69 terms

Introduction to Psychology, James W. Kalat, Chapter 14: Personality

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Personality
Study of individual differences ... unique ways in which people behave that may reflect differences in mental processes as well as forces that shape mental processes.
What approach did Sigmund Freud have on personality?
Psychodynamic approach
Psychoanalysis
explaining and dealing with personality, based on the interplay of conscious and unconscious forces
Psychodynamic theory
relates personality to the interplay of conflicting forces within the individual, including unconscious ones
Who were Freud's Influences?
psychiatrist Josef Breuer, physician Jean Charcot, who explored the use of hypnosis to evaluate neuroses.
Jean Charcot
explored the use of hypnosis to evaluate neuroses.
Freud and the psychodynamic approach
Freud's search for the unconscious
Catharsis
a release of pent up emotional tension
talking cure
a method of explaining the workings of personality, psychoanalysis.
Oedipus complex
develops interest in his mother and competitive aggression towards his father
Libido
a psychosexual energy (from the Latin, "desire").
Thanatos
psychoaggressive energy (from the Latin, "death").
If normal development is blocked, a person may become fixated
continue to be preoccupied with gratification of the libido in a manner typical of an earlier time of life.
Freud's structure of personality
involves conflicts and anxiety over unpleasant impulses and thoughts.
Defense mechanisms
that function to relegate these unpleasant thoughts and feelings to the unconscious.
Rationalization
occurs when people "make excuses" and reframe unpleasant events as actually beneficial, or their actions as justifiable or rational (when the actions are arguably not so).
Repression
"motivated forgetting" of painful or unacceptable thoughts, feelings or memories.
Regression
an apparent return to a more juvenile way of thinking or acting.
Denial
refusal to acknowledge a problem or believe any information that causes anxiety.
Displacement
the diversion of an unacceptable thought or impulse from its actual target to a less threatening object or person.
Reaction formation
involves presentation of one's thoughts or feelings as the extreme opposite of what they actually are.
Sublimation
Transformation of sexual or aggressive energies into culturally acceptable, even admirable behaviors
Neo Freudians
psychologists and others who adopted some parts of Freud's theory and modified other parts.
Karen Horney
believed that Freud exaggerated the role of sexuality in human behavior and motivation, and misunderstood the motivations of women and the dynamics of family relationships. Ideal vs. Real Self and Inner Conflicts
What did Carl Jung propose?
"collective unconscious."
Carl Jung
created a version of psychoanalytic theory that put a greater emphasis on the continuity of human experience and the human need for spiritual meaning in life.
collective unconscious
Present at birth, the collective unconscious reflects the cumulative experiences of all of our ancestors.
What does the collective unconscious contains?
archetypes.
Archetypes
These are figures and themes that emerge repeatedly in human history and across world cultures.
Alfred Adler
founded the school of "individual psychology."
Individual psychology
The word "individual" refers to understanding the whole person, in contrast with the partitioned model of personality that was incorporated into the Freudian framework.
Striving for superiority
Adler proposed that humans have a natural desire to seek personal excellence and fulfillment.
Style of life
We create a master plan for achieving superiority
Inferiority complex
an exaggerated feeling of inadequacy, throughout their lives.
The learning approach
People frequently adopt a variety of behavioral styles that depend on the social context. The learning approach relates specific behaviors to specific experiences. Often the experiences from which we learn are those of other people in our environment.
Humanistic psychology
Humanistic psychologists see people as essentially good and interested in achieving life satisfaction.This is in contrast with the morally neutral basis of behaviorism and the downright negative view of human nature offered by psychoanalytic theory.
Carl Rogers
Humanistic psychology; believed that human nature is essentially good, and that people strive toward a state of self-actualization.
Humanistic psychology
Deals with consciousness, values, and abstract beliefs, including spiritual experiences and the beliefs that people life and die for
Self actualization
refers to a state of achieving one's full potential.
self concept
Belief of Rogers, Children develop an image of the person that they really are.
ideal self
Rogers, Children develop an image that represents the person they would like to be.
Rogerian model: psychological distress is generated primarily what?
from the incongruity a person perceives between the self-concept and the ideal self.
Unconditional positive regard
Complete unqualified acceptance of another person
Personality trait
a consistent, long-lasting tendency in behavior, such as sociability, shyness or assertiveness.
Personality state
a temporary activation of particular behavior.
trait approach to personality
The idea that people have consistent personality characteristics that can be measured and studied
locus of control
an individual's perception of the amount of control that he or she has over the course of life events.
external locus of control
People who believe that their lives are controlled by external forces
internal locus of control
People who believe that they are in charge of their lives
The Big Five personality traits (OCEAN)
Openness to new experience, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Neuroticism
Neuroticism
Neuroticism is the tendency to experience unpleasant emotions very easily.
Extraversion
Extraversion is a tendency to seek stimulation and enjoy the company of other people.
Agreeableness
Agreeableness is a tendency to be compassionate rather than antagonistic towards others.
Conscientiousness
Conscientiousness is the tendency to show self-discipline, to be reliable, and to strive for competence and achievement.
Openness to Experience
Openness to Experience refers to a tendency to enjoy new experiences and new ideas.
Barnum effect
tendency to accept vague descriptions of our personality
A standardized personality test
administered according to specified rules; The scores of a standardized test are interpreted using a prescribed rubric.
Objective personality tests
The most widely used personality tests are administered simply using paper and pencil.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
most widely used objective personality test
How many questions are on the MMPI 2?
567 true or false questions. These questions are designed to measure dimensions of personality such as sociability and conscientiousness. They are also designed to detect clinical conditions such as depression and psychotic disorders.
Uses of the MMPI
The MMPI is a helpful instrument for research psychologists who study personality. It is a useful instrument for clinical psychologists in familiarizing themselves with clients and planning treatment.
Projective techniques
designed to avoid this problem. The assumption behind projective tests is that personality characteristics can be detected through the process of asking people to interpret ambiguous stimuli.
The Rorschach Inkblots
Projective techniques; The Rorschach is composed of a series of 10 ambiguous inkblots. The person taking the test is asked to interpret each of the blots.
The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Projective techniques, The TAT is based upon the presentation of a series of pictures to the test subject. The subject is request to make up a story for each picture. The story for each picture is recorded by the examining clinician.
Oral Stage
From birth to about age 1 1/2 the infant derives intense psychosexual pleasure from stimulation of the mouth, particularly while sucking at the mother's breast, lasting concerns with dependence and independents, pleasure from eating, drinking and other oral activates
Anal Stage
From about age 1 1/2 to 3 they get psychosexual pleasure from the sensations of bowel movements, orderliness or sloppiness, stinginessess or wastefulness, stubbornness
Phallic stage
from age 3 to 5 or 6, they begin to play with their genitals, fear of castration or penis envy, difficult feeling closeness
Latent period
from age 5 or 6 to puberty, suppressed their psychosexual interest
Genital stage
Puberty onward, sexual contact with others