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APUSH review: Period 8 (1945-1980)
Terms in this set (40)
Bakke v. University of California
(1978) Ruled that a university's use of racial "quotas" in its admissions process was unconstitutional, but a school's use of "affirmative action" to accept more minority applicants was constitutional in some circumstances.
A social and artistic movement of the 1950s, stressing unrestrained literary self-expression and nonconformity with the mainstream culture.
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest.
A program the Mexican and American government agreed to in which contract laborers would be admitted to the United States for a limited time working as migrant farm laborers and working factory jobs, WWII
Brown vs. Board of Education
1954- court decision that declared state laws segregating schools to be unconstitutional, Thurgood Marshall, Overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Civil Rights Act 1964
1964; banned discrimination in public acomodations, prohibited discrimination in any federally assisted program, outlawed discrimination in most employment; enlarged federal powers to protect voting rights and to speed school desegregation; this and the voting rights act helped to give African-Americans equality on paper, and more federally-protected power so that social equality was a more realistic goal
"Silent Spring", sparked a real environmentalist movement: which introduced the adverse environmental effects of DDT (pesticides) and the fact that it would kill the enviornment and there would be no birds to sing.- a silent spring
Clean Air Act
(RN), 1970 reaction to Rachel Carson in her 1962 in Silent Spring, It describes one of a number of pieces of legislation relating to the reduction of smog and air pollution in general. The legislation forced the country to enforce clean air standards to improve health and showed that America was moving towards certain environmentalist measures.
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
A U.S. foreign policy adopted by President Harry Truman in the late 1940s, in which the United States tried to stop the spread of communism by creating alliances and helping weak countries to resist Soviet advances
The collapse of colonial empires. Between 1947 and 1962, practically all former colonies in Asia and Africa gained independence.
Detente (mutual coexistence)
A lessening of tensions between U.S. and Soviet Union. Besides disarming missiles to insure a lasting peace between superpowers, Nixon pressed for trade relations and a limited military budget. The public did not approve.
Name of the book by Betty Friedan that discussed the frustration of many women in the 1950's and 1960's who felt they were restricted to their roles of mother and homemaker.
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education, war on poverty
Griswold vs. Connecticut
struck down a Connecticut law criminalizing the use of contraceptives violated the right to marital privacy. Under the due process clause of the 14th Amendment.
Inflation of the 1970s
stock market is a mess. It loses 40% in an 18-month period, and for close to a decade few people want anything to do with stocks. Economic growth is weak, which results in rising unemployment that eventually reaches double-digits
Internment of Japanese
Japanese Americans were place in camps because the government was afraid of spies and sabotage during WWII
Lyndon B. Johnson
signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. he had a war on poverty in his agenda. in an attempt to win, he set a few goals, including the great society, the economic opportunity act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy famillies. he also created a department of housing and urban development. his most important legislation was probably medicare and medicaid.
(1950-53) A conflict between UN forces (primarily US and S Korea) against North Korea, and later China; Gen. Douglas Macarthur led UN forces and was later replaced by Gen. Ridgeway; Resulted in Korea remaining divided at the 38th parallel.
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
(LBJ) 1965 , a federal