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136 terms

Medical Terminology Chapter 8 Digestive System Terms

Primary Terms from Chapter 8, Digestive system
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upper GI tract
mouth, esophagus, stomach
lower GI tract
small and large intestines, rectum, anus
hard palate
bony anterior portion of the palate that is covered with specialized mucus membrane
rugae
irregular ridges or folds in the hard palate
soft palate
flexible posterior portion of the palate which closes off the nasal passage during swallowing
papillae
small bumps on the tongue that contain taste buds.
sublingual
under the tongue
periodontium
the bone and soft tissues that surround and support the teeth
gingiva
specialized mucous membrane that surrounds the teeth, covers the bone of the dental arches and lines the cheeks (gums).
maxillary arch
upper jaw
mandibular arch
lower jaw
dentition
natural teeth arranged in the upper and lower jaws.
incisors and canines
types of teeth also known as cuspids that are used for biting and tearing
premolars (bicuspids) and molars
types of teeth used for chewing and grinding
primary dentition
20 baby teeth that are lost during childhood and replaced by permanent teeth.
permanent dentition
32 teeth that are designed to last a lifetime
edentulous
without teeth
occlusion
contact between the chewing surfaces of the upper and lower teeth
malocclusion
deviation from the normal positioning of the upper teeth against the lower teeth
saliva
colorless liquid that moistens the mouth, begins the digestive process and lubricates food during chewing and swallowing
salivary glands
three pairs of saliva secreting glands called the parotid, sublingual and submandibular glands
regurgitating
flow backward
cardiac sphincter/gastroesophageal sphincter
muscular ring which controls the flow of ingested food between the esophagus and stomach.
stomach
sac-like organ composed of the fundus (upper, rounded part), the body, and antrum (lower part).
rugae
folds in the mucosa lining the stomach which produce gastric juices and mucus.
pylorus
narrow passage that connects the stomach with the small intestine
pyloric sphincter
muscular ring that controls the flow from the stomach to the duodenum
small intestine
extends form the pyloric sphincter to the first part of the large intestine. coiled, up to 20 feet long. Consists of three sections where food is digested and nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream. Made of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum
large intestine
extends from the end of the small intestine to the anus. Twice as wide but 1/4 as long as small intestine.waste products are processed in preparation for excretion through the anus
cecum
pouch that lies on the right side of the abdomen, form the ileum to the beginning of the colon.
illeocecal sphincter
ringlike muscle that controls the flow from the ileum to the cecum
vermiform appendix
hangs from the lower portion of the cecum. consists of lymphoid tissue
Colon
longest portion of the large intestine divided into the ascending, transverse, descending and sigmoid colon
rectum
last 4 inches of the large intestine
anus
lower opening of the digestive tract through which waste flows, controlled by the internal and external anal sphincter
anorectal
anus and rectum as a single unit
Accessory digestive organs
organs that play a key role in the digestive system but are not part of the GI tract
Liver
organ located in the RUQ. Removes toxins from the blood and turns food into fuel and nutrients the body needs
hepatic
pertaining to the liver
glucose
"blood sugar" removed from the bloodstream by the liver and stored in the liver as glycogen.
Bilirubin
pigment produced by the liver as it destroys old red blood cells, removes toxins from the blood and manufactures some blood proteins. Released by the liver in bile
bile
aids in the digestion of fats, secreted by the liver. Travels to the gallbladder where it is concentrated and stored
biliary tree
channels through which bile is transported from the liver to the small intestine, including the common hepatic duct, cystic duct, common bile duct and the pancreatic duct
gallbladder
pear shaped organ located under the liver that stores and concentrates bile for later use
cholecystic
pertaining to the gallbladder
pancreas
6 inch long oblong gland behind the stomach which produces and secretes pancreatic juices that aid in digestion and neutralize stomach acids and enzymes
pancreatic
pertaining to the pancreas
digestion
the process by which complex foods are broken down into nutrients the body can use
digestive enzymes
enzymes responsible for the chemical changes that break foods down into simpler forms for use by the body
nutrient
a substance that is necessary for the normal function of the body. Primary nutrients are carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Vitamins and minerals are nutrients that are only needed in small amounts
metabolism
the processes involved in the body's use of nutrients. Consists of 2 parts, anabolism and catabolism
anabolism
building up of body cells and substances from nutrients
catabolism
breaking down of body cells or substances, releasing energy and carbon dioxide
absorption
the process by which completely digested nutrients are transported to the cells throughout the body
villi
finger like projection containing blood vessels and lacteals.
lacteals
specialized structures of the lymphatic system that absorb nutrients and transport them.
mastication
chewing
bolus
a mass of food that has been chewed and is ready to be swallowed
peristalsis
series of wave like contractions of the smooth muscles in a single direction
chyme
semifluid mass of partly digested food that passes out of the stomach, through the pyloric spincter and into the small intestine
emulsificaiton
a process in which chyme is mixed with pancreatic juices and bile, breaking apart large fat globules so enzymes in the pancreatic juices can digest the fats
feces
stool
defecation
bowel movement
borborygmus
rumbling noise caused by the movement of gas in the intestine
flatulence
flatus (passing gas)
aphthous ulcers
canker sores - common sores often associated with stress, certain foods or fever
cheilosis
crack-like sores at the corner of the mouth
herpes labialis
cold sores, fever blisters, caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1.
oral thrush
white lesions on the tongue or inner cheeks caused by fungus
stomatomycosis
any disease of the mouth due to a fungus
stomatorrhagia
bleeding form any part of the mouth
trismus
any restriction to the opening of the mouth
xerostomia
dry mouth, inadequate saliva
cleft lip
birth defect win which there is a groove of the lip running upward to the nose
cleft palate
failure of the palate to close during early development of the fetus. can involve the upper lip, hard palate and or soft palate. usually corrected surgically to prevent difficulties eating and speaking
necrotizing
ongoing tissue death
acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
abnormal growth of bacteria in the mouth, can cause severe inflammation, bleeding, deep ulceration and death of gum tissue
bruxism
involuntary grinding or clenching of the teeth usually occurring during sleep
dental calculus
tartar, dental plaque that has hardened on the teeth
dental caries
tooth decay/cavity
dental plaque
causes dental caries and disease
gingivitis
inflammation of the gums
halitosis
bad breath
periodontal disease
periodontitis, inflammation of the tissues that surround and support the teeth
temporomandibular disorder
complex symptoms related to the functioning of the temporomandibular joint, IE pain, headache difficulty chewing
dysphagia
difficulyt swallowing
gastroesophageal reflux disease
GERD, upward flow of acid from the stomach into the esophagus
reflux
backward flow
pyrosis
heartburn
esophageal varices
enlarged and swollen veins of the lower esophagus which bleed as veins rupture
hiatal hernia
portion of the stomach protrudes upward into the chest through an opening in the diaphragm
gastritis
inflammation of the stomach
gastroenteritis
inflammation of the mucous membrane in the stomach and intestines
gastrorrhea
excessive secretion of gastric juice or mucous in the stomach.
peptic ulcers
sores that affect mucous membranes of the digestive system can be caused by medications or h pylori bacteria. include gastric, duodenal and perforating
anorexia
loss of appetite
anorexia nervosa
eating disorder. voluntary starvation and excessive exercise cause the patient to become very thin
bulimia nervosa
frequent episodes of binge eating followed by self induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives
cachexia
physical wasting
pica
abnormal craving for nonfood substances lasting for at least one month
dehydration
fluid loss exceeds fluid intake
malnutrition
lack of nutrients
malabsorption
small intestine cannot absorb nutrients from food as it passes through
aerophagia
excessive swallowing of air while eating or drinking
dyspepsia
indigestion
emesis
vomiting
eructication
burping
hematemesis
vomiting blood
hyperemesis
extreme, persistent vomiting that can cause dehydration
nausea
urge to vomit
regurgitation
the return of swallowed food into the mouth
colorectal carcinoma
colon canger
diverticulosis
small pouch or sac in the colon
diverticulitis
inflammation of one or more diverticuli in the colon
enteritis
inflammation of the small intestine
ileus
partial or complete blockage of the intestine
irritable bowel syndrome
spastic colon, condition that can include intermittent cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, diarrhea
inflammatory bowel disease
general name for diseases that cause inflammation of the intestines, ie ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease
obstruction
partial or complete blockage in the intestine
adhesions
parts held together that normally should be separate
gangrene
tissue death d/t loss of circulation
perforation
hole through the wall of a structure
volvulus
twisting of the intestine onto itself
intussusception
telescoping of one part of the small intestine into the other
inguinal hernia
protrusion of a small loop of bowel through a weak place in the lower abdominal wall or groin
strangulated hernia
occurs when a portion of the intestine is constricted inside the hernia and its blood supply is cut off.
anal fissure
small crack like sore in the anus
bowel incontinence
the inability to control the excretion of feces
constipation
bowel movement fewer than 3 times per week
hemorrhoids
occur when a cluster of veins, muscles and tissues slip near or through the anal opening
melena
black, tarry stool - due to the presence of digested blood
hepatitis
inflammation of the liver. 5 viral varieties
hepatomegaly
abnormal enlargement of the liver
jaundice
yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes and the eyes d/t high amounts of bilirubin in the blood
cirrhosis
progressive, degenerative disease of the liver, often caused by excessive alcohol or viral hep B or C
ascites
abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity