in horses?
standing: colpotomy, flank incision.
under anesthesia: ventral midline, oblique paramedian, rectally-assisted paramedian
What type of teeth do horses have?
What teeth are the most useful for determining age in horses?
When do deciduous incisors erupt in horses?
central: 6 days.
middle: 6 weeks.
corner: 6 months
When do permanent incisors erupt in horses?
central: 2.5 years.
middle: 3.5 years.
corner: 4.5 years
When do canines erupt in horses?
4.5 - 5 years
When does the dental star appear in horse incisors?
central: 5 yr.
What is galvayne's groove?
darkened groove of cementum on maxillary corner incisors
What radiographic view is best for imaging the maxillary incisors in horses?
**intra-oral is best
What radiographic view is best for imaging the mandibular incisors in horses?
**intra-oral is best
What are the most common teeth to be removed in horses?
wolf teeth (PM1)
What are indications for exodontia in horses?
retained deciduous teeth (caps).
severe periodontal diseases.
Where are maxillary cheek tooth infections common in the horse?
external swelling at 06-08.
sinus involvement at 09-11
Apical infection of the mandibular cheek teeth in horses is closely related to what?
time of eruption
In horses, are idiopathic cheek teeth fractures more common in the maxilla or mandible?
In horses, sagittal fractures of maxillary cheek teeth are associated with what other problems?
apical infection with sinusitis
What is the most commonly performed oral surgical procedure in horses?
cheek teeth extraction
True/False: in horses, cheek tooth extractions have high incidence of complications
true - especially maxillary cheek teeth
Where do you direct your needle for a maxillary nerve block in the horse?
under lateral canthus of the eye, in front of the ramis of the mandible
Where do you inject lidocaine for a mandibular nerve block in horses?
under the ramis of the mandible
Which nerve block is good to use for work on incisors in horses?
infraorbital and mental nerve block
What is a fulcrum used for?
extract horse teeth
What are options for extracting horse teeth?
standing oral extraction.
What is orthodontia used for in horses?
prevention and treatment of dental malalignments: brachyanathism, prognathism, wry nose
What is involved in treating premaxilla fractures?
super cleaning of fracture lines.
reduce incisors to prevent motion
Which is more common in horses...premaxilla or mandible fractures?
What are areas of fractures of the mandible in the horse?
condyle of TMJ
What imaging modality is ideal for identifying mandible fractures in horses?
When is conservative management appropriate with mandible fractures in horses?
minimal to no displacement.
What are surgical repair options for mandible fractures in the horse?
tension band wiring.
External fixators are useful for treating what mandible fractures in the horse?
fractures of the body of the mandible.
comminuted interdental space fractures
What are limitations for horizontal ramus fractures?
soft tissue coverage
Compression plating is indicated for what type of mandible fracture in horses?
vertical ramus fractures
What are some oral tumors found in horses?
juvenile ossifying fibroma.
Does the equine upper respiratory tract tend to collapse on inspiration or expiration?
inspiration...when high negative pressures are generated
What is the limiting factors in a horse's exercise capacity?
What is the normal respiratory rate in horses at rest?
What is the upper respiratory tract resistance to airflow in horses at rest vs during exercise?
rest: 2/3 total resistance to airflow.
exercise: 80% total resistance
What technique enables examination of horse URT in natural environment?
dynamic video endoscopy overground
What are indications for dynamic video endoscopy of a horse URT?
functional abnormality suspected but not observed during resting endoscopy.
failure to observe synchronus movement of arytenoid cartilages.
easily displaced soft palate during resting endoscopy.
abnormal or flaccid epiglottis.
What imaging modality is good for assessing soft tissues of the horse URT?
What are the sinuses of the horse?
dorsal and ventral conchal.
Which of the horse sinuses are most clinically significant?
frontal and maxillary.
**more prone to ascending infections form nasal passage and problems associated with dental disease
Where might you find an atheroma (epidermal inclusion cyst) in horses?
located in dorsolateral aspect of nasal diverticulum in young horses
What causes wry nose in horses?
congenital deformity - premature fusion of incisive nasal bone unilaterally
True/False: wry nose make it difficult for foals to suckle
What are treatment options for ethmoid hematoma in horses?
nasal involvement: transendoscopic laser or formalin injection.
sinus involvement: sinusotomy
What is the treatment for primary sinusitis in horses?
lavage and antibiotics
Secondary sinusitis in horses is typically related to what?
What is the most common neoplasia in the head of the horse?
What are surgical approaches to the paranasal sinuses in the horse?
What surgical approach is useful for conditions affecting the rostral and caudal maxillary sinus in horses?
maxillary bone flap.
**note: not useful in young horses
What structures may get damaged using a bone flap technique for paranasal surgery in horses?
infraorbital canal and nerve
What is nasopharyngeal cicatrix?
nasopharynx diameter is reduced by abnormal web of tissue.
usually in older mares.
only in hot climates of SE US
What is the treatment for nasopharyngeal cicatrix in horses?
remove horse from pasture.
What is choanal atresia?
congenital abnormality - failure to absorb the bucconasal membrane during embryonic development.
*bilateral involvement results in asphyxia
What are clinical signs of cleft palate (palatoschisis)?
milk draining from nose.
signs of aspiration
What is the prognosis for cleft palate in horses?
poor to grave
Pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia is very common in what type of horse?
young racehorse in training
What are causes of pharyngeal lymphoid hyperplasia in horses?
antigenic response to environmental irritants
Dorsal/lateral nasopharyngeal collapse is most commonly seen in what horses?
2-3 year old racehorses
How do you diagnose palatal instability in horses?
dynamic endoscopic evaluation
What is the prognosis for palatal instability in horses?
guarded....related to degree of collapse
Which condition in horses produces a gurgling noise on expirationg often referred to as "choking down" or "swallowing the tongue"?
dorsal displacement of the soft palate
What is the gold standard method for diagnosing dorsal displacement of the soft palate in horses?
combination of history, PE and endoscopy both at rest and dynamic
What are some non-surgical treatments for dorsal displacement of the soft palate in horses?
improve physical condition.
topical throat sprays.
dropped or crossed nose bands.
laryngohyoid support device
What are surgical treatments for dorsal displacement of the soft palate in horses?
What is grade I laryngeal function?
symmetric, synchronous abduction and adduction
What is grade II laryngeal function?
some asynchronous movement.
full abduction can be achieved and maintained
What is grade III laryngeal function?
full abduction cannot be achieved and/or maintained
What is grade IV laryngeal function?
no substantial movement during any phase of the respiratory cycle
What are treatment options for recurrent laryngeal neuropathy?
prosthetic laryngoplasty (tie-back).
reinnervation of CAD muscle.
True/False: prosthetic laryngoplasty is the preferred treatment for arytenoid chondropathy in horses
false - not recommended
What are surgical approaches to the guttural pouches?
whitehouse: ventral midline over larynx.
modified whitehouse: lateral aspect of larynx
What are treatments for guttural pouch tympany?
placement of foley catheter into pharyngeal orifice.
fenestration of median septum.
What is the most common fungus associated with guttural pouch mycosis?
What surgical procedure can be done to prevent cribbing?
modified forssell procedure: surgical removal of sternomandibularis, sternothyrohyoideus and omohyoideus muscles; bilateral neurectomy of ventral branches of spinal accessory nerves
What is the goal of surgical intervention in a horse with pleuropneumonia?
assist in medical management by reducing excessive fibrin, drain abscesses and resect necrotic pulmonary tissue