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APES midterm exam

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Ecology is the study of...
Relationships between organisms and their environment
An environmental sustainable society...
All of the answers
Most of the environmental problems we face are...
Increasing exponentially
What is globalization?
Worldwide integration of social, economic, and environmental change
Which of the following statements best illustrates the "tragedy of the commons"?
A factory pollutes a river as much as the low allows
Resources that are called nonrenewable...
Are capable of economic depletion
Pollution includes...
All of these
Point sources of pollution include all of the following except...
Runoff from cropland
Which of the following is not important in determining the damage produced by a pollutant?
Origin
Root causes of environmental problems include...
Rapid population growth
Pollution cleanup is considered a short-term solution if population and consumption levels grow without corresponding improvement in pollution control and technology.
True
Decreasing population growth in the developed countries will decrease resource consumption.
False
A resource such as solar energy that is renewed continuously is a(n) _______ resource.
Perpetual
A social movement dedicated to protecting the earth's life support system for all living things is...
Environmentalism
In general, cultural revolutions are characterized by
Improved standards of living
Hunter-gatherer environmental impacts were kept low by...
Giving nature time to recuperate after they moved on
Which of the following human-resources relationships does NOT characterize a shift from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies?
People used coal as the primary energy source
The Industrial Revolution is characterized by a shift from...
Farming employment to factory employment
The American settlers primarily viewed the continent as a(n)..
Hostile wilderness that needed to be conquered
Henry David Thoreau and George Perkins Marsh were...
Conservationists
A starting point in establishing the federal government's responsibility to protect public lands from unsustainable resources use was the...
Establishment of the first federal forest reserves and wildlife refuges
Theodore Roosevelt established the...
National Park System
The Sierra Club was developed by _______ in 1892.
John Muir
Theodore Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot were...
Scientific conservationists
All of the following environmental warnings occurred during the 1960s except...
The dinosaurs became extinct
The first school of Forestry in the US was in...
North Carolina
Which president appointed industrialist to key positions in the Department of the Interior, reduced budgets and staffs of conservation organizations, and reduced funding for research on the renewable energy source?
Reagan
Which president established the EPA, signed the Clean Air Act, Endangered Species Act, and the Clean Water Act?
Nixon
Which president appointed environmentalists and scientist to key positions in environmental and resource agencies and protected more public land than any other president?
Clinton
Which president advocated relaxation of air and water standards?
Bush II
Science...
Is best described as a collection of facts found through using scientific methods
Which of the following statements does not describe the scientific enterprise?
Established scientific theories are not challenged and continue to hold true
Scientists try to reduce errors in their observations and measurements by...
All of these answers
Which of the following questions is a working scientist least likely to ask?
What is the meaning of life for humans?
Frontier science...
Often deals with untested models and hypothesis
Human events that affect the environment are generally characterized by...
Long delays between event and responses
The type of model most useful in helping us to predict the events in the environmental arena is a...
Mathematical model
Which of the following is an example of synergism?
The combined effects of alcohol and a depressant produce a greater effect that would be expected from adding their individual effects
Matter is anything that...
Has mass and volume
The atomic number is the number of...
Protons in an atom
Isotopes differ form each other by their numbers of...
Neutrons
Organic compounds include all of the following except
Carbon dioxide
Which complex compound is mismatched with its building block?
Chromosomes - proteins
Which of the following molecules might experience a mutation that could be passed from one generation to the next?
DNA
Energy can be formally defined as...
The ability to do work and transfer heat
Which of the following is an example of low-quality energy?
Heat in the ocean
All of the following statements can be concluded from the law of matter except...
We do not consume matter
Earth is essentially a closed system for...
Matter
All of the following are broken down by biological action except...
Lead and mercury
Which of the following comparisons of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion are correct?
Nuclear fusion is harder to initiate than nuclear fission
Which of the following statements is the most logical way to cope with the problem of limitations imposed by the three basic physical laws governing matter?
Use and waste less energy and matter
Ecology is the study of how...
Organisms interact with each other and their nonliving environment
What is the goal of ecology?
To learn about connections in nature
The following choices list levels of organization of matter that claim the attention of ecologist. Which correctly lists these levels in sequence from narrower to broader focus?
