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118 terms

Bio Exam Terms

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STUDY
PLAY
area of a circle
A=πr²
field of view
Part Of A Microscope: Diameter of the circle of light that you see when looking into a microscope
scale
Part Of A Microscope: The size of the drawing/slide compared to its size in real life
total magnification
Part Of A Microscope: The objective of the ocular lens times the objective being used
diaphragm
Part Of A Microscope: Regulates the amount of light that passes through
coarse focus
Part Of A Microscope: Lifts the stage up and down; Focuses image - turn a little focuses a lot
fine focus
Part Of A Microscope: Focuses image - turn alot focus a little
stage
Part Of A Microscope: Supports the slide
objective
Part Of A Microscope: The lens or combination of lenses that first receives the rays from the object and forms the image
nose piece
Part Of A Microscope: Allows you to change from one objective to another
arm
Part Of A Microscope: Holds the two parts of the microscope together. Used to carry - Connects top and bottom
body
Part Of A Microscope: Basic heart of the microscope without any type of stand (base) or illuminators; Includes the eyepiece and objective lenses but not the focusing block
base
Part Of A Microscope: Used to carry - supports microscopes
eye piece
Part Of A Microscope: Where you place your eye
ocular lens
Part Of A Microscope: Magnifies 10x - near your eye
purpose
includes background research summarize the reason for this experiment and one sentence hypothesis
procedure
numbered steps telling exactly how to conduct the experiment
materials
list of materials needed to conduct the experiment
conclusion
restates hypothesis and purpose, why or not data supports hypothesis, reliability of experiment, why the experiment is relevant to the scientific community
graphing
graph to visually demonstrate all results of the experiment
organelle
part inside of a cell
cytoplasm
holds the cell together, maintains right pH, water, and salt concentrations
ribosome
make proteins, located in cytoplasm or in ER, DNA tells what proteins to make
centriole
assist with cell division (mitosis)
nucleus
the brain of the cell, where the DNA is stored
nucleolus
makes ribosomes
lysosome
breaks down all cellular waste, recycling bin, has very low pH
mitochondria
energy supplier, makes energy, only organelle with two membranes
endoplasmic reticulum
transports things within the cell
golgi apparatus
transports things to other cells, packages proteins and other molecules for shipment across cell and outside of the cell
nuclear envelope
the double layer membrane that holds the nucleus
chloroplast
site of photosynthesis (turn sunlight and carbon into glucose)
vacuole
animals only, not in center, store fat
central vacuole
plant only, very large and usually in center of the cell, site of food storage (starch)
cell wall
plants only, extra layer of protection and support, does not replace cell membrane, made of cellulose
vesicle
packaging for proteins and other molecules
cell membrane
complex, dynamic, moving organelle; made up of phospholipid bilayer, proteins, and sugars
hypertonic
water moves out of a cell because the concentration inside is higher
hypotonic
water moves inside the cell because there is less concentration on the inside
isotonic
the concentration on the inside and the outside of the cell are equal
phospholipid bilayer
makes up outer part of cell membrane, almost nothing can get through
transport protein
protein that allows for molecule movement
diffusion
when very small molecules (such as oxygen and carbon dioxide) move from high to low concentration without any help
facilitated diffusion
when bigger molecules (like ions) move from high to low concentration using a transport protein
active transport
moving molecules from an area of low concentration to high, to do this you need energy and a transport protein
osmosis
water moves from high to low concentration
endocytosis
what happens if you need to move somethings and there is no transport protein: vesicle comes into the cell and molecule/protein is released into the cytoplasm
exocytosis
what happens if you need to move somethings and there is no transport protein: exiting the cell through a vesicle instead of a transport protein
ATP
adenosine tri phosphate; the molecule that can hold the most energy in its chemical bonds for your entire life
thylakoid
where chlorophyll is stored, located in the chloroplast
stroma
space in between granna
aerobic respiration
making ATP when oxygen is present
fermentation
emergency backup system to make ATP
Advantages: oxygen does not need to be present
Disadvantages: makes much less ATP and produces lactic acid (soreness in muscles) (Cori Cycle)
mitochondrial matrix
chambers where hydrogens are packed during active transport
chlorophyll
proteins embedded inside the membrane (plant cell only)
light dependent reaction
light is required; happens on thylakoid; requires water, light, and chlorophyll, breaks down water (hydrolysis)
light independent reaction
also called Calvin cycle; takes free hydrogen in the stroma and attaches them to carbon dioxide to make glucose
Calvin cycle
light independent reaction in photosynthesis
Krebs cycle
happens inside the mitochondria, pyruvate enters the mitochondria and turns into carbon dioxide
Entire Point of This Cycle: to release all hydrogen from pyruvate and into mitochondria in a non-toxic form
glycolysis
breaking down of glucose to get into mitochondria and to release some hydrogen; happens in the cytoplasm
pyruvate
broken down glucose after glycolysis
electron transport chain
takes place in the mitochondria in inner membrane, process uses active transport to pack several hydrogens into small compartments, protein (ATP synthetase) lets hydrogen out of the small compartment spins to attach phosphate to ADP
Entire Goal of Process: to turn ADP into ATP
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid; instructions to make all proteins in the body; unique double helix molecular shape;
G1 (Growth 1)
Cell Cycle: cell stays here for the longest, this is when the cell performs its function
G2 (Growth 2)
Cell Cycle: shortest parts of a cell's life, cell proofreads new DNA
S (Synthesis)
Cell Cycle: DNA is copied
M (Mitosis)
Cell Cycle: one cell splits itself into two daughter cells
G0 (Growth 0)
Cell Cycle: cell stops reproducing and stays in G1 forever
Apoptosis
Cell finds somethings wrong with DNA and self destructs
P53
protein that live at G2/M checkpoint to double check that DNA is good before it sends it to mitosis
interphase
G1, S, G2; DNA duplicates, all organelles duplicate, cell grows and functions
prophase
first stage in mitosis; nuclear envelope disappears, chromatin condenses, centrioles move to opposite sides of the cell
metaphase
second stage in mitosis; chromosomes line up across cell, spindle fibers attach to centromeres and centrioles (in animals) or cell wall (in plants)
anaphase
third stage of mitosis; duplicated chromosomes turn causing tension and splitting the chromosomes into unduplicated chromosome
telophase
last stage of mitosis; in animals: sides of cytoplasm start to pinch, nuclear envelope starts to reform, chromosomes start to unwind into chromatin; in plants: sides of cytoplasm start to pinch, new cell plate (cell wall) starts to form
chromosome
DNA that is closed, hard to read but easy to move
semi-conservative
saves half of the old DNA
p arm and q arm
top arm and bottom arm; arms double after synthesis
two of each arm are called sister chromatids
telomere
top point of p arm and bottom point of q arm
centromere
how the centriole latches onto the chromosome
chromatin
DNA that is open, easy to read and use
complementary
In DNA:
A-T & C-G

