1310 Final review normal 25
Terms in this set (34)
First purely american bodies of thought. Focused on the individual and communion with nature. religious and philosophical movement that developed during the late 1820s and '30 in the Eastern region of the United States as a protest against the general state of spirituality. Celebration of individualism, nature and westward expansion.
-rowe was apart of this idea
*Wikipedia: transcendentalists' core beliefs was the inherent goodness of both people and nature. They believe that society and its institutions—particularly organized religion and political parties—ultimately corrupt the purity of the individual. They have faith that people are at their best when truly "self-reliant" and independent. It is only from such real individuals that true community could be formed.
Written by Henry David Thoreau is the active, professed refusal to obey certain laws, demands, or commands of a government, or of an occupying international power. Civil disobedience is sometimes, though not always, defined as being nonviolent resistance. The term was used in reference to slavery and the war in Mex
Second Great Awakening
Protestant revival movement in the early 19th century in the United States.Sparked by secularism rationalism religion and drove millions to existing evangelical denominations and led to the formation of new denominations. Celebrated personal self improvement, self reliance, and self-determination. Focused on the a person's ability for self determination in relation to faith and.
was an American poet, essayist and journalist. A humanist, he was a part of the transition between transcendentalism and realism, incorporating both views in his works. Whitman is among the most influential poets in the American canon, often called the father of free verse. His work was very controversial in its time, particularly his poetry collection Leaves of Grass, which was described as obscene for its overt sexuality
Maryland slave who escaped to freedom, after escaping from slavery, he became a leader of the abolitionist movement, gaining note for his dazzling oratory and incisive antislavery writing. He stood as a living counter-example to slaveholders' arguments that slaves lacked the intellectual capacity to function as independent American citizens. Many Northerners also found it hard to believe that such a great orator had been a slave. *wrote slave narrative
A 19th century writer who was against the women's suffrage movement. she believed that women remain in the domestic sphere because it is crucial to the well-being of the american society.
Bargain of 1877
Unwritten deal that settled the 1876 presidential election between republican Rutherford B. Hayes and Democrat Samuel J. Tilden. Hayes could be president if certain criteria was met.
The removal of all U.S. federal troops from the former Confederate States. U.S. troops remained in only Louisiana,South Carolina, and Florida, but the Compromise finalized the process.
The appointment of at least one Southern Democrat to Hayes's cabinet. (David M. Key of Tennessee became Postmaster General.)
The construction of another transcontinental railroad using the Texas and Pacific in the South (this had been part of the "Scott Plan," proposed by Thomas A. Scott, which initiated the process that led to the final compromise).
Legislation to help industrialize the South and get them back on their feet after the loss during the Civil War.
In exchange, Democrats would peacefully accept Hayes's presidency
White abolitionist who believed armed insurrection was the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States. He led a group of fighters during Bleeding Kansas. He also led the failed raid on the federal armory at Harpers Ferry. He was captured and hung for treason. His raid was seen as one of the events leading to the civil war and to the secession of the south.
Lincoln issued a PRELIMINARY proclamation in 1862 freeing slaves under Confederate control. The final Proclamation in 1863, authorized black soldiers to enter the Union Army. *Important to realize that the was not the main reason behind our solution to Civil War. Freeing the slaves in the confederate states was primarily to upheave the confederacy.
It was a major turning point in the war. Before, the south was winning. It was the largest and most significant battle of the war. Lincoln gave a speech there. The south had all but surrendered, but at this point they were defeated.Defeated by Robert Meade General Robert E. Lee marched his army of Virginia into Pennsylvania. Gettysburg address-Abraham Lincoln's carefully crafted address, secondary to other presentations that day, was one of the greatest and most influential statements of national purpose. In just over two minutes, Lincoln reiterated the principles of human equality espoused by the Declaration of Independence and proclaimed the Civil War as a struggle for the preservation of the Union sundered by the secession crisis, with "a new birth of freedom" that would bring true equality to all of its citizens. Lincoln also redefined the Civil War as a struggle not just for the Union, but also for the principle of human equality.
Was adopted on July 9, 1968, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments. The amendment addresses citizenship rights and equal protection of the laws, and was proposed in response to issues related to former slaves following the Civil War. Was harshly protested by southern states, which were forced to ratify it in order to regain their representation in congress.
Was a member of the U.S house of representatives and a member of the Radical Republican faction of the republican party. He led the Congressional reconstruction, and sought full political rights for African Americans. He wanted strict regulation for the Confederate states to get back into the Union.
U.S. federal government agency that aided distressed freed slaves after the Civil War during the reconstruction era. Initiated by Abraham Lincoln and led by General O. O. Howard.
--built schools, provided aid for the poor, settled disputes between whites and blacks, and ensured there was equal treatment in the courts, and helped reunite separated families
In the United States, the Black Codes were laws passed by Southern states in 1865 and 1866, after the Civil War. These laws had the intent and the effect of restricting African Americans' freedom, and of compelling them to work in a labor economy based on low wages or debt. (WIKIPEDIA)
Led the Texas army in battle of San Jacinto. He was a politician from Tennessee, who married a cherokee woman in oklahoma and became an ambassador to U.S. for cherokee. Wants to accommodate to comanche in the west. Pro Union over the defense of slavery. Ran away from Alamo because he knew he would lose and was waiting for the opportune moment- runaway scrape.
Agenda: 1) rapid annexation into U.S.
