254 terms

WIS2040 Topics 10-18

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The Brown Tree Snake
is an example of a rear-fanged snake.
Sea turtles typically nest only on beaches
where they were hatched.
The dorsal part of a turtle's shell is called the
carapace.
The allantois
is the extra-embryonic membrane that collects embryonic wastes.
TSD is seen most commonly in sea turtles and
crocodilans.
The green turtle
is a hard shelled sea turtle that feeds chiefly on sea grass and macro algae.
Sea turtles have declined
in part, because they are killed, for food.
The sand skink of central Florida is characterized by having
vestigial legs
Two
of the fossil reptile groups ultimately went extinct and left no descendants.
Lake Wales Ridge
is an important region in central Florida for several specialized species such as the sand skink and other species of lizards.
A reduced plastron to the shape of a cross is characteristic of the
snapping turtle.
Archie Carr
was a professor in the UF zoology department who was a pioneer in biological studies of sea turtles.
The fossil subgroups of reptiles are identifiable by their
skull opening pattern.
The iguana
is an example of an herbivorous lizard.
The Gopher Tortoise is classified in Florida by the FWC as
SSC.
Perhaps the main reason the reptiles were able to dominate the Mesozoic was that they were
not dependent on water for reproduction.
The tegu
is a species of lizard that is harvested commercially in South America for its skin.
Webbed feet and a depressed bill are characteristics of the order
Anseriformes.
The Wading Birds in Florida have suffered from
(parasitism, mercury poisoning, interrupted hydroperiod) in south Florida.
The tail vertebrae in modern birds are fused to form a structure called the
pygostyle.
Acrodont
dentition refers to the condition where the teeth are set on top of the jaw.
False:
Woodpeckers build a cup nest in a tree cavity excavated by Bluebirds.
The so-called Snail Kite feeds almost exclusively on
apple snails.
Scientists belive that Archaeopteryx was a bird because it had
feathers.
The Limpkin
is a wading bird that occurs in Florida that feeds on freshwater mollusks.
The Megapodes
are game birds found on islands in the south Pacific and in Australia whose young hatch ready to fly.
The Eastern Bluebird
builds a cup nest in cavities in trees.
A conical shaped beak
as seen in finches, is an adaptation for feeding on, seeds.
Owls
swallow their prey whole and then regurgitate the skins and bones in pellets.
The Kakapo
is the flightless parrot.
The birds are thought to have evolved from the same reptilian subclass as the
crocodilians.
A facial disk is a characteristic of the
owls.
Kiwis
are ratite birds that still exist today in New Zealand.
The Kakapo is native to
New Zealand.
Pleurodont
dentition refers to the condition where the teeth are set in a groove in the jaw.
The biggest threat to the Florida Grasshopper Sparrow is
habitat loss.
Wood storks find food by using their sense of
touch.
The Ivory-billed Woodpecker and Bachman's Warbler are both
probably extinct.
Tinamous
are the most primitive flying birds.
The evolution of ___ in reptiles is seen as an adaptation for survival in a dry climate.
epidermal scales
About ___ species of the order crocodylia occur in the world today.
22
The indigo snake is an example of a species that uses the _____ foraging mode.
seize and swallow
The Euryapsid groups of fossil reptiles lived in ____ environments.
marine
Researchers from ______ found that, like the amphibians, populations of many species of reptiles were declining.
Savanna River Ecology Lab
As the reptiles evolved the amniote egg, plants evolved ____ as an adaptation to the changing environment.
seeds
There are roughly ______ species of turtles in the world today.
350
The ____ is the largest living turtle.
leatherback
Most lizards feed on although there are exceptions to this pattern.
insects
Snakes generally evolved to feed on ____ although there are a few exceptions to this pattern.
vertebrates
The fossil reptiles diversified into __ subclasses.
6
The state of Florida lists the ________ as being threatened but the USFWS lists it as endangered.
