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Social Science
Psychology
Experimental Psychology
Combo with "Exam 4 Vocabulary" and 3 others
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Terms in this set (236)
ABA Design
a single-case experimental design in which baseline data are obtained (A), the independent variable is introduced and behavior is measured again (B), then the independent variable is withdrawn and behavior is observed for a third time (A)
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
an inferential statistical procedure used to test differences between means
case study
an intensive descriptive study of a particular individual, group or event
comparative times series design
a quasi-experimental design that examines two or more variables over time to understand how changes in one variable are related to changes in another variable
contemporary history
a threat to the internal validity of a quasi-experiment that develops when another event occurs at the same time as the quasi independent variable
critical multiplism
the philosophy that researchers should use many ways of obtaining evidence regarding a particular hypothesis rather than relying on a single approach
cross sectional design
a research design in which a group of respondents is studied once
cross sequential cohort design
a quasi experimental design in which two or more age cohorts are measured at two or more times; in essence, it is a longitudinal design with multiple age groups that allows researchers to separate the effects of age and cohort
F-test
an inferential statistical procedure used to test for differences among condition means; used in ANOVA
generational effects
differences among people of various ages that are due to the different conditions under which each generation has grown up rather than age differences
group design
an experimental design in which several participants serve in each condition of the design, and the data are analyzed by examining the average responses of participants in these conditions
idiographic approach
research that describes, analyzes and attempts to understand the behavior of individual participants; often contrasted with the nomothetic approach
interparticipant replication
in single-case experimental research, documenting the generalizability of an experimental effect by demonstrating the effect on different participants
interparticipant variance
variability among the responses of the participants in a particular experimental condition
interrupted time seres design with reversal
a study in which (1) the dependent variable is measured several times; (2) the independent variable is introduced; (3) the dependent variable is measured several more times; (4) the independent variable is withdrawn; (5) the dependent variable is again measured several times
interrupted time series design with multiple replications
a study in which (1) the dependent variable is measured several times; (2) the independent variable is introduced; (3) the dependent variable is measured several more times; (4) the independent variable is withdrawn; (5) the dependent variable is again measured several times; (6) the independent variable is introduced a second time; (7) more measures of the dependent variable are taken; (8) the independent variable is removed again; (9) the dependent variable is measured after the independent variable has been removed for a second time
intraparticipant replication
in single case experimental research, the attempt to repeatedly demonstrate an experimental effect on a single participant by alternatively introducing and withdrawing the independent variable
intraparticipant variance
variability among the responses of a participant when test more than once in a particular experimental condition
local history effect
a threat to internal validity in which an extraneous event happens to one experimental group that does not happen to the other groups
longitudinal design
a study in which a single group of participants is studied over time
mean square between-groups
an estimate of between-group variance calculated by dividing the sum of squares between groups by the between-groups degrees of freedom
mean square within-groups
the average variance within experimental conditions; the sum of squares within-groups divided by the degrees of freedom within-groups
multiple baseline design
a single-case experimental design in which two or more behaviors are studied simultaneously
multiple-I design
a single-case experimental in which levels of an independent variable are introduced one at a time
multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA)
a statistical procedure that simultaneously tests differences among the means of two or more groups on two or more dependent variables
nomothetic approach
research that seeks to establish general principles and broad generalizations
nonequivalent control group design
a quasi-experimental design in which the group of participants that receives the quasi-independent variable is compared to one or more groups of participants who do not receive the treatment
nonequivalent groups posttest only design
a quasi-experimental design in which two preexisting groups are tested-one that has received the quasi-independent variable and one that has not
nonequivalent groups pretest-posttest design
a quasi-experimental design in which two preexisting groups are tested-one that has received the quasi-independent variable and one that has not; each group is tested twice- once before and once after one group receives the quasi-independent variable