1. organisms
2. populations
3. communities
4. ecosystem
5. ecosphere
A group of individuals of the same species occupying a given area at the same time is called a
Population
All of the following are characteristics of life forms EXCEPT...
Highly diffuse internal structure and organization
Biodiversity emerges from...
All of these answers
The thin, gaseous layer of air around the planet is called the...
Atmosphere
All physical forms of water (solid, liquid, and gas) make up the...
Hydrosphere
Fossil fuels and minerals are found in the...
Lithosphere
Ecosphere is the same as...
Bioshpere
Life of individual organisms is maintained by...
Cycling of energy and flow of matter
When incoming solar radiation is converted to heat, it is LEAST likely to be trapped in the atmosphere by
Propane
Large ecological regions with characteristic types of natural vegetation are called...
Biomes
A transitional zone between two ecosystems is called a(n)...
Ecotone
All of the following are abiotic factors EXCEPT...
Bacteria
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
There is no such thing as too much fertilizer
All of the following factors have strong effects on terrestrial ecosystem EXCEPT...
Dissolved oxygen
All of the following are major causes of differences among aquatic ecosystems EXCEPT...
Precipitation
Autotrophs...
Can live without heterotrophs
Photosynthesis...
Yields glucose and oxygen gas as products
All of the following are consumers EXCEPT...
Autotrophs
The organisms that are classified as primary consumers are the...
Herbivores
In the field, you observe a lion chase, kill, and eat a gazelle. A vulture pecks away at the left over meat scraps. Beetles attack the remaining fragments. Finally, bacteria complete the breakdown and recycling of the material. If you were to apply a general classification to the feeders, what would be the correct sequence?
1. carnivore
2. scavenger
3. detritus feeder
4. decomposer
If something is biodegradable, it...
Can be broken down by decomposers
Aerobic respiration requires...
Glucose and oxygen
Which of the following terms includes the others?
Biological diversity
Which of the following would be considered a tertiary consumer?
Osprey
The ecological efficiency at each trophic level of a particular ecosystem is 20%. If the green plants of the ecosystem capture 100 units of energy, about ___ units of energy will be available to support herbivores and about ____ units of energy will be available to support carnivores.
20... 4
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
Energy pyramids show hwy a larger human population can be supported if people eat grains rather than animals
Net primary productivity is...
The rate at which producers manufacture chemical energy through photosynthesis
Which of the following ecosystems has the lowest level of kilocalories per square meter per year?
Open ocean
Soil is a complex mixture of...
All of these answers
The surface litter horizon is described by the letter...
O
The ___ -horizon of a soil contains no organic material and is composed of parent material.
C
The A-horizon of soil is commonly referred to as...
Topsoil
Freshly fallen leaves, organic debris, and partially decomposed organic matter are indicative of the...
Surface litter
Leaching occurs when...
Water removes soluble soil and components
Humus is...
Partially decomposed organic matter
A soil sample of closely packed pebbles that is a mixture of minerals and low in hummus probably came from a...
Desert
Soil texture most directly determines...
Porosity
If you were a farmer, which type of soil would you choose for your crops?
Loam
Alkaline soil can be neutralized or made more acid by adding...
Phosphate
Acidic soil can be partially neutralized by adding...
Lime
During acid deposition and infiltration, the replacement of some ions attached to mineral particles by hydrogen ions can result in...
Decreased soil fertility
The cycle MOST responsible for linking the other biogeochemical cycle is the...
Hydrologic cycle
Condensation nuclei form from all the following EXCEPT...
Carbon monoxide emitted from vehicles
Humans strongly affect the hydrologic cycle through all of the following EXCEPT...
Boiling water
Which of the following statements is FALSE?
Water has a low heat of vaporization; that is, it evaporates
Humans are most likely to alter the earth's thermostat through their impact of the compound...
Carbon dioxide
Carbon is a major component of...
Organic compounds
Transfer of carbon between organisms depends primarily on...
Photosynthesis and cellular respiration
Of the following carbon-based compounds, which would have the slowest turnover rate?
Calcium carbonate shells
The two ways in which humans have most interfered with the carbon cycle are...
Burning fossil fuels and removal of forests and brush
Nitrogen is a major component of all the following EXCEPT...
Groundwater
Nitrogen fixation is accomplished by...
