1812, for over a century this remained the last word in military horror/disaster. Freezing conditions, starving troops, vehicles bogged down, equipment abandoned, discipline broke down. Grand Armee composed of different nationalities - different languages led to confusion. 611,000 troops hand entered Russia with Napoleon. Of these 400,000 died and 100,000 were taken prisoner. Grand Armee therefore disintegrated in retreat from Moscow. Nap raced home to Paris in 13 days to try to salvage situation and raise a new army.