one-group pretest-posttest design
a pre experimental design in which one group of participants is tested before and after a quasi-independent variable has occurred; because it fails to control for nearly all threats to internal validity, this design should never be used
post-hoc test
inferential statistics that are used after a significant F-test to determine which means differ
pre-experimental design
a design that lacks the necessary controls to minimize threats to internal validity; typically do not involve adequate control or comparison groups
program evaluation
the use of behavioral research methods to assess the effects of programs on behavior
quasi-experimental design
a research design in which the researcher cannot assign participants to conditions and/or manipulate the independent variable; instead, comparisons are made between groups that already exist or within a single group before and after a treatment has occurred
quasi-independent variable
the independent variable in a quasi-experimental design; the variable is not manipulated by the researcher
regression to the mean
the tendency for participants who are selected on the basis of their extreme scores on some measure to obtain less extreme scores when they are retested
selection bias
a threat to internal validity that arises when the experimental groups were not equivalent before the manipulation of the independent or quasi-independent variable
simple interrupted time series design
a quasi-experimental design in which participants are tested on many occasions- several before and several after the occurrence of the quasi-independent variable
simple main effect
the effect of one independent variable at a particular level of another independent variable
single-case experimental design
an experimental design in which the unit of analysis is the individual participant rather than the experiment group
sum of squares between groups
the variance in a set of scores that is associated with the independent variable; the sum of the squared differences between each condition mean and the grand mean
sum of squares within groups
the sum of the variances of the scores within particular experimental conditions
time series design
a class of quasi-experimental designs in which participants are tested on many occasions- several before and several after the occurrence of the quasi-independent variable
within-subjects design
an experimental design in which each participant serves in more than one condition of the experiment
between-subjects design
an experimental design ion which each participant serves in only one condition of the experiment
attrition
the loss of participants during a study
differential attrition
the loss of participants during a study in a manner such that the loss is not randomly distributed across conditions
experiment
research in which the researcher assigns participants to conditions and manipulates at least one independent variable
level
one value of an independent variable
between-groups variance
the portion of the total variance in a set of scores that reflects systematic differences between the experimental groups
within-groups variance
the variability among scores within a particular experimental condition
independent variable
in an experiment, the variable that is varied or manipulated by the researcher to assess its effects on participants' behavior
dependent variable
the response measured in a study, typically a measure of participants' thoughts, feelings, behavior or physiological reactions
systematic variance
the portion of total variance in a set of scores that is related in an orderly, predictable fashion to the variables the researcher is investigating
treatment variance
the portion of the total variance in a set of scores that is due to the independent variable
error variance
that portion of the total variance in a set of data that remains unaccounted for after systematic variance is removed; variance that is unrelated to the variables in investigation in a study
confound variance
the portion of the total variance in a set of scores that is due to extraneous variables that differ systematically between the experimental groups
power
the degree to which a research design is sensitive to the effects of the independent variable; powerful designs are able to detect effects of the independent variable more easily than less powerful designs
order effects
effects that may occur in a within-subject experiment when participants' responses are affected by the order in which they receive various levels of the independent variable
carryover effects
effects that may occur in a within-subjects experiment when the effect of a particular level of the independent variable persists even after the treatment ends
counterbalancing
a procedure used in within-subjects designs in which different participants receive the levels of the independent variables in different orders; used to avoid systematic order effects
double-blind procedure
the practice of concealing the purpose and hypothesis of a study both from the participants and from the researchers who have direct contact with the participants
manipulation check
a measure designed to determine whether participants in an experiment perceived different levels of the independent variable differently
internal validity
the degree to which a researcher draws accurate conclusions about the effects of an independent variable
experimenter expectancy effect
a situation in which a researcher's expectations about the outcome of a study influence participants' reactions