Bacteria
Ammonium ions are converted to nitrite ions and nitrate ions through the process of...
Nitrification
Nitrogen gas is converted to ammonia through...
Denitrification
Nitrate is converted to nitrogen gas through the process of...
Denitrification
Which of the following statements about human alteration of the nitrogen cell is FALSE?
Eating protein put "dead ends" in the nitrogen cycle
Humans remove nitrogen from the soil by all of the following EXCEPT...
Applying organic fertilizers to agricultural land
When nitrogen is added to aquatic systems, it is LEAST likely to result in...
Immediate decrease in gross primary productivity
Which of the following is NOT one of the common phosphorus reservoirs in the ecosystem?
Atmosphere
Phosphorus is used in the composition of all the following EXCEPT...
Proteins
The major plant nutrients most likely to be a limiting factor is...
Phosphorus
Humans add sulfur to the atmosphere by...
All of these answers
Earth's chemical cycles connect life of the present to life of the...
Present, past, and future
Which statement describes field research LEAST?
It is comparatively easy to set up controlled experiments
Which statement LEAST characterizes laboratory research?
It has been used to develop most of our knowledge about ecosystems
Ecosystem services include...
All of these answers
Natural ecosystems achieve sustainability through...
Use of one-way solar energy flow and efficient recycling of nutrients
Which of the following best describes biologists' current hypothesis about the production of the earth's atmospheric oxygen?
Photosynthesis by cyanobacteria produced atmospheric oxygen
Which of the following explains the origin of organic molecules on earth?
All of these
The most likely sequence for the biological evolution of life is...
1. anaerobic prokaryotes
2. aerobic prokaryotes
3. photosynthetic prokaryotes
4. eukaryotes
5. multicellular organisms
A change in the genetic composition of a population over successive generations is called...
Evolution
The term that describes small genetic changes that a population within a species experience is...
Microevolution
The term used to describe the long-term, large-scale evolutionary changes among groups of species is...
Macroevolution
Mutations are...
A source of new genetic material
You are an evolutionary biologist studying a population of bats in the rainforest of Brazil. Most of the population posses moderate length wings, although some individuals have long wings and some individuals have short wings. Over the course of time, you notice that the frequency of moderate-length wings increases. You conclude that the most likely cause of the development is...
Stabilizing natural selection
When natural selection shifts allelic frequencies toward the extremes of a range of genetic expressions for a particular trait, an evolutionary biologist would credit...
Disruptive natural selection
An ecological niche includes all of the following except the...
Location where a species lives
Species belonging to different taxonomic groups may develop a resemblance resulting from adaptation to similar environments. This process is called...
Convergent evolution
Which of the following statements is false?
By definition, the fittest animals are the largest and strongest animals
Patterns of speciation and extinction are least likely to be affected by...
Changes in the weather
Biodiversity is believed to be the result of...
Speciation and extinction
Gould's view of macroevolution as long periods of relatively little change interrupted by short periods of relatively rapid change is best described as...
A punctuated equilibrium hypothesis
Darwin's description of macroevolution as an accumulation of steady, small evolutionary changes is best described as...
A gradualist model of evolution
Features of weather include all of the following except...
Ozone concentration
To make the best weather forecast possible, meterologists are most likely to rely on..
Field observations and computer models
Which term includes the others?
Weather extreme
Climate is the general pattern of weather over a period of at least...
30 years
Which of the following statements of case and effect are false?
The earth's rotation being faster under air at the poles causes the prevailing winds
During an El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
Upwellings of cold, nutrient-rich water are suppressed
The term greenhouse effect describes...
The trapping of heat energy in the troposphere by certain gaseous molecules
All of the following are greenhouse gases except...
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)
Ozone...
Is formed in the stratosphere through the interaction of infared radiation and molecular oxygen
The most important factor in determining which biome is found in a particular area is...
Climate
Climate and vegetation vary with...
Latitude and altitude
You are going on a scientific expedition from the equator to the North Pole. As you leave the coniferous forest behind, you anticipate next exploring...
Gases captured in the ice
The fragility of the desert ecosystem is indicated by
Long regeneration time from vegetation destruction
The introduction of gasoline-powered pumps to tap underground water supplies in the desert has served as a positive feedback loop to all of the following except...