In RNA:
A-U
C-G
T-A
nucleotide
smallest functional piece of DNA; made up of phosphate and sugar (deoxyribose) (these two parts make up the backbone) and complementary nitrogen bases
Chargraff's Rule
Adenine only binds to Thymine
Cytosine only binds to Guanine
proteins
made of combinations of twenty different amino acids, almost unlimited number because of different combinations, differ in size/shape/function
central Dogma
protein making (transcription/translation)
transcription
one gene unzips, mRNA copies the gene replacing T's with U's, mRNA zips off of DNA, DNA rezips back into double helix
translation
mRNA strand moves to ribosome (made of rRNA), codon sticks to anti-codon, uses genetic code to determine which amino acids are needed to build proteins
codon
one part of mRNA
homoglous chromosomes
two chromosomes that have information for the same genes
allele
variety in a gene
dominant
characteristic is seen more often in a population
incomplete dominance
hetrozygous phenotype is a blend of the two alleles
co-dominance
when the hetrozygous looks spotted because both alleles are expressed at full strength
recessive
characteristic is seen less often in a population
phenotype
trait expressed by allele
genotype
two letters to represent the allele
tissue
group of cells that work together to perform the same function
organ
group of tissue
organ system
a group of organs working together to perform a certain task
circulatory system
system that pumps blood and gases through the body
heart
center of systemic system, pulmonary system, and coronary system
lung
where oxygen is stored, blood goes here to be reoxygenized
vein
the vessel that carries blood to the heart
artery
the vessel that carries blood away from the heart
capillary
the vessel takes gasses to cells
hemoglobin
protein on the red blood cell that transports oxygen and other gasses
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Main Contribution: made improvements to the microscope, perfected it so it could be used for widespread scientific study
Fun Fact: Made first portable compound microscope
Robert Hooke
Main Contribution: Invented Cell Theory (All living things have cells, cells are the basic unit of life, all cells come from other cells)
Fun Fact: Largely unrecognized due to feud with Sir Isaac Newton
Gerty Cori
Main Contribution: Discovered the Cori Cycle (how to make ATP without oxygen)
Fun Fact: Won the Nobel Prize in Medication
Louis Pasteur
Main Contribution: father of microbiology, ended all beliefs of spontaneous generation using his Pasteur flask
Fun Fact: Received the Legion of Honour Award
Cornelius Van Neil
Main Contribution: discovered the basic photosynthetic equation
Fun Fact: first teacher of general microbiology in the US
Maurice Wilkins
Main Contribution: scientist who assisted Watson & Crick in the discovery of the double-helix shape
Watson and Crick
Main Contribution: scientist and grad student who were credited with the discovery of the double-helix structure of DNA
Rosalind Franklin
Main Contribution: used X-ray crystallography to prove the double helix structure of DNA
Fun Fact: died at age 37 from ovarian cancer and received very little credit for her work until recently
Nettie Maria Stevens
Main Contribution: discovered the genes where gender determination occurred and proposed naming them X and Y
Fun Fact: Used meal worms in her experiment to determine gender genes
Gregor Mendel
Main Contribution: realized that some traits are dominant while other are recessive and wrote one of the most important scientific papers ever "Treatises on Plant Hybrids"
Fun Fact: grew over 28,000 pea plants to observe different traits
Reginald Punnet
Main Contribution: created the Punnet square - found a way to mathematically predict trait appearance in offspring
Fun Fact: first person in UK to teach genentics