placebo effect
a physiological or psychological change that occurs as a result of the mere suggestion that the change will occur
demand characteristics
aspects of a study that indicate to participants how they are expected to respond
randomized groups design
an experimental design in which each participant serves in only one condition of the experiment; also called between-groups or between-subjects design
repeated measures design
an experimental design in which each participant serves in more than one condition of the experiment; a within subjects design
one way design
an experimental design with a single independent variable
factorial design
an experimental design in which two or more independent variables are manipulated
main effect
the effect of a particular independent variable, ignoring the effects of other independent variables in the experiment
interaction
the combined effect of two or more independent variables such that the effect of one independent variable differs across the levels of the other independent variable(s)
participant variable
a personal characteristic of research participants, such as age, gender, self-esteem, or extraversion
matched subjects factorial design
an experimental design involving two or more independent variables in which participants are first matched into homogenous blocks and then, within each block, are randomly assigned to the experimental conditions
randomized groups factorial design
an experimental design involving two or more independent variables in which each participant serves in only one condition of the experiment
median split procedure
assigning participants to two groups dependent on whether their scores on a particular variable fall above or below the median of that variable
inferential statistics
mathematical analyses that allow researchers to draw conclusions regarding the reliability and generalizability of their data; for example t-tests and f-tests
null hypothesis
the hypothesis that the independent variable will not have an effect; equivalently, the hypothesis that the means of the various experimental conditions will not differ
experimental hypothesis
the hypothesis that the independent variable will have an effect ton the dependent variable; equivalently, the hypothesis that the means of the various experimental conditions will differ from one another
alpha level
the maximum probability that a researcher is willing to make a Type 1 error; typically 0.05
beta
the probability of committing a Type 2 error
effect size
the strength of the relationship between two or more variables, usually expressed as the proportion of variance in one variable that can be accounted for by another variable
type 1 error
erroneously rejecting the null hypothesis when it is true; concluding that the independent variable had an effect when it did not
type 2 error
erroneously failing to reject the null when it is false; concluding that the independent variable did not have an effect when it did
external validity
the degree to which the results obtained in one study can be replicated or generalized to other samples, research settings and procedures
t-test
an inferential statistic that tests the difference between two means
paired t-test
a t-test performed on a repeated measures two-group design
statistical significance
a finding that is very unlikely to be due to error variance
random assignment
placing participants in condition sin such a way that every participant has an equal probability of being placed in any experimental condition
descriptive research
research designed to describe in an accurate and systematic fashion the behavior, thoughts, or feelings of group of participants
successive independent samples survey design
a survey design in which different samples of participants are studied at different points in time
demographic research
descriptive research that studies basic life events in a population, such as patterns of births, marriages, deaths and migrations
epidemiological research
research that studies the occurrences of disease in different groups of people
sample
a subset of a population; the group of participants who are selected to participate in a research study
frequency
the number of participants who obtained a particular score
frequency distribution
a table that shows the number of participants who obtained each possible score on a measure
simple frequency distribution
a table that indicates the number of participants who obtained each score
relative frequency
the proportion of participants who obtained a particular score or fell in particular class interval
measures of central tendency
descriptive statistics that convey information about the average or typical score in distribution; the mean, median and mode
median
the score that falls at the 50th percentile
mode
the most frequent score in a distribution
measures of variability
descriptive statistics that convey information about the spread or variability of a set of data; range, variance, standard deviation
range
a measure of variability that is equal to the difference between the largest and smallest scores in a set of data
standard deviation
a measure of variability that is equal to the square root of the variance
variance
a numerical index of the variability in a set of data
z-score
a statistic that expresses how much a particular participant's score varies from the mean in terms of standard deviations
normal distribution
a distribution of scores that rises to a rounded peak in the enter with symmetrical tails descending to the left and right of the center
positively skewed distribution