The kangaroo rat population
Desert ecosystems are threatened least by...
A nomadic lifestyle
Many species of hoofed animals can live together in African tropical savannas because they have _____ eating habits that _____ competition for resources...
Specialized .... minimize
Artic tundra is perhaps Earth's most fragile biome because of the...
All of these reasons
You are an ecologists on location in chaparral country. You would be surprised to find...
Very wet winters
The primary limiting factor of the rain forest is...
Soil nutrients
In a tropical rain forest, direct sunlight is strongest...
In the emergent layer
A mature ____ has the greatest species diversity of all the terrestrial biomes.
Tropical rain forest
Mature temperate deciduous forests _____ than tropical ran forests.
Have more plant life at the ground level
Animal species of the temperate deciduous forest often confine their life activities to a particular layer within the forest. Which of the following species, however, would be considered a commuter between the canopy and the forest layer?
Squirrel
Trees with needle- like leaves that are kept year round are especially abundant in which biome?
Coniferous forest
There are few species in the coniferous forests that in the deciduous forest because few species can survive the...
Winters, when soil moisture is frozen
Mountain biomes...
May act as sanctuaries for animal species driven form lowland areas
A rain shadow is most likely to be produced by a...
Mountain
The most probable chain of cause and effect contributing to patterns of the earth's biomes is...
Incoming solar energy and the earth's geometry create air and ocean currents that create climate patterns that create biome patterns
In its broadest sense, geographical perspective helps us to understand ecology by helping us to make connections...
Between abiotic and biotic factors
You observe uniform dispersion in a species you are studying intensely. You predict that as you extend your work, you will find...
Intraspecific (same species) competition and evenly spread, scarce resource
The biotic potential of a population...
Is the maximum reproductive rate of a population
Which of the following factors lead to an increase in biotic potential?
...
Carry capacity refers to...
The maximum size of population the environment will support
A logistic growth curve depicting a population that is limited by a definite carrying capacity is shaped like the letter...
S
A population crash occurs when...
A population overshoots carrying capacity and environmental pressures cause effects
A population grows, overshoots its carrying capacity, and crashes, most likely from...
...
Humans have extended Earth's carrying capacity for the humans species by...
Controlling many diseases
Density-dependent population controls include all the following except...
Human destruction of habitat
Density-independent population controls include all of the following except...
Resource competition
Which of the following terms best describes the type of population change you would expect to find for a monkey in a undisturbed section of the Brazilian rain forest?
Stable
Wolves controlling deer populations are an example of...
Top-down population control
An r-strategist generally...
Is small and short lived
K-strategists...
Have high genetic diversity
Which of the following is an r-strategist?
Insect
Which of the following best describes the survivor ship curve you would expect to find for a mountain gorilla?
Late loss
Which of the following best describes the survivor ship curve you would expect to find for a fish?
Early loss
Which of the following connections among population cycles, survival strategies, and survivor ship curves would you most expect to see?
Boom-and-bust, r-strategist, early loss
Which of the following ethical principles does not apply to conservation biology?
Humans should use genetic engineering to improve species as human resources
Of the following strategies, the one emphasized least by conservation biologist is to...
...
The ethical principle most important to conservation biology is...
Do that which tends to maintain Earth's life support systems for us and for other species
Which of the following types of species is least vulnerable to habitat fragmentation?
Generalists
You are a conservation biologist stationed in the western United States. Which of the following thoughts is least likely to cross your mind?
How is the cougar adapted to this ecosystem?
Humans have interfered in the development of natural ecosystems by...
All of these
Natural ecosystems...
Are usually capable of self-maintenance and self-renewal
All of the following are key features of living systems except...
Predictability
Which of the following is not one of the basic lessons from nature?
All of the populations of organisms, except humans are kept in check bu natural means
________ can be wiped out because of their susceptibility to patheogens
Monocultures
On an island in the South Pacific, there is a population of 1,000 South Pacific Splendor Birds. There is no immigration or emigration but there are 40 births and 20 deaths per year. The annual percentage rate of this population is...
...
The ability to produce rapid population overshoots can be a useful strategy for a species that tends to...
Colonize a new territory
Genetic drift tends to occur in population that are...