Red-cockaded Woodpecker
Since the 1930s wading bird _____ have declined by 95% in Everglades National Park.
nesting attempts
The flightless ______ of the Mascarene Islands were related to the modern pigeons and doves.
Dodos
There are ______ bird species officially listed as endangered by the state of Florida.
8
Archaeopteryx fossils date back to the _____ period in Bavaria.
Jurassic
Ratite birds all occur in the ---- hemisphere.
southern
The order Gruiformes is represented by several species of flightless -- on oceanic islands.
rails
True:
All birds are oviparous.
There are about -- species of passeriform birds
5100
The Fairy Tern lays its eggs
on a naked tree branch.
Elephant birds and Moas filled the niche of ---- on certain oceanic islands.
grazing mammals
There are roughly --- orders of non-passeriform birds.
20
When open habitats in South florida near Lake Okeechobee are protected from fire ---- are able to invade and render the habitat unsuitable for Florida Grasshopper Sparrows.
hardwoods
Carinate birds have a ----- sternum.
keeled
The Limpkin is listed as a(n) ----- species by the state of Florida.
SSC
The Monotremes are characterized by species that
lay eggs.
The opossum
is the only Marsupial native to North America.
Rhesus macaques (monkeys) released in Florida were originally trapped in
India.
The bandicoots
are an example of an insectivorous marsupial.
True:
Rhesus macaques (monkeys) are able to swim.
There is not a marsupial morphological/ecological equivalent to the placental
bats.
The Florida Mouse is typically found in close association with
gopher tortoises.
A large spur with a venom gland is found on the hind leg of male
platypuses.
There are approximately -- species of modern mammals.
4600
Mammals have --- middle ear ossicles whereas reptiles have one.
three
All mammals have ----- jaw articulation.
dentary-squamosal
Ever-growing incisors are characteristic of the
rodents.
The order ---- is the second largest order of placental mammals.
Chiroptera
The ---- is actually the marsupial equivalent of the anteaters of South America.
Numbat
Long-beaked Echidna now occur only in
New Guinea.
Rhesus macaques (monkeys) in the Florida Keys have
destroyed mangroves.
The Cynodonts
were mammal-like reptiles that had various combinations of mammalian and reptilian characters.
A company from New England released Rhesus Macaques onto Key Lois and Raccoon Key in order to
produce a population for biomedical studies.
The Defenders of Wildlife (an NGO) challenged the USFWS decision not to list the ---- as endangered or threatened.
Florida Black Bear
The Thylacines were exterminated in ------ by sheep growers in the 1930s.
Tasmania
The Key Deer population in the Florida Keys has increased due to protection from hunting and
increased availability of freshwater.
State wildlife biologists argued for the construction of culverts under the highway near Wekiva
Florida to protect wandering, Black bears.
The rhesus macques released in the Florida Keys were said to be free of
Herpes B.
Long-beaked Echidnas now occur only in
New Guinea.
In 1994, 29 ---- were released onto St. Matthew Islands and 20 years later they had increased to nearly 6000 individuals.
reindeer
Key deer in Florida numbered roughly ---- individuals in 1957 before wildlife managers began their program to help them.
25
The grazing placental mammals belong to the order
Artiodactyla.
The first Rhesus macaques were released into the Florida Keys in
1970s.
The first mammals appeared in the
Triassic.
Twenty years after implementing several management practices, the mule deer herd on the Kaibab Plateau is said to have increased to ---- individuals.
100,000
When populations are rare
management strategies should try to, increase natality.
Most wildlife species have evolved a restricted breeding season because
of the huge energy expense of reproduction.
Cowbird removal
is a management technique used for benefiting the Black-capped Vireo in Texas.
In female mammals with an estrous cycle
ovulation is not concealed.
Koalas on islands
is an example of a situation where contraceptives might lower natality.
In mammals the oocytes only leave the ovary at the time of
ovulation.
The removal of brown-headed cowbirds was used as a management tool to protect
golden-cheeked warblers.
Lincoln-Peterson techniques are used particularly
secretive species.
In abundant populations natality might be reduced by the use of
contraceptives.