a distribution in which there are more low scores than high scores
negatively skewed distribution
a distribution in which there are more high scores than low scores
histogram
a form of bar graph in which the variable on the x-axis is on a continuous scale
bar graph
a graph of data on which the variable on the x-axis is measured on a nominal or ordinal scale of measurement
the x-variable is not continuous
correlational research
research designed to examine the nature of the relationship between two measured variables
correlation coefficient
an index of the direction and magnitude of the relationship between two variables
coefficient of determination
indicates the proportion of variance in one variable that can be accounted or by the other variable
the square of the correlation coefficient
restricted range
a set of data in which participants' scores are confined to a narrow range of the possible scores
outliers
an extreme score; typically scores that fall farther than 3 standard deviations from the mean
pearson correlation coefficient
the most commonly used measure of correlation
designated by the letter r
positive correlation
a direct relationship between two variables such that participants with high scores on one variable tend also to have high scores on the other variable, whereas low scorers on one variable tend also to score low on the other
negative correlation
an inverse relationship between two variables such that participants with high scores on one variable tend to have low scores on the other variable and vice versa
partial correlation
the correlation between two variables with the influence of one or more other variables removed
scatter plot
a graphical representation of participants' score on two variables
the values of one variable are plotted on the x-axis and those of the other variable are plotted on the y-axis
nominal scale
a measure on which the numbers assigned to participants' characteristics are merely labels;
ex: sex
ordinal scale
a measure on which the numbers assigned to participants' responses reflect the rank order of participants from highest to lowest
interval scale
a measure on which equal distances between scores represent equal differences in the property being measured
ratio scale
a measure on which scores possess all of the characteristics of real numbers, including a true zero point
reliability
the consistency or dependability of measuring technique
inversely related to measurement error
true score
the hypothetical score that a participant would obtain if the attribute being measured could be measured without error
measurement error
the deviation of a participants' observed score from his or her true score
test-retest reliability
the consistency of respondents' scores on a measure across time
interitem reliability
the consistency of respondents' responses on a set of conceptually related items
the degree to which a set of items that ostensibly measure the same construct are intercorrelated
item-total correlation
the correlation between respondents' scores on one item on a scale and the sum of their responses on the remaining items
an index of interim reliability
split-half reliability
the correlation between respondents' scores on two halves of a single instrument
Cronbach's Alpha coefficient
equivalent to the average of all possible split-half reliabilities
validity
the extent to which a measurement procedure actually measures what it is intended to measure
face validity
the extent to which a measurement procedure appears to measure what it is supposed to measure
construct validity
the degree to which a measure of a particular construct correlates as expected with measures of other constructs
criterion-related validity
the extent to which a measure allows a researcher to distinguish among respondents on the basis of some behavioral criterion
concurrent validity
a form of criterion-related validity that reflects the extent to which a measure allows a researcher to distinguish between respondents at the time the measure is taken
predictive validity
a form of criterion-related validity that reflects the extent to which a measure allows a researcher to distinguish between respondents at some time in the future
observational method
a method of measuring behavior by directly observing participants
naturalistic observation
observation of ongoing behavior as it occurs naturally with no intrusion or intervention by the researcher
contrived observation
the observation of behavior in settings that have been arranged specifically for observing and recording behavior
disguised observation
observing participants' behavior without their knowledge
undisguised observation
observing participants with their knowledge of being observed
reactivity
the phenomenon that occurs when a participant's knowledge that he or she is being studied affects his or her responses
archival research
research in which data are analyzed from existing records, such as census reports, cont records or personal letters
content analysis
procedures used to convert written or spoken information into data that can be analyzed and interpreted
survey research
type of research design that tries to describe people's thoughts, feelings, or behaviors with the use of questionnaires and interviews
interview
a method of data collection in which respondents respond verbally to a researcher's question
questionnaire
a method of data collection in which respondents provide written answers to written questions
fixed-alternative response format