Small and fairly contained
You and 19 of your classmates build a spacecraft and fly to Mars where you are going to start a new colony of humans. This could be considered to be an example of...
Founder effect
An example of bottleneck effects would be...
All of these
The population change in a particular year can be calculated by...
(births + immigration) - (deaths + emigration)
The crude birth rate is the number of live births per _____ persons in a given year.
1,000
Between 1963 and 2000, the human population size...
Dropped 41%
Which of the following statements about the world's population is FALSE?
When the total fertility rate drops below the replacement-level fertility, the population is balanced and stops growing
Which of the following countries would produce the greatest rise in the population size from experiencing a growth rate of 1.2%?
Country D, with a population of 1 billion.
Which of the following would contribute the greatest number of total population size in one year?
A country of 500 million people with a growth rate of 1.5%
The MOST useful measures of fertility for projecting future population change is the...
Total fertility rate
The total fertility rate in the United States reached a peak...
After World War II, in the mid-1950's
Social factors affecting birth and fertility rates include...
All of theses answers
Which of the following would DECREASE the likelihood of a couple having a child?
Woman have many opportunities to participate in the work force
Of the following forms of birth control, the LEAST effective is...
Rhythm method
Which of the following statement is FALSE?
The rise in the size of the human population is due primarily to a higher birth rate
Two useful indicators of overall health in a country or region are...
Life expectancy and infant mortality rate
Infant mortality rate refers to the number of children out of 1,000 that die...
By their first birthday
All of the following reasons help explain why United States has one of the highest infant mortality rates of developed countries EXCEPT...
The older age of pregnant women as result of many women delaying having children
Which of the following statements about migration is FALSE?
Migration from urban areas to rural areas is increasing worldwide
The age structure of a population is the number or percentage of...
Persons of each sex at each age level
Countries that have achieved ZPG have an age structure that...
Shows little variation in population by age
Rapidly growing countries have an age structure that...
Has a broad-based pyramid
Which of the following implies the greatest built-in momentum for population growth?
A large number of people under age 15
Countries undergoing rapid population decline may experience a rise in the proportion of the population...
All of these
In 2002, legal and illegal immigration accounted for _____ of U.S. population growth...
40%
Which of the following statements LEAST characterizes consequences of U.S. immigration?
Federal and state governments are coordinating their responses to immigration
Generally, proponents of population regulation say that...
One-fifth of the human population does not get basic necessities
People who oppose population regulation are LEAST likely to say that....
Increasing human population threatens the earth's life-support systems
Which of the following statements best summarizes the "Limits to Growth" projection for consequences of continuing our societies at current world population growth and industrial output rates?
Our societies will demonstrate overshoot and collapse patterns in the next century
The term "demographic transition" refers to...
The decline in death rates followed by decline in birth rates when a country becomes industrialized
The change that takes place in a demographic transition occurs when...
The economic development of a country changes the population growth pattern
During demographic transitions, birth rates of a population are high during the...
Pre-industrial and transitional stages
Some experts fear that developing countries lack sufficient ____ to allow the demographic transitions to occur.
Capital
Basic family-planning policy in most countries includes all of the following EXCEPT...
Limiting families to two children each
The success of a family planning program is enhanced when...
Contraceptives are widely available
Economic rewards and penalties in population control strategies work BEST if they...
Reinforce existing customs and trends
Women tend to have few and healthier children when they...
All of these answers
India ____ family-planning program.
Had the world's first national
India's infant mortality rate is about ____ per 1,000 live births.
72 (actually 64)
Which of the following statements about China is FALSE?
Illiteracy is about one-third on India's rate.
China's population policy has included all of the following EXCEPT...
Encouraging contraceptive use but banning abortion
Perhaps the MOST important feature of China's population control program that could be transferred to other countries is...
Localizing the program rather than forcing people to travel to distant centers
Which of the following statements reflects the views of many of the world's leading scientists and analysts?
Parts of the world are exceeding carrying capacity for humans, and with current trends, eventually other parts of the world will too
Experience indicates that population growth can be slowed by...
All of these answers
Which of the following strategies appear to play the LEAST important role in slowing global population growth?
...
Which of the following is NOT one of the goals of the 1994 UN Conference on Population and Development?
Increase access to education, especially for boys