82 terms

SCI 1360 CH 1-6 Study Guide

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Sagittal plane
Divides the body in right and left portions
Horizontal plane
Or transverse- dividing the body into superior and inferior portions.
Frontal plane
Or coronal- divides the anterior (or ventral) and posterior (or dorsal) portions
Superior/inferior
Uppermost or above
Lower most or below
Proximal/distal
Nearest the point of attachment or origin
Away from the point of attachment or origin
Medial /lateral
Nearest the midline of the body
Toward the side or away from the midline of the body
Anatomy of cell diagram
Be able to identify
Protoplasm
The liquid part of a cell and cells are composed
Nucleus
Is the control central of the cell
Ribosome
site of protein synthesis. Are tiny granules distributed throughout the cytoplasm and are attached to the rough or granular ER
Mitochondria
Power house of the cell. Creates ATP
Plant cell wall
Match with cellulose
Cilia and flagella
cellular organelles on the surface protrude from the cell and beat or vibrate to create movement
Skin weighs how much
6 pounds (nearly twice the weight of the brain of the liver.)
Most dangerous type of skin cancer
Malignant melanoma- a rare and associated with a mole on the skin.
Connective tissue
Allows movement and support. (Blood, fat, or bone)
Muscle tissue
Generates movement. Three types skeletal or voluntary, smooth of involuntary, and cardiac.
Nervous tissue
Composed of nerve cells forming a coordinating system connecting the numerous sensory (touch,sight)
Epithelial tissue
Covers surfaces and protects, forms glands, and lines cavities of the body. Made up of one or more layers of cells.
Connective tissue
Allows movement and support. (Blood, fat, or bone)
ATP
Chemical fuel that allows the body to do work (in mitochondria)
Metabolism
Total chemical changes that occur inside a cell
Anaerobic
Without oxygen
Marrow
Blood forming tissue-stores mineral salts (calcium and phosphorous)
neuron
Basic organization of nerve cells transports impulses (conducting cell)
Catalyst
Substance that increases the rate of chemical reaction without being affected by that reaction
Calcium
Needed for strong bones and muscle contractions
glycolisis
aerobic breakdown of glucose-First step in biochemical respiration process
Amino acids
Building blocks of protein
Photosynthesis
Conversion of light energy into chemical energy
chloroplast
Organelles only found in plant cells where photosynthesis occurs ; contains the pigment chlorophyll
Mutation
Mistake in copying of genetic material
Oogenesis
Formation of female sex cells
Spermatogenesis
Production of sperm
DNA
Hereditary material of the cell
Epithelial cells
3 types ; squamous , cuboidal , columnar
Exocrine gland
Glands that have ducts that lead the secreted material away from the gland to the surface of a passage way or the skin
Endocardium
Innermost layer of the heart wall , endothelium that lines the heart
Adipose tissue
A fatty tissue that acts as firm protective packing around and between organs
epidermis
Top layer of skin
1st degree burn
burn that involves only epidermis causes redness pain and slight swelling
2nd degree burn
Blistered , moist , pink / red
3rd degree burn
Charring, skin is black / brown / red. a burn that completely destroys the epidermis and the dermis and may require skin graft.
Dermis
Second layer of skin. Also called curium
Hypodermis
Subcutaneous tissue
Dermatologist
Specializes in treating conditions that affect skin, hair, and nails
allergist
Specializes concerned with inflammatory in the skin and reaction in the immune system.
Anatomy
Study of the structure, organization of the body
Physiology
Study of the functions of the body
Pathology
Study of diseases
Periodic table
Table of elements which are arranged by their atomic number
Atomic number
Number of protons or the number of electrons
Callus
Thickened area of the skin
Bacteria
Prokaryotic cells; feeds on sweat
Homeostasis
Maintaining the bodies internal environment
Water
Most abundance substance in a living cell. 60-80%
Osmosis
Kind of diffusion pertaining to only water molecules from an area of high concentration to low
Diffusion
Movement of molecules through a medium of high concentration to low
Cilia
Cellular organelles located on the cell surface
Cyanosis
Bluish discoloration of the skin due to lack of oxygen
Athletes foot
Fungal infection, ringworm of the foot
Herpes simplex
fever blisters caused by herpes type1
Hypotonic
solution in which the salt concentration inside the cell is higher than outside the cell.
Hypertonic
Water molecules move out of the cell and the cell will shrink
Mucous membrane
Lines digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts.
Integumentary System
Organs: skin and accessories, nails, hair, sweat glands, and sebaceous glands
Functions: protection, regulation of water and temperature
Skeletal System
Organs: bones, cartilage, tendons and ligaments
Functions: 1. supports and stabilizes surrounding tissue 2. Protects vital organs 3. Assists in body movement 4. Manufactures blood cells 5. Storage area of blood cells
Articular System
Organs: joints. Functions: holds the bone of the joints together
Muscular System
Organs: muscles, facials, tendon sheaths, and bursal. Functions: movement, pushing food and blood, contracting heart.
Nervous System
Organs: brain, spinal cord, cranial, and peripheral nerves, and sensory and motor structures. Functions: controls and regulates, interpreting stimuli.
Endocrine System
Ductless glands , master glands controls thyroid, adrenal glands, ovaries, and testes. Produce hormones that chemically regulates body's functions. Works with nervous system.
Cardiovascular System
Heart, arteries , veins, capillaries. Pump and distribute blood which carries oxygen, nutrients, and waste to/from cells.
lymphatic system
(AKA Immune system) Lymph nodes, thymus gland , spleen , lymph vessels. Drain tissue spaces of excess interstitial fluids and absorbs fat from intestines to blood. Protects body from disease by developing immunities.
digestive system
Alimentary canal, mouth, esophagus, stomach , Small and large intestines , rectum. ( associated salivary, ulcer, pancreas ) contents food into simpler substances that can be absorbed by the cells and eliminates waste.
respiratory system
Nasal cavities , pharynx , larynx , trachea, bronchi , and lungs. Brings oxygen and eliminates CO2 from the blood
urinary system
Made up of 2 kidneys ,2 ureters ,bladder, ureatha . Function chemical regulation of the blood formation and elimination of urine . Maintance of homeostasis.
reproductive system
system responsible for maintaining sexual characteristics and the perpetuation of our species.
Cell
basic unit of biological organization of the human body
Basement membrane
epithelial cells are anchored to each other and to underline tissues by this
carcinogen
a cancer casing agent
endocrine
a ductless gland that secretes hormones
peritoneum
a serous membrane that lines the entire abdominal cavity
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