The practices and dominant attitudes in society that devalue and limit the potential of persons with disabilities.
"A physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activity."
Paradigm Shift
Medical Model vs. Social Model
Medical Model
people are disabled by their impairments

role of professionals is to remove the impairment
Social Model
People live with impairments but are disabled by the structure of society
0 physical infrastructure
0 social anxiety

recent critiques
Scope of disabilities
visible, invisible, correctable, unchangeable, congenital, acquired
an impaired condition or function that is noticeable to others
not always immediately apparent to casual observers
impairments that can improve or disappear with devices or equipments

(ex: glasses)
can be improved, but not fully

ex: cerebral palsy
existing at birth or before birth, regardless of causation
an impairment developed post-fetally
Types of disabilities
0 Lack of or amputation of body parts
Invisible Disabilities
Chronic illnesses

makes up a large-segment of the invisible-disabled population


Communication disorders
diabetes, renal failure, Aspberger's syndrome
large segment of the invisible-disabled population
bipolar, clinical depression, schizophrenia
diabetes, metabolic syndromes, hypoglycemia
disease or condition that partially or totally prevent shuman communication
ex. dyslexia, autism, stuttering, blindness, deafness
Internalized ableism
A practice where disabled people internalize the ideas and prejudices of society that see disability as 'other', as something undesirable

can develop self-hatred and cause distancing between people with disabilities from each other
Defensive Othering
occurs when the marginalised person attempts to emulate the hegemonic norm, whiteness or ableism, and assumes the "... legitimacy of a devalued identity imposed by the dominant group, but then saying, in effect, 'There are indeed Others to whom this applies, but it does not apply to me'
Critical Race Theory
indicates a process where people of color internalize and attribute themselves to aspects of racism
An ableist holds
belief that an impairment is inherently negative, and should be alleviated, cured, or eliminated
disability is tolerated, but not celebrated as a part of human diversification
"The Role of Disability Self-Concept in Adaptation to Congenital or Acquired Disability"
Kathleen R. Bogart, Oregon State University
Psychological State of Mind Measures
Disability Self-Concept
Disability Identity
Majority Group Identity
Disability Self-Efficacy
Satisfaction With Life
Congenital conditions are associated with better adaptation.
Greater acceptance
No premorbid identity

Acquired conditions have a loss of identity.
0 Internalized societal stigma: undesirable outgroup
0 May take a long time to adapt to one's disability
0 "Normalizing"
0 "Minority Model" Perspective and Social Identity Theory: Compared with ethnic minorities

Personal Experiences: Nick, born with cerebral palsy vs. Luke's Mom, acquired MS.
Correctable vs. unchangeable conditions
Correctable: Myopia
Unchangeable: Cerebral Palsy
More serious impairments call for adaptive equipment
Prosthetic limb
Disabled Students - process to receive accommodations
504 plan
Guaranteed FAPE
RDSJ 97: "Historical, Theoretical, and Foundational Principles of Universal Instructional Design of Higher Education" by Susan M. Pliner and Julia R. Johnson
Guaranteed equal access for all
The Paralympic Movement
Using Sports to Promote Health, Disability Rights, and Social Integration for Athletes with Disabilities
Paralympic Timeline
Participation and encouragement in sports for individuals with disabilities, was not always the case
1888 founding of Sports Club for Deaf in Berlin
1940's modern Paralympic Movement in Stoke Mandeville, England, Sir Ludwig Guttmann
1960, Stoke Games in Rome
1989 International Paralympic Committee (IPC) formed
2001 agreement between IPC and International Olympic Committee (OPC)
2008 Beijing Paralympic Games
Promoting Disability Rights
Growth of Paralympic Games increases awareness raising
2008 Beijing Games had 3.8 billion viewers
"serves to challenge the norms and create a buzz"
Continued Timeline
Oscar Pistorius of South African
Case of Tatyana McFadden
2008 Beijing Summer games improvement of accessibility
Sports in Mental Health/ QOL
Catalyst toward improved sense of wellness
Evidence beneficial across domains of self-esteem, self-perceived QOL, self-efficacy, body image, empowerment, motivation for continued involved
Sherill et al study: disabilities/ non-disabilities
Athletes with + self-efficacy perform better in competition and daily living
Adnan et al study: self-efficacy association
Cerebral Palsy World Championships study on QOL
Positive association between physical exercise and employment rate
Italian Study on spinal injury and mental health
Microaggressions in everyday life
denial of personal identity
denial of disability experience
denial of privacy
secondary gain
second class citizen
Stigma against people with disabilities
mentally ill
Murder of Robert Robinson (16)
A boy who had severe autism was killed by his mother, who then took her own life

Media covered the story with much sympathy towards mother
"People don't do these things if they are well supported. This family was alone, marginalized and not taken care of by the MCFD." - Inclusion BC
RDSJ 103: "Gawking, Gasping, Staring" by Eli Clare
Overt Resistance
Loja, E., Costa, M. E., Hughes, B., & Menezes, I. (2013). Disability, embodiment and ableism: stories of resistance. Disability & Society, 28, 190-203.
Celebrate differences
Adopt disability as a positive identity
What to do to become socially competent
Use Person-First language
Use "impairment" before "disability"
Ask before you help
Allow the person to explain (if he or she wants to)
Talk directly to person
Be aware of personal space
Speak normally
What to not do to become socially competent
Use of the "R" (Retard) Word
Disabled person
"What's wrong with you?"
Non-disabled gaze (the pity look)
Don't assume or generalize