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AP Environmental Science Chapter 2


The species Homo Sapiens has lived on Earth about ______ years.

Improved Living Standards

Characterizes cultural revolutions.

Agricultural Revolution

Characterized by cultivating wild plants, demand for minerals, spread of disease, pollution and deforestation.


Domestication of wild plants and animals occurred about ______ years ago.

Slash-and-burn Cultivation

Leaves ashes from burned vegetation, which adds plant nutrients to the soil.

Shifting Cultivation

Alternates planting periods with fallow periods.

Subsistence Farmers

Grow only enough food to feed their families.

Agricultural Societies

Resulted in growth of villages, specialized occupations and long distance trade, increase soil erosion, increased deforestation, increased manipulation of nature and urbanization.


Where did the Industrial Revolution begin?


When did the Industrial Revolution reach the USA?

Industrial Revolution

Characterized by average per capita energy consumption ability to utilize Earth's resources, economic growth and increased population growth.

Shortage of wood

What was a major stimulus for the Industrial Revolution.

Nonrenewable Resources

Energy use during the Industrial Revolution was based primarily on ______.

American settlers

Primarily viewed the continent as hostile wilderness that needed to be conquered.


Henry David Thoreau and George Perkins Marsh were ______

first federal forest reserves and wildlife refuges

A starting point in establishing the federal government's responsibility to protect public lands from unsustainable resource use was the establishment of the ________ and _______.

Theodore Roosevelt

Established the first federal wildlife refuge


The decade ____-____ is considered the golden age of conservation.

the greatest number of people

Preservationists and wise-use resource managers agree that public lands should be managed to benefit __________________.

Gifford Pinchot

He used sustainable-yield and multiple-use principles to manage America's renewable forest resources.

John Muir

Developed the Sierra Club in 1892

Scientific conservationists

Theodore Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot were ________________.

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