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What is the nervous system's function?

It controls and coordinates functions throughout the body and responds to internal and external stimuli

What are the two main divisions of the nervous system?

the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system

What does the central nervous system do?

it is the control center of the body; it relays messages, processes information, and analyzes information

What does the peripheral nervous system do?

It receives information from the environment and relays commands from the CNS to glands and organs

What are the main parts of the central nervous system?

The brain and the spinal cord

What is the brain protected by?

the skull

What is the spinal cord protected by?

the vertebrae

What is the central nervous system protected by?

three layers of connective tissue called meninges that are around the spinal cord and brain

What is cerebrospinal fluid?

it bathes the brain and spinal cord and acts as a shock absorber and it also exchange of nutrients and waste products between blood and nervous tissue

Where is the cerebrospinal fluid?

it is found between the meninges and the brain/spinal cord

What is the brain?

The place to which impulses flow and from which impulses originate

How many billion neurons is the brain made out of?


What is the cerebrum?

The largest and most prominent region of the brain. It is the site of intelligence, learning, and judgement

What is the cerebrum responsible for?

voluntary activities of the body

What are the cerebral hemispheres?

a groove that separates the cerebrum into right and left hemispheres.

What connects the cerebral hemispheres?

the corpus collosum

What are the hemispheres divided into?


What are lobes named for?

the skull bones that cover them

What hemisphere controls what side of the body?

opposite; right=left, left=right

What does the right side of your brain control?

creativity and artistic ability

What does the left side of your brain control?

analytical and mathematical ability

What is the outer layer of your cerebral cortex called?

gray matter

What is gray matter made of?

densely packed nerve cell bodies

What does gray matter do?

processes information from the sense organs and controls the body's movements

What is the central nervous system composed of?

the brain and spinal cord

What is the central nervous system mostly made of?


What is the peripheral nervous system composed of?

Everything but the brain and spinal cord

What is the peripheral nervous system mostly made of?

sensory and motor neurons

What is the order of how the information goes?

sensory to CNS to motor

What doesn't the brain have?

Any sensory nerves, aka, feeling

What does gray matter do?

process information from the sense organs and control the body's movements

What is the inner layer of the brain called?

white matter

What is white matter made of?

mostly axons with myelin sheaths

What does white matter do?

connects the cerebral cortex and the brain stem

How big is the cerebellum?

It is the second largest part of the brain

Where is the cerebellum?

It is located in the back of the skull

What does the cerebellum do?

It helps coordinate and balance actions of the muscles so that the body moves gracefully and efficiently

What does the brain stem do?

It connects the brain to the spinal cord

Where is the brain stem?

Under and in front of the cerebellum

What are the two main regions of the brain stem?

The medulla oblongata and the pons

What do the medulla and pons do?

help regulate blood pressure, heart rate, breathing, and swallowing

Where are the Hypo/thalamus?

Between the brain stem and cerebrum

What does the thalamus do?

receives messages from all the sensory receptors and relays it to the proper part of the cerebrum

What does the hypothalamus do?

it is the control center for recognition and analysis of hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger, and body temperature. It also controls coordination of the nervous system and endocrine system

What is the spinal cord?

the main communications link between the brain and body

How many pairs of spinal nerves are there?


What are reflexes?

quick, automatic responses to a stimulus.

What do reflexes not use?

the brain

Why do reflexes not involve the brain?

The information is processed directly in the spinal cord

What is an example of a reflex?

coughing, sneezing, blinking, DTR, and rapid response

What is the somatic nervous system?

it regulates activities that are under conscious control

What division are the somatic nervous system divided into?

sensory and motor

What does the sensory part of the somatic nervous system do?

It transmits impulses from sense organs to the CNS

What does the motor part of the somatic nervous system do?

It transmits impulses from the CNS to muscles or glands

What does the autonomic nervous system do?

regulates activities that are automatic or involuntary.

What two parts is the autonomic nervous system divided into?

sympathetic and parasympathetic

What do the sympathetic and parasympathetic do?

They work as opposites on the same organ

What are sensory receptors?

Neurons that react directly to stimuli from the environment

What are some stimuli?

light, sound, motion, chemicals, pressure, and changes in temperature

Where are the most sensory receptors?

the sensory organs

What are the five major categories of sensory receptors?

Pain receptors, thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, and photoreceptors

What are pain receptors?

they are all over the body except in the brain and react to chemicals released from damaged cells

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