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CompTIA® A+ Quick Reference (220-801 and 220-802)
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Terms in this set (143)
___ is the actual speed of the CPU is governed by a BIOS setting.
Processors can be overclocked by manually adjusting the _ _, __ and __ settings.
the clock rate, voltage, and memory
The __ __ is the portion of the CPU that performs calculations and operations
The __ is a temporary storage for the core so that it can "remember" the most recent processes
Level one cache (L1 cache) is located in the __ __.
L2 cache and L3 cache are part of the __ __.
____ enables a processor core to run two execution threads at the
______is the process of running one or more operating systems inside separate windows on
on the same computer.
Intel uses the term ___ to identify processors that support virtualization,
AMD uses the term ___ to identify processors that support virtualization,
Intel's Core i3, Core i5, and some Core i7 desktop processors (and all mobile processor in these families) include integrated _____,
AMD uses the term __________ (APU) to refer to its processors with integrated
Accelerated Processing Unit
__ __ __(ZIF) activate a _____
to make actual contact.
_____ (LGA) and _____ (BGA) refer to
processors that use contact-based rather than pin-based connections to the motherboard.
Land Grid Array and Ball Grid Array
_____ (PGA) and _____ (SPGA) describe the pin arrangement of the
CPU interface with the motherboard.
Pin Grid Array and Staggered Pin Grid Array
There are two major types of RAM (random access memory): __ and __.
dynamic and static
____ (_) loses information in a very short period of time in the absence of power.
____ (_) retains its data for longer periods without power and is faster than DRAM, but is bulkier and is much more expensive
In general, _____ is used as system memory, and _____ is used for cache and storage devices.
DRAM , SRAM
____data transfer is timed to the system clock
the first type of SDRAM used in PCs had __ pins.
double data rate (DDR) memory has __ pins and is inserted as a ___.
DDR2 and DDR3 both contain __-pin modules.
The memory modules used for SDRAM-class memory are known as _____
dual inline memory module (DIMM)
This module, ___, provides 64-bit-wide memory access.
These processors that have a 64-bit data bus: ___ and ___.
x86 (32-bit) and x86-64 (64-bit)
DIMMs have a _____ data bus
RIMM stands for __ __ Memory Module
The RAMBUS Inline
(RIMM) uses a proprietary _____ pin slot
184- or 232
RAMBUS often called _____ is found in ___ ___ systems and a limited number of PCs. On such systems, empty RIMM slots must be filled with (CRIMM) _____modules.
RDRAM,game console,Continuity RIMM
__ ___ (VRAM)is used for ___ ___ ___ (_)
video RAM for the use of the graphic processing unit (GPU).
Most GPUs now use variations
of what kind of RAM?
___ is used when the reliability of the data is more important than the speed at which it is written or read. ___ adds a bit to each byte so that every byte is an even number.
Parity is used in some ___ ___, ___ ___, and RAM,
network communications, hard drives,
__ __ ___ (_) detects and fixes corrupt data in RAM.
Error correction code (ECC)
CMOS stores the values that you select in the ___.
___ built in to the motherboard help direct and process data and commands for
The___ provides power to the CPU by adjusting the power received from the power supply to the appropriate voltage levels needed for a particular CPU.
___ is the basis of all modern motherboards,including Micro-___ and ___
ATX , ATX and ITX
____ reverses the positions of components versus ATX and is designed for superior cooling of components such as memory and the CPU
____boards and ____ boards plug into the motherboard to expand the number of expansion slots or ports available, or in some cases, add devices.
Daughter and Riser
_ _ _ (AMR) and _ _ _ (CNR) riser cards provide I/O port connections
Audio Modem Riser (AMR) and Communications Network Risers
Internal hard drives mount in ___-inch or ___-inch bays
3.5-inch or 2.5-inch
Optical drives mount in ___-inch bays
External drives connect through many kinds of readers and ports. ___,___, and ____ are common.
USB, FireWire, and eSATA
Solid-state drives (SSD) contain chips that contain ____. This is often called __ __.
flash memory cards, NVRAM, thumb drives, jump drives, and USB flash memory drives all use ___ memory.
SSDs contain ___ and a ___ controller to enable the drive to emulate a hard disk while providing much faster performanc
NVRAM and a SATA
____ ___ (SATA) drives are now the industry standard
SATA hard disks are hot swappable when the host adapter is configured in the __ __ __ __ (AHCI) mode.
Advanced Host Controller Interface
A SATA host adapter can be converted into an eSATA port by connecting an eSATA header cable to an unused ___ ___ ____
SATA host adapter
Parallel ATA (PATA) has channels:____ and ____.Each channel can contain two drives: master and slave
primary and secondary
CS requires the use of an ___-wire PATA cable with a ___ connector at one end, a ___connector at the other end, and a ___connector in the middle.
The blue connector is used for the _ _ _on the motherboard and the __ and __ connectors for hard disks. The black connector is ____ , and the drive connected to the gray connector is ___.