False:
The target population size of game species is always based on ecological or other scientific research.
Mule deer on the Kaibab Plateau benefited from the removal of
predators and competitors.
Wildlife management is aimed mostly at
managing population sizes.
True:
Male Platypuses may attempt to ensure paternity by fighting off other males.
In species with an estrous cycle paternity is largely determined by the
males.
The immune system works via
cell recognition.
Use of feeders and trailmaster cameras allows for direct counting of
Turkeys.
The idea behind using contraceptives in the elephant population in Kruger National Park was to
prevent females from coming into estrous.
For populations that are declining managers should try to
reduce mortality.
The USFWS flies fixed length transects in Canada to count
waterfowl.
Scientists explored the use of immuno-contraception to control ---- in England.
gray squirrels
The term "rut" refers to the ----- of deer.
breeding season
In Lincoln-Peterson techniques the first step is to --- several individuals.
mark
If a person with type A blood accidentally receives a transfusion of type B blood, the recipient's ---- will agglutinate the type B blood.
antibodies
In 2001, hunters in Georgia were allowed to kill --- bucks.
just 2
True:
Across the US most bow hunting seasons are separate from gun seasons.
True:
White-tailed deer have become pests in parts of the US.
Wildlifers estimated the number of natural deer deaths in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan by counting carcasses
in 15 acre plots.
PeTA
is an organization that is totally opposed to sport hunting.
False:
Each year the number of hunters in the US increases.
Mourning doves
is a species in which both males and females are harvested because the two sexes cannot be distinguished in the field.
The FWC divided the state into --- management zones.
3
Subsistence hunting is still practiced in
the Arctic.
Most state wildlife agencies argue that hunting mortality is
compensatory.
The Pittman-Robertson
act passed in 1937 generated revenue for game and non-game management.
Hunters in the state of ----- may kill deer legally with hand-thrown spears.
Alabama
In Florida --- of the people actually buy a hunting license each year.
< 2%
During the winter of 2000-2001 about ---- white-tailed deer died in the Upper Peninsual in Michigan.
102,000
In the fall/winter of 2000 hunters in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan killed about ---- deer.
99,000
With ------ the majority of males are "surplus" in the sense that they do not need to breed in order to maintain population growth.
polygyny
The so-called Buck Law might be effective in allowing for a harvest without reducing the population growth rate, if the species involved has a ----- mating system.
polygynous
The state of Colorado is subdivided into ---- big game management units.
200
The possession limit for white-tailed deer in Georgia is ----.
8
In Idaho, about --- of the people actually buy hunting license each year.
20%
True:
Sharp-tailed Grouse were introduced to the lower peninsula of Michigan.
Wildlifers call the degree of patchiness in a landscape the
interspersion.
The ruffed grouse
is a game bird that lives in densely forested habitats of Michigan.
Species that belong to the same genus are called
congeners.
The term "Evil Quartet" was first used in conversation by
Diamond.
Local (patch-wide) extinctions were higher in
small patches.
Grouse belong to the order
Galliformes.
The Rufous-sided Towhee
is an example of a species of songbird that thrives in edge habitat.
Ring-necked Pheasants thrive in
farmland.
Mutation
is not one of the four members of the Evil Quartet.
Bobwhite Quail populations
for example, should benefit from, higher levels of interspersion.
The Lawrence's Warbler
is actually a second or third generation hybrid.
Species in fragments of habitat have higher extinction rates partly because smaller fragments
support smaller populations.
Increase in "edge of patch" ma
y increase certain game bird populations.
The ring-necked pheasant
is perhaps the most abundant game bird in Michigan today.
Following the Lake Mack fire in northern Michigan
the first plants to re-colonize the area were, annual grasses.
Terborgh
wrote a book called "Where have all the birds gone?" which details the decline of many species of Neotropical migrant birds following tropical deforestation.
Brewster's
Warblers are hybrids formed by a direct cross between a Golden-winged and Blue winged Warblers.