a response format in which participants answer a questionnaire or interview item by choosing one response from a set of possible alternatives
free-response format
a response format in which the participant provides an unstructured answer to a question
multiple choice response format
a response format in which participants answer a questionnaire or interview item by choosing one response from a set of possible alternatives
rating scale response format
a response format on which participants rate the intensity or frequency of their behaviors, thoughts or feelings
double barreled questions
asks more than one question but provides the respondent with the opportunity for only one response
social desirability response bias
the tendency for people to distort their responses in a manner that portrays them in a positive light
multi-item scale
a set of questionnaire or interview items that are intended to be used and analyzed as a set
single-item measure
a questionnaire or interview item that is intended to be analyzed and used by itself
perfect correlation
a correlation of -1.00 or +1.00 indicating that two variables are so closely related that one can be perfectly predicted from the other
phi coefficient
a statistic that expresses the correlation between two dichotomous variables
point biserial correlation
the correlation between a dichotomous and a continuous variable
spearman rank-order correlation
a correlation coefficient calculated on variables that are measured on an ordinal scale
class interval
a subset of a range of scores
confidence interval
the range of scores around a sample mean in which the means of other samples from the same population are likely to fall with a certain probability
frequency polygon
a form of a line graph
graphical method
presenting and summarizing data in pictorial form
grouped frequency distribution
a table that indicates the number of participants who obtained each of a range of scores
numerical method
presenting and summarizing data in numerical form
panel survey design
a study in which a single group of participants is studied over time
raw data
the original data collected on a sample of participants before they are summarized or analyzed
acquiescence
the tendency for some people to agree with statements regardless of their content
checklist
a measuring instrument on which a rater indicates whether particular behaviors have been observed
duration
a measure of the amount of time that a particular reaction lasts from its onset to conclusion
field notes
a researcher's narrative record of a participant's behavior
fMRI
a brain imaging technology that allows researchers to view the structure and a activity of the brain
inter-behavior latency
the time that elapses between the occurrence of two behaviors
interview schedule
the series of questions and accompanying response formats that guides an interview's line of questioning during an interview
knowledgeable informant
someone who knows a participants well enough to report on his or her behavior
latency
the amount of time that elapses between a particular event and a behavior
narrative record
a full description of a participant's behavior as it occurs
nay-saying
the tendency for some participants to disagree with statements on questionnaires or interviews regardless of the content
neuroimaging
techniques that allow researchers to see images of the structure and activity of the brain
neuroscientific measure
a measure that assesses processes occurring in the brain or other part of the nervous system
psychophysiological measure
a measure that assesses processes occurring in the brain or other part of the nervous system
participant observation
a method of data collection in which researchers engage in the same activities as the participants they are observing
convergent validity
documenting the validity of a measure by showing that it correlates appropriately with measures of related constructs
converging operations
using several measurement approaches to measure a particular variable
discriminant validity
documenting the validity of a measure by showing that it does not correlate with measure of conceptually unrelated constructs
hypothetical construct
an entity that cannot be directly observed but that is inferred on the basis of observable evidence
ex) intelligence, status, and anxiety
inter-rater reliability
the degree to which the observations of two independent raters or observers agree
psychometrics
the field devoted to the study of psychological measurements
scales of measurement
properties of a measure that reflect the degree to which scores obtained on that measure reflect the characteristics of real numbers
self-report measure
a measure on which participants provide information about themselves
test bias
the characteristic of a test that is not equally valid for different groups of people
basic research
research designed to understand psychological processes without regard for whether that understanding will be immediately applicable in solving real world problems
applied research
research designed to investigate real-world problems or to improve the quality of life
evaluation research
the use of behavioral research methods to assess the effects of programs on behavior
systematic empiricism
the practice of relying on an observation to draw conclusions about the world
public verification
the practice of conducting research in such a way that it can be observed, verified, and replicated by others
replication
repetition of a research study, generally with different situations and subjects, to determine if the basic findings of the original study can be generalized to other participants and circumstances
pseudoscience
claims of knowledge that are couched in the trappings of science but that violate the central criteria of scientific investigation, such as systematic empiricism, public verification and testability
theory
set of propositions that attempts to explain the relationships among a set of concepts
post hoc explanation
an explanation offered for a set of findings after the data are collected and analyzed
a priori prediction
a prediction made about the outcome of a study before data are collected
hindsight bias
tendency people have to view events as more predictable than they really are
hypothesis
a proposition that follows logically from a theory; also a prediction regarding the outcome of a study
induction
abstracting hypothesis from a collection of facts
deduction
the process of reasoning from a general proposition to a specific implication of that proposition
falsification
the requirement that a hypothesis must be capable of being falsified
correlation research
research designed to examine the nature of the relationship between two measured variables
experimental research
research designed to test whether certain variables cause changes in behavior, thoughts or feelings
quasi-experimental research
research in which the researcher cannot assign participants to conditions or manipulate the independent variable
meta analysis
a statistical procedure used to analyze and integrate the results of many individual studies on a single topic
operational definition
defining a construct by specifying precisely how it is measure or manipulated in a particular study
conceptual definition
an abstract, dictionary-type defintion
variability
the degree to which scores in a set of data differ or vary from one another
mean
the mathematical average of a set o scores
descriptive statistics
numbers that summarize and describe the behavior of participants in the study
statistical notation
a system of symbols that represents particular mathematical operations, variables and statistics
abstract
a summary of a journal article or research report
should describe:
-problem under investigation
-participants used in the study
-research procedures
-the findings
-the conclusions or implications of the study
APA style
guidelines set forth by the American Psychological Association for preparing research reports
peer review
the process by which experts evaluate research papers to judge their suitability for publication or presentation
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
a committee mandated by federal regulations that must evaluate the ethics of research conducted at institutions that receive federal funding
coercion
the situation that arises when people agree to participate in a research study because of real or implied pressure from some individual who has authority or influence over them
confidentiality
maintaining the privacy of participants' responses in a study
deception
misleading or lying to participants for research purposes
deontology
an ethical approach painting that right and wrong should be judged according to a universal moral code
ethical skepticism
an ethical approach that denies the existence of concrete and inviolate moral codes
debriefing
the procedure through which research participants are told about the nature of study after it is completed
informed consent
the practice of informing participants regarding the nature of their participation in a study an obtaining their explicit consent to participate
cost-benefit analysis
a method of making decisions in which the potential costs and risks of a study are weighed against its likely benefits
minimal risk
risk to research participants that is no greater than they would be likely to encounter in daily life or during routine physical or psychological examinations
scientific misconduct
unethical behaviors involving the conduct of scientific research, such as dishonesty, fabrication, and plagiarism
vulnerable population
children, people with mental illnesses, prisoners and pregnant women
proportion of variance
the more variable is systematic, the strong the relationships between the independent variable and the dependent variable
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Verified questions
QUESTION
Which of the following represents perceptual constancy? a. We recognize the taste of McDonald's food each time we eat it. b. In photos of people, the people almost always are perceived as figure and everything else as ground. c. We know that the color of a printed page has not changed as it moves from sunlight into shadow. d. From the time they are very young, most people can recognize the smell of a dentist's office. e. The cold water in a lake doesn't seem so cold after you have been swimming in it for a few minutes.
QUESTION
Seligman's positive psychology seeks to a. enable people to be happy all the time. b. treat stress with medication. c. enable people to flourish. d. examine the biological systems affected by stressful events. e. reduce daily hassles in people's lives.
QUESTION
The purpose of Alfred Binet's early intelligence test was to a. predict how children would do in school. b. identify differences among ethnic and racial groups. c. help French gradates find the occupation in which they were most likely to succeed. d. establish the scientific definition of intelligence. e. facilitate "genetic breeding" experiments.
QUESTION
Which neurotransmitter is affected by antispychotic medications? a. Epinephrine. b. Dopamine. c. Norepinephrine. d. Acetylcholine. e. Serotonin.