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APUSH Period 6: 1865-1898
Terms in this set (46)
Credit Mobilier Scandal
Credit Mobilier Scandal Union Pacific Railroad insiders formed the Credit Mobilier construction company and then hired themselves at inflated prices to build the railroad line, earning high dividends. When it was found out that government officials were paid stay quiet about the illicit business, some officials were censured.
Liberal Republican Party
1872 - in response to the political corruption in Washington and their dissatisfaction with military Reconstruction. Horace Greeley as presidential candidate for the election of 1872. The Liberal Republicans caused the Republican Congress to pass a general amnesty act in 1872, removing political restrictions from most of the former Confederate leaders. Congress also reduced high Civil War tariffs and gave mild civil-service reform to the Grant administration.
panic of 1873
Banks gave too many imprudent loans to support over-expansion. When profits failed to materialize, people were unable to pay back their loans. Mistrust of the government lead to high inflation of the greenback.
Resumption Act of 1875
required the government to continue to withdraw greenbacks from circulation and to redeem all paper currency in gold at face value beginning in 1879. The policy of the Treasury accumulating gold stock to replace the greenbacks was known as "contraction." This policy increased the value of the greenback due to its reduction in circulation. The Republican hard-money policy had negative political ramifications and it helped to elect a Democratic House of Representatives in 1874.
The time of economic growth, the second industrial revolution, urbanization, immigration, and political/economic corruption. it included the era of forgotten presidents (hayes, garfield, arthur, and harrison) Congress and Business were more important and influential than the presidency during this time. it was the most highly competetive political time in US history.
Compromise of 1877
In exchange for votes for the Republican presidential candidate, Republicans agreed to end military occupation of the South. Ended Reconstruction.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
supposed to guarantee equal accommodations in public places and prohibited racial discrimination in jury selection. The Supreme Court ultimately ruled most of the Act unconstitutional, stating that the 14th Amendment only prohibited government violations of civil rights, not the denial of civil rights by individuals.
Plessy vs. Ferguson (1896)
declared that "separate but equal" facilities for blacks were legal under the 14th Amendment
Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
Stopped Chinese immigration to America to appease the people on the West Coast that attributed declining wages and economic troubles to the hated Chinese workers
Pendleton Act of 1883
made mandatory campaign contributions from federal employees illegal, and it established the Civil Service Commission to make appointments to federal jobs on the basis of merit. The civil-service reform forced politicians to gain support and funds from big-business leaders.
McKinley Tariff Act of 1890
significantly raised tariffs and financially hurt farmers. Farmers were forced to buy expensive products from American manufacturers while selling their own products into the highly competitive world markets.
The McKinley Tariff Act caused the Republican Party to lose public support and lose their majority in Congress in the congressional elections of 1890.
Populists' Party made up of farmers, greenbacks, laborers, grangers
Omaha Platform 1892 =
- government ownership of rails and telephone
- unlimited coinage of silver
- graduated income tax on wealth
- sub-treasury to store farm goods with loans given to keep farmers in business
- 8 hr. workday
- restriction on immigration
- initiative, referendum, secret ballot, direct election of senators
It was one of the most violent strikes in U.S. history. It was against the Homestead Steel Works, which was part of the Carnegie Steel Company, in Pennsylvania in retaliation against wage cuts. The riot was ultimately put down by Pinkerton Police and the state militia, and the violence further damaged the image of unions.
Panic of 1893
Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, and, some say, as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890
forced the government to purchase a certain amount of silver every month. Indebted farmers pushed for the Act because they wanted to cause inflation so they could pay off their debts with cheaper money. People started to exchange their silver for gold from the government. An increase in silver production lead to a significant drain on the Treasury's gold reserves, which decreased confidence in the country's finances. Because of this, Cleveland was forced to repeal the Sherman Silver Act Purchase in 1893.
J.P. Morgan lent the government $65 million in gold to increase the Treasury's reserve.
In 1862, - Union Pacific Railroad company to build a transcontinental railroad starting in Omaha, Nebraska.
The Central Pacific Railroad company was responsible to laying track on the California-side of the transcontinental railroad. The 4 chief financial backers of the Central Pacific Railroad (the Big Four) included Leland Stanford and Collis P. Huntington, along with aid from the government. The transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869, allowing for increased trade with Asia and opening up the West.
Until the 1880s, every town in America had its own local time. To keep schedules and avoid wrecks, the major rail lines proposed, on November 18, 1883, dividing America into 4 times zones - most towns accepted the new time method.
Some people selling bonds for railroad companies inflated claims about the company's assets and profits, enabling them to sell stocks and bonds in excess of the railroad's actual value
agreements to divide the business in a given area and share the profits. Small farmers often paid the highest railroad transportation rates, while big customers paid low rates.
Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railroad Company vs. Illinois
1886 - individual states could not regulate interstate commerce
Interstate Commerce Act
1887 - prohibited rebates and pools, required the railroads to publish their rates openly, forbade unfair discrimination against shippers, and outlawed charging more for a short trip than for a long trip over the same line. It also created the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to administer and enforce the new legislation. The new laws provided a forum where competing businesses could resolve their conflicts in peaceful ways (instead of engaging in price wars).
simplified the steel production process and reduced the price of steel. The process involved blowing cold air on red-hot iron to ignite the carbon and eliminate impurities. Steel became king.
Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890
forbade business activities that the government deemed as anti-competitive. It also required the government to investigate trusts. The law was ineffective because it contained legal loopholes and it made all large trusts suffer, not just the bad ones.
pricing system - economic discrimination against the South in the steel industry. Deposits of coal and iron ore were discovered in Birmingham, Alabama. This should have helped Southern steel manufacturers, but Northern steel companies put pressure on the railroads to increase their shipping rates. This removed Birmingham's economic advantage.
