69 terms

AP human geography unit 7: agricultural and urban land use vocab

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Agriculture
Cultivation of crops / raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain
Crop
A plant gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular growing season
Carl saur
Geographer who discussed cultural landscape (the effect of cultural geography on physical geography)
Vegetative planting
Plating through cutting off part of a plant and planting it
Seed agriculture
Farming by planting seeds
Subsistence agriculture
Farming enough food for the farmer and their family with little or no surplus. Usually less advanced
Commercial agriculture
Farming for the purpose of selling the crop for profit. Usually more advanced
Prime agricultural land
land that has the best combination of physical and chemical characteristics for producing food, feed, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops and is also available for these land uses.
Agribusiness
agriculture conducted on commercial principles, especially using advanced technology
Shifting cultivation
an agricultural system in which plots of land are cultivated temporarily, then abandoned and allowed to revert to their natural vegetation while the cultivator moves on to another plot
Slash-and-burn
a method of agriculture in which existing vegetation is cut down and burned off before new seeds are sown, typically used as a method for clearing forest land for farming
Swidden
an area of land cleared for cultivation by slashing and burning vegetation
Pastoralism
the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock
Nomadism
lifestyle adapted to infertile regions such as steppe, tundra, or ice and sand, where mobility is the most efficient strategy for exploiting scarce resources
Transhumance
the action or practice of moving livestock from one grazing ground to another in a seasonal cycle
Pasture
Land used for grazing
Intensive subsistence agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
Double cropping
practice of growing two or more crops in the same space during a single growing season
Crop rotation
The changing of crops planted in a field sequentially mainly improve soil quality and prevent erosion
Cereal grain
A grass yielding grain for food
Milkshed
The area surrounding a city from which milk is supplied
Grain
Seed of a cereal grass
Example: Crops from a grain farm are typically used for human consumption
Winter wheat
Wheat planted in the autumn and harvested in the early summer
Spring wheat
Wheat planted in the spring and harvested in the late summer
Ranching
A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area
Range wars
a type of armed conflict, which occurs in agrarian or stock-rearing societies. The subject of these conflicts was control of "openrange", or range land freely used for cattle grazing
Horticulture
The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
Truck farming/market gardening
Commercial gardening and fruit farming
McCormick Reaper
A machine that cuts grain standing in the field
Combine Machine
A machine that reaps, threshes, and cleans grain while moving over a field
Debt for nature swap
financial transactions in which a portion of a developing nation's foreign debt is forgiven in exchange for local investments in environmental conservation measures
Aquaculture
the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic plants
Collective farm
type of agricultural production in which the holdings of several farmers are run as a joint enterprise
Pesticide
Substance used to kill, repel, or control a creature labeled as a pest
Herbicide
a substance that is toxic to plants and is used to destroy unwanted vegetation
Soil erosion
Removal of topsoil faster than the soil forming processes can replace it
Growing season
the period of time in a given year when the climate is prime for both indigenous and cultivated plants experience the most growth
Extractive industry
Any processes that involve the extraction of raw materials from the earth to be used by consumers
Feedlot
an area or building where livestock are fed and fattened up
Staple grains
a type of edible grain, usually wheat or corn, on which a group of people are dependent for survival
Tragedy of the Commons
an economic theory by Garrett Hardin, which states that individuals acting independently and rationally according to each's self-interest behave contrary to the best interests of the whole group by depleting some common resource
Plantation
a large piece of land (or water) usually in a tropical or semitropical area where one crop is specifically planted for widespread commercial sale and usually tended by resident laborers
Ester Boserup
a Danish agricultural economist, is distinguished by two intellectual achievements: a seminal theory of population to rival Malthus in importance, and pioneering work on the role of women in human development. Turning to her population theory, she offers a hopeful alternative to Malthus
Cash cropping/export crops
an agricultural crop which is grown for sale to return a profit
Von thunen's model
a model of land use that showed how market processes could determine how land in different locations would be used. Von Thünenwas a skilled farmer who was knowledgable in economics
Neolithic (1st) agricultural revolution
Revolution that achieved plant and animal domestication
2nd agricultural revolution
Dovetailing with and benefiting from the Industrial Revolution, this revolution witnessed improved methods of cultivation, harvesting, and storage of farm produce
Green (3rd) agricultural revolution
The recently successful development of higher-yield, fast-growing varieties of rice and other cereals in certain developing countries
Plant domestication
Adaption of wild plants for human use such as food, work, clothing, medicine, etc. Not wild
Animal domestication
Adaption of wild animals for human use such as food, work, clothing, medicine, etc. Not wild
Luxury crops
Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco
Dairying
The business of owning and operating a dairy or a dairy farm
Mediterranean agriculture
Specialized farming that occurs only in areas where the dry-summer Mediterranean climate prevails
Organic agriculture
Approach to farming and ranching that avoids the use of herbicides, pesticides, growth hormones, and other similar synthetic inputs
Biotechnology
biological processes, organisms, cells or cellular components are exploited to develop new technologies.
Green revolution
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Intertillage
The planting of several crops in a single field
Desertification
The encroachment of desert conditions on moister zones along the desert margins, where plant cover and soils are threatened by desiccation
Genetic modification
the process of manually adding new DNA to an organism. The goal is to add one or more new traits that are not already found in that organism
Sustainable yield
the yield of forest products that a forest can produce continuously at a given intensity of management
Clustered rural settlements
rural settlement in which families live in close proximity to each other
Dispersed rural settlements
Rural settlement in which families live dispersed from each other
Enclosure movement
a push in the 18th and 19th centuries to take land that had formerly been owned in common by all members of a village, or at least available to the public for grazing animals and growing food, and change it to privately owned land, usually with walls, fences or hedges around it
Fallow
(of farmland) plowed and harrowed but left unsown for a period in order to restore its fertility as part of a crop rotation or to avoid surplus production
Extensive subsistence farmng
consists of any agricultural economy in which the crops and/or animals are used nearly exclusively for local or family consumption on large areas of land and minimal labor input per acre
Mixed crop and livestock farming
Both animal and crops are farmed in the same area
Capital-intensive farms
Farms that require a large amount of money to be productive
Labor-intensive farms
Farms that require a large amount of labor to be productive
Large-scale grain production
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