Before the Europeans arrived
the southeastern half of Michigan was dominated by, hardwoods.
Prairie chickens were found nearly statewide in Michigan by the
1930s.
The Wood Thrush
is an example of a forest interior species that does not occur in wood lots below a certain size.
Jack Pines tend to grow on --- soil.
sandy
Increased ---- of a habitat patch leads to improved predator access to that patch.
edge
When Europeans first arrived in what is now the state of Michigan, there were roughly ---- square miles of prairie habitat.
125
Prairie chickens are today (2007) found ---- in Michigan.
nowhere
The ----- warbler is an example of a species closely related to the blue-winged warbler that lives chiefly in successional habitats.
golden-winged
When artificial prairies gave way to open shrub lands and mixed grassland the ------ replaced the prairie chicken.
sharp-tailed grouse
The sharp-tailed grouse naturally invaded ---- of Michigan.
the upper peninsula
Brown-headed Cowbirds and snow geese and Canada geese
are wildlife species that has increased due to the effects of farming.
False:
Environmental problems from chemicals used in farming are limited to pesticides.
The Montana Department of Livestock wants all wild bison that enter Montana from Yellowstone NP to be
shot.
In the late 1990s the Dead Zone was roughly the size of
New Jersey.
Bioaccumulation
as once seen in Peregrine Falcons, is the negative effect caused by, pesticides.
The blackbuck antelope is native to
India.
85%
of western public rangelands are managed by the BLM and US Forest Service.
The bare ground that comes from overgrazing can
favor the invasion of nonindigenous plants.
Selenium poisoning is a problem for water birds especially in farming areas of
California.
True:
Native Americans in the Yellowstone region oppose the harvest of buffalo that stray from Yellowstone National Park.
Blackbuck Antelope are now established in the wild in the state of
Texas.
The so-called "Dead Zone" in the Gulf of Mexico is the result of runoff of
fertilizer.
Fisheries in the Aral Sea collapsed due to
water extraction for farming.
Water with no dissolved oxygen at all is called
anoxic.
Methyl Bromide
is the chemical once used by Florida tomato growers that has been found to be harmful to the ozone layer.
Publicly owned range lands are mostly managed by the BLM and the
US Forest Service.
Pasturella
is a disease of domestic sheep and possibly wild bighorn sheep.
Cattle growers in Montana fear that wild bison might transmit ----- to their cattle.
brucellosis
Presently --- of BLM managed lands are grazed by privately owned herds of livestock.
90%
Of the big game species in the west, the ---- are most likely to compete with cattle and sheep.
deer
Spontaneous miscarriages can result from ---- infections in domestic cattle.
brucellosis
The "Dead Zone" is a region of ----- water.
hypoxic
Species that require dissolved ---- cannot live in the Dead Zone.
oxygen
Eggshell thinning was a problem for the ----- during the 1950s and 1960s.
peregrine falcon
The US public owns about ----- acres of rangelands in the 11 western states.
260 million
At least 10 species of ---- have been introduced to New Zealand for recreational hunting.
deer
In Thailand, some people want to ranch ---- for their body parts.
tigers
The ---- is a bird on the big island of Hawaii that was negatively impacted by grazing.
Palila
The ---- Protocol, signed by the Reagan Administration banned the production of Methyl Bromide.
Montreal
Chronic Wasting Disease is a growing problem in the ----- herd of the western US.
mule deer
The ----- is a native bird species that apparently can coexist with ranching in south Florida.
crested caracara
Shark cartilage
is commonly sold as a cancer preventative agent.
Wildlife trade is considered illegal in the US if
it violates US law.
Seahorse
is an example of a finfish.
Kangaroos are harvested commercially by professional shooters because they
compete with sheep.
False:
Fish and other ocean species are not as important source of food or money for any of today's societies.
Rhino urine and dried seahorses are thought by some to be cures for
asthma.
Snake
skins from Asia are fashioned into cowboy boots in the US.
False:
Aquaculture is good because it has no effect on wild fisheries.