National Labor Union
1866 - purpose of the union was to organize workers across different trades and challenge companies for better working conditions. Black workers formed their own Colored National Labor Union. They could not work together because NLU supported the Republican Party and it was supported by racist white unionists.
Knights of Labor
After NLU died out in 1877, this replaced it - led by Terence V. Powderly, and it was started as a secret society. It sought to include all workers, while campaigning for economic and social reform, including and codes for safety and health.
Haymarket Riot; 1886
The riot took place in Chicago between rioters and the police. It ended when someone threw a bomb that killed dozens. The riot was suppressed, and in addition with the damaged reputation of unions, it also killed the Knights of Labor, who were seen as anarchists.
American Federation of Labor
founded in 1886, led by Samuel Gompers. Was an association of self-governing unions, each of which kept its own independence. It sought for better wages, hours, and working conditions. The federation's main weapons were the walkout and the boycott. It supported the idea of closed shop, in which an employer could only hire union employees and all of the employees had to be in a union.
The greatest weakness of organized labor was that it was accepted by a small minority of working people.
1880s - came from southern and eastern Europe. They came from countries with little history of democratic government and harsh living conditions. Some Americans feared that the New Immigrants would not assimilate into American culture.
a house located in a poor, urban area where middle-class people would live and take care of the local community by providing services like healthcare and daycare; became centers of women's activism and of social reform.
Jane Addams - most prominent American settlement house. Hull House offered instruction in English, counselling to help immigrants deal with American big-city life, childcare services for working mothers, and cultural activities for neighborhood residents.
arose in the 1880s. Nativists worried that the original Anglo-Saxon population would soon be outnumbered and outvoted, and they blamed immigrants for societal problems.
American Protective Association
nativist association - created in 1887 and it urged to vote against Roman Catholic candidates for office.
wrote On the Origin of the Species in 1859 and stated that humans had slowly evolved from lower forms of life.
The theory of evolution cast serious doubt on the idea of religion. Conservatives stood by their beliefs of God and religion, while Modernists flatly refused to accept the Bible in its entirety.
Booker T. Washington
Booker T. Washington A former slave. Encouraged blacks to keep to themselves and focus on the daily tasks of survival, rather than leading a grand uprising. Believed that building a strong economic base was more critical at that time than planning an uprising or fighting for equal rights. Washington also stated in his famous "Atlanta Compromise" speech in 1895 that blacks had to accept segregation in the short term as they focused on economic gain to achieve political equality in the future. Served as important role models for later leaders of the civil rights movement.
W.E.B. Du Bois
One of Washington's harshest critics, believing that Washington's pacifist plan would only perpetuate the second-class-citizen mindset. He felt that immediate "ceaseless agitation" was the only way to truly attain equal rights. As editor of the black publication "The Crisis," he publicized his disdain for Washington and was instrumental in the creation of the "Niagara Movement," which later became the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People). He eventually grew weary of the slow pace of racial equality in the United States and renounced his citizenship and moved to Ghana in 1961, where he died two years later. Served as important role models for later leaders of the civil rights movement.
Morrill Act of 1862
granted public lands to the states to support education. Land-grant colleges formed out of these grants.
The Hatch Act of 1887 extended the Morrill Act and provided federal funds for the establishment of agricultural experiment stations in connection with the land-grant colleges.
National American Woman Suffrage Association
founded in 1890 - The re-born suffrage movement and other women's organization excluded black women.
Ida B. Wells helped launch the black women's club movement, which led to the establishment of the National Association of Colored Women in 1896.
Liquor consumption increased during the late 1800s.
The National Prohibition Party was created in 1869. The Woman's Christian Temperance Union was created in 1874.
The system that allotted land with designated boundaries to Native American tribes in the west, beginning in the 1850s and ending with the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887. Within these reservations, most land was used communally, rather than owned individually. The U.S. government encouraged and sometimes violently coerced Native Americans to stay on the reservations at all times.
Dawes Severalty Act of 1887
dissolved many tribes as legal entities, wiped out tribal ownership of land, and set up individual Indian family heads with 160 free acres. If the Indians behaved like "good white settlers" then they would get full title to their holdings as well as citizenship. The Dawes Act attempted to assimilate the Indians with the white men. The Dawes Act remained the basis of the government's official Indian policy until the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934.
"Fifty- niners" Name given to those who rushed to harvest the petroleum gushers in 1859. The result was the birth of a new industry with its "petroleum plutocracy" and "coal oil Johnnies." Some of these 59ers moved west to avoid the federal draft.
the practice of using shallow cultivation to grow crops in the dry western environment. Over time, it depleted and dried the soil. Tough strains of wheat flourished in the West, and new federally-financed irrigation projects caused the Great American Desert to bloom.
National Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry
1867 - first objective was to enhance the lives of isolated farmers through social, educational, and fraternal activities. The Grangers also sought to improve the farmers' collective troubles. They established cooperatively owned stores for consumers and cooperatively owned grain elevators and warehouses for producers. Some Grangers entered politics and made Grange Laws, which tried to force public control of private business for the general welfare. The Grangers' influence faded after courts reversed their laws.
Farmer's Alliance A Farmers' organization founded in late 1870s; worked for lower railroad freight rates, lower interest rates, and a change in the governments tight money policy
Pullman Strike (1894)
in Chicago, Pullman cut wages but refused to lower rents in the "company town", Eugene Debs had American Railway Union refuse to use Pullman cars, Debs thrown in jail after being sued, strike achieved nothing, nonviolent strike Prez. Cleveland shut it down because it was interfering with mail delivery
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