PATA host adapter,
black and gray,primary,secondary
Standard ___PATA cables do not support CS
Note that __-wire cables are also required for use with drives that run at Ultra ATA 66-100-133 speeds
SCSI is actually a __ __ of __ controlled by an SCSI controller
small network of devices
SATA sometimes has __pins if it provides its own power
SCSI cable will always be the __
most narrow _(8-bit bus) SCSI use a __-pin cable. and a wide (16-bit bus) SCSI use a __-pin cable
External SCSI devices have two connectors to allow the device to pass through SCSI signals intended for __ __
An SCSI array requires unique IDs, created using a binary code: __ bits for SCSI, and 4 bits for __ SCSI. This code is set by __ ,__ __ , push button switch, or can be configured with a separate SCSI BIOS. Just like on a network, every device needs a unique ID number from__ to __ .
3 bits, wide,jumper, dip switch, 0-15
SCSI arrays also need a __ medium (SCSI cable), at each end a __, and a __ card.
SCSI "__ ___" the necessary terminators at each end to absorb the signal. In place of terminators, it is common in narrow SCSI implementations to install a termination-enabled device at each end to serve as both____and terminator. However, wide and higher-speed SCSI imple
mentations use __ (__)terminators that plug into the unused SCSI post on the end of the daisy chain.
daisy-chains, HDD active (powered)
____ writes the data across two drives using a technique called
striping. This increases speed, but does not provide any data protection
__ (___), using two disks, simply copies changes from one HDD to the other in real time
RAID 1 (mirroring)
Desktop computers with onboard RAID adapters (typically SATA in newer systems, PATA in older systems) support RAID_ RAID _ and some also support RAID 1+0 (RAID 10).
RAID 0, RAID 1,
___require at least four disks, because they are either two striped disks that are mirrors to two others, 0+1, or they are two mirrored disks striped to two others, 1+0 (10)
____ writes data across at least three HDDs.___ writes data across the drives and also stores information about the contents of each drive on the others. In the event of a drive failure, the data stored on the failed drive can be re-created from the information stored on the other drives. __is commonly used on servers, and typically uses SCSI, __, or __
RAID 5, RAID 5, RAID 5,SATA, or SAS
Typical fan sizes range from __mm to __mm
80mm to 140mm
Orange:power supply wire
Red:power supply wire
Yellow:power supply wire
Black:power supply wire
Gray:power supply wire
Purple:power supply wire
White:power supply wire
5V or no connection
Green:power supply wire
Blue:power supply wire
Too little voltage
Very brief time (milliseconds) of too little voltage
Too much voltage
Very brief time (milliseconds) of too much voltage
A CRT monitor has many manual adjustments that should all be set to __ level
__ __ __ is when a beam sweeps sideways lines down the entire length of the screen 60 to 100 times a second
vertical refresh rate
Brightness controls the intensity of the display
. Interlacing draws the ___ -numbered rows of each frame, and then __of a second later, fills the space with the even numbered
___ inside the CRT stores monitors settings for reuse
__ __ __ monitors have chips that control the vertical and horizontal sets of wires. When a pixel is charged by both chips, it turns on
Passive matrix LCD
__ __ monitors act like one big integrated circuit with a __for each group of three subpixels (red, green, and blue). Each group of subpixels equals a pixel.
Active matrix, transistor
Data projectors use one of two technologies: __ or ___ (DLP)
LCD or digital light processing
LCD projectors use three separate LCDs, one each for red, green, and blue light, along with a series of __ __ to reflect colors to each LCD
DLP uses an array of ___ on a specialized processing chip that reflect light either onto the screen or away, in much the same way optical drives read their media. A __ __spinning at high speed works with the micromirror array to create full-motion color images.
micromirrors, color wheel
HDTVs might use LCD with fluorescent backlighting, LCD with LED backlighting (commonly known as LED), DLP, or plasma screen technologies and are interfaced to a computer through __, __-D, HDMI or __ __ __.
VGA, DVI-D, HDMI, or DisplayPort connectors
___ ___and ___ are the most common types of video connectors used for monitors or projectors
VGA, DVI-D, and HDMI
___ are instructions to teach the OS how to use and communi¬cate with a new piece of hardware.
The formal name for this port is a mini-DIN___ ___ ___ (TSR) 3.5mm jack.
Tip Sleeve Ring
The formal name for this port is a mini-DIN Tip Sleeve Ring (TSR) __mm jack.
The Microphones's ___ moves in response to sound waves. That signal is converted into a digital signal inside the sound card
PC99 color-coding for audio uses ___ for the microphone port
PC99 color-coding for audio uses ___ for line in like a stereo
PC99 color-coding for audio uses ___ color is audio out for speakers and headphones
Still image, video, and webcams work on the same basic principal. A ___ ___ ___ (CCD) or ___ converts a visual input into a binary stream through an ___ ___ ___ (ADC). A significant difference is the way in which the camera transfers that image to the PC.
charged coupled device ,CMOS,analog-to-digital conversion
Older types of video cameras don't stream a digital signal. Instead, it sends an analog signal through RCA, S-video, network interfaces, or proprietary ports. In this case, the ADC takes place in a ___ ___ ___
video capture card.
___ devices combine an input device with an application that compares a unique pattern (retina, fingerprint, palm print, and so on) to a password.