2) accommodation and peace with Mexico
3) accommodation with Native american groups
Seneca Falls Convention
(1848) The first organized meeting to garner support for women's rights. The movement evolved into something that questioned social and cultural norms at the time. The convention resulted in the signing of the Declaration of Sentiments, a key element in the women's suffrage movement. (women get to vote, fueled by the spirit of the reform)
Green Flag Rebellion
1812-13, Skirmish between Mexican Rebels And Anglo Americans in Texas. Hidalgo inspires rebellion and tried to purify the race inequality in Mexico. Santa Anna was trying to squash the Anglo rebellion by taking S.A. and showing rebels they can't just take mexican lands. Arredondo squashes rebellion and kills large portion of Texas civilians. When the Mexicans tried to squash the spirit of rebellion, they actually inspired rebels to take action and began inspired the Texas Revolution.
Founded in Indiana by British Industrialist Robert Owen, it did not last long, but it was one of the few 19th century communal experiments NOT based on religious ideology. Goal was to create a perfect society with free education and freedom from social economic borders. People equally worked, no private property, form of socialism. Fails.
Turning point of civil war in the union's favor. Ulysses S. Grant (union) drove the confederate army led by John C. Pemberton to Vicksburg, The souths last stronghold on the Mississippi.Where the Union army triumphed. The surrender by the south led to Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas being cut off from the union for the remainder of the war.
Was a series of violent political confrontations in the United States involving anti-slavery and pro slavery opponents. It was a direct result of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 which called for the people to decide whether their states would become slave or free states. Most of the fighting was done in Kansas, which was the state most debated over in the argument, because many thought it would become a slave state.
Sociology of the South
Written by George Fitzhugh (1854); writings on the benefits of a slave society, and the disadvantages of a "free society" He argued that Slavery protected the disadvantaged, and promoted community and morality.
Uncle Toms Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, a white female abolitionist, and published in 1852. The novel outlines the hardships faced by slaves in the South at the time. It is credited with helping to fuel the anti-slavery cause and the American Civil War.
Failed proposition by David Wilmot, Saying that no territory annexed from the Mexican war can become a slave state then or in the future. Was a major contributing event to the American Civil War. Congressman that proposed that slavery be banned in all territory acquired from mexican war. This proposition failed and showed that this was the beginning the party system failing. Democrat party is still around but it is the beginning of the end for the whig party.
-North whigs and North democrats supported proviso (anti slavery)
-Southern Whigs and Southern Democrats opposed of proviso
The principle that the authority of the government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power.
Government had no power to regulate slavery in the federal territories acquired after the creation of the Unit Decision ruled in 1857; court ruled that african americans had "no rights which the white man was bound to speak of.
Dred Scott Decision-showed that the supreme court was divided, majority was pro slavery. Scott believed that the fugitive slave law didn't apply to him, he went to the north before the act.
-In the Dred Scott decision of 1857, the court ruled that African-Americans had "no rights which the white man was bound to respect."
WIKIPEDIA** Dred Scott v. Sandford, (1857), was a landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in which the Court held that African Americans, whether enslaved or free, could not be American citizens and therefore had no standing to sue in federal court, and that the federal governed States.
New York Draft riots
Violent disturbances as a result of the law passed by congress to draft men to fight in the ongoing Civil War. Rioters were primarily working class and Irish immigrants who were angry with wealthy white men who could pay $300 to get out of the draft. Initially intended to express anger for the draft, the protest soon turned into race riots.With white mobs attacking any blacks they saw and ransacking public offices. Abraham Lincoln diverted forces from Gettysburg to stop the riots.
Stephen Austin is an example. Empresario was a person who had been granted the right to settle on land in exchange for recruiting and taking responsibility for new settlers. The word is Spanish for entrepreneur. Required immigrants to practice Catholicism and stressed that foreigners needed to learn Spanish. Settlers were supposed to own property or have a craft or useful profession, and all people wishing to live in Texas were expected to report to the nearest Mexican authority for permission to settle. The rules were widely disregarded and many families became squatters.
Treaty of Guadalupe
Treaty signed in 1848 between United states and Mexico that ended the Mexican-American War.
5 terms of agreement:
Rio Grande is Texas Border
California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Nevada are given to the U.S for 15 million
All Mexican citizens in the Newly formed boundaries of America are citizens of the United States
Property rights and land titles of prior residents still stand as valid
U.S. agreed to keep indians from raiding Mexico (Comanche and Apache)
Led by Andrew Johnson after Lincoln's assassination. Johnson wanted to bring the confederacy back into the Union as soon as possible. Johnson stated that slaves were free but said nothing more on the subject which led to the black codes and suppression of freed slaves.
A former slave, community leader , minister , and republican Texas State Senator.He made valuable contributions towards the establishment of free public education in Texas. he helped establish the state police force in Texas to combat lawlessness and voter intimidation. He worked for education reform, prison reform, the protection of black voters, and tenant farming reformation.
Was an American lawyer, Soldier and politician. He was a southern unionist and a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He was also the 14th Governor of Texas. Committed to the Civil Rights of slaves and was against the secession of the south alongside Sam Houston. Davis created the State guard of Texas and the Reserve Militia which would eventually turn into the Texas National Guard.
Santa Fe Expedition
President Lamar sent volunteers on the Santa Fe Trail, against approval of the Congress of the Republic, to bring Texas into the trade route of this trail. He also wanted to attempt to establish Texan Jurisdiction over the Santa Fe area. Volunteers were promised transportation and protection of their goods. They were met with hostility, and the expedition ultimately ended in failure.
Organized anti-slavery causes in the 19th century and ended up kickstarting the women's rights movement.
George Gordon Meade was a career United States Army officer and civil engineer involved in the coastal construction of several lighthouses. He fought with distinction in the Second Seminole War and the Mexican-American War. (Wikipedia)