Tegus
are commercially harvested in South America for their skins.
"Bushmeat" refers to meat from animals generally harvested in
the tropics.
Safina wrote a Scientific American article in which he argued that in the 1990s people in the northeastern states shifted from catching cod and haddock and hake to
skates and dogfish.
In a Scientific American article
Carl Safina argued that the peak harvest of fish came to some fisheries as early as, 1969.
Freshwater Turtles
are most often traded for meat in southeast Asia.
Tortoises are traded heavily as people desire them for use as
pets.
True:
Some species of birds have been introduced to the Hawaiian islands by US Military personnel.
Red imported fire ant
is an animal species that is not a member of the Dirty Dozen.
Ian Atkinson of New Zealand showed that native Hawaiian forest birds suffered from many extinctions following
construction of deep water wharves.
Three
species of snakeheads have been introduced into Florida.
The flathead catfish is native to
the central US.
Lion-tailed Macaques
were released on St. Catherines Island off the coast of Georgia.
Common Mynas are indigenous to
Asia.
Cutthroat trout lay their eggs in
tributaries.
Deforestation
is a potential cause of chains of extinctions.
Rosy Wolfsnails were introduced to Hawaii
for biological control of another species.
High summer temperatures
is not one of the reasons listed for Florida being a favorable spot introduced species.
Mutualism
on (with) native species is not a negative impact of nonindigenous species.
Asian swamp eels are good invaders in Florida as they can
survive in shallow water.
Shellfish
are thought to suffer seriously from predation by green crabs.
One problem with introduced lake trout in Lake Yellowstone is that they
eat native trout.
Lake trout
introduced to Lake Yellowstone are feared to have a very negative impact on the native population of grizzly bears.
The so-called "Dirty Dozen" is a list prepared by
the Nature Conservancy.
In addition to the southeastern US the Rosy Wolfsnail has been introduced to
French Polynesia.
Snakeheads in Florida were found to feed chiefly on
crayfish.
Fitzgerald reported in her book that ---- of snake products were imported to the US in 1985.
$105 million
Introduced ------ are harvested in Argentina for human food.
European Hares
Over-collecting is a danger for populations of certain --- in the southwestern US.
snakes
Pouches make from Kangaroo ---- are a common knickknack available in markets in Australia.
scrotums
According to Safina the world fish harvest peaked in 1989 at about ---- metric tons.
80 million
The --- are an example of an introduced species that is harvested commercially in Argentina.
European Hare
In -----, voters in Florida passed the net ban.
1994
The ------ taken from bears are used in several medications in TCM.
gall bladders
Introduced ---- are harvested commercially in Australia.
water buffalo
The green crab was introduced to the US from
Europe.
The ------ introduced to Guam has just about exterminated the native bird species there.
Brown tree snake
As of the mid-1980s ---- was the nation that imported the highest number of sea turtles.
Japan
Fitzgerald claims in her book that ---- live snakes were imported to the US in 1985.
160,000
Because of the "bushmeat" industry various species of ---- are particularly in jeopardy.
primates
Argentina manages ---- harvest by forcing hunters to sell the skins to tanneries.
tegu
The ----- invaded the island of Guam at the end of WWII.
Brown tree snake
The introduced ---- in south Florida may disrupt native food webs and compete with wading birds.
Asian swamp eel
Along with Florida, ----- is the state with the most NIS.
Hawaii
Professor Steve Humphrey, Director of the School of Natural Resources and Environment at UF, found that ---- competed for food with native Florida beach mice.
house mice
Atkinson argued that ----- were responsible for the demise of native Hawaiian forest birds.
rats
Richard Warner found that native Hawaiian birds did not become afflicted with malaria until after
the introduction of mosquitoes.
Introduced Lake Trout in Lake Yellowstone may grow to ---- lbs. in weight.
40+
Another example of competition between native and nonindigenous species involves ---- and introduced birds.
Hawaiian forest birds
The Dirty Dozen includes -- plant and -- animal species.
6,6
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