Computers should include powerful processor (high-end, six-core), high-end video (best available GPU from AMD or NVIDIA), and max¬imum RAM (16GB or more, depending on motherboard limitations, with a 64-bit operating system [Windows 7 Professional, Ultimate, and Enterprise support up to 192GB of RAM]).
Graphic/CAD CAM design workstation—
Specialized audio and video card. Large (2TB or larger) and fast (10,000-15,000RPM) hard drive, dual monitors (22-inch or larger).
Audio/video editing workstation
Maximum RAM (8GB to 16GB or more, depending on moth¬erboard limitations) and CPU cores (six cores or more).
processor (high-end AMD or Intel with four cores or more), high- end video/specialized GPU (high-end AMD or Nvidia chipset with 2GB of RAM or more), better sound card with onboard signal processing, high-end cooling on CPU and GPU (add additional fans or consider liquid cooling).
audio (5.1, 7.1), HDMI output, HTPC compact form factor, TV tuner , BD drive
Home theater PC—Surround-sound
Desktop applications (Microsoft Office or compatible suite), meets recommended requirements for running Windows
Standard thick client
Basic applications (browser, Microsoft Office or compatible suite), meets minimum requirements for running Windows.
Media streaming, file sharing, print sharing, gigabit MC connected to gigabit switch/router, SATA RAID array (preferably 10 or 0+1 for speed and data safety).
Home server PC
__ __-fiber-optic cable—Has a thin core (between 8 and 10 microns) designed to carry a single light ray long distances.
___ ___--fiber-optic cable—Has a thicker core (62.5 microns) than single-mode; carries multiple light rays for short distances.
Fiber-optic connector type: __ uses square connectors
Fiber-optic connector type: __ Uses round connectors
Fiber-optic connector type: __ Uses round connector
Fiber Optic FC connector
Fiber Optic SC connector
Fiber Optic ST connector
Category 5e and 6 have more twists compared to Category 5 to improve protection from __ and __ ___and to enable faster transmission.
crosstalk and line noise
Ethernet networks based on either type of TP cabling support a maximum distance of __meters. TIA/EIA standards allow for 90 m of horizontal run (in the walls, ceilings, and plenum). This leaves __m for patch cables (outside the walls).
100 ,90, 10
A __-__ ___ ____directly maps the pins on both ends of the cable. Pin 1 goes to pin 1, pin 2 to pin 2, and so on.
A straight-through patch cable
To create a crossover cable, wire one end to the __-_ standard, and the other end to the __-_ standard.
568-A , 568-B
___Mbps Ethernet used coaxial cables and connectors
Coaxial cabling creates a ___ topology; each end of the bus must be ___ , and if any part of the bus fails, the entire network fails.
10Mbps Ethernet ___ used coaxial cable with a vampire tap (___ ) or ___ with a BNC
RG-8 , Thicknet, RG-58
Cable "F-connector" RG-59—Used in older cable TV or satellite TV installations; ___ resistance. Also used by the long-obsolete ___ LAN standard.
Cable "F-connector" RG-6—Uses same connectors as RG-59, but has a larger ___ with ___ ___ ; used in cable TV/Internet, satellite TV/Internet, and fixed wireless Internet/TV service; 75ohm resistance.
IPv6 uses a ___ bit address, where¬as IPv4 uses only ___ bits,
TCP/IP v6 uses___ addressing,
A ___ ___ is a number that the router uses to determine what part of the address is the name of the network and what part is the name of the host.
When a computer or device on a private network needs to connect to the Internet, a router or gateway makes the connection and uses a feature called ___ ___ ___ (__) to convert the private IP address into a public one. The conversion process happens in reverse when the information is relayed back to the requesting device on a private network.
Network Address Translation (NAT)
A DHCP server can be a routine running on a ___ or a feature of a router or gateway device.
___ ___ ___ (__)assigns an IPv4 address in the 169.254.x.x address range.
Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA
In IPv6, the equivalent to an APIPA address is a ___ ___ ___ . IPv6 can be routed over ___
link-local address, IPv4
___ ___ ___ ___(__)is used to access and maintain distributed directo¬ries of information (directory services) such as the kind involved with Microsoft domains
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
___ ___ ___ ___(__)is used as the standard for managing and monitoring devices on your network. It manages routers, switches, and computers and is often incorporated in software known as a network management system (NMS).
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
___ ___ ___ (__) protocol provides access to shared items such as files and printers.
The Server Message Blocks (SMB)
___ ___ ___ (__) allows data to be exchanged between computers on a secured channel This protocol offers a more secure replacement to FTP and Telnet. The Secure Shell server housing the data you want to access would have port 22 open
Secure Shell (SSH)
___ ___ ___ (__)
sessions are known as connection-oriented sessions. This means that every packet that is sent is checked for delivery. If the receiving computer doesn't receive a packet, it cannot assemble the message, and will ask the sending computer to transmit the packet again. No one packet is left behind
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
___ ___ ___ (__) sessions are known as ___ sessions. UDP is used in streaming media sessions. In these cases, if a packet is dropped, it is not asked for again.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) ,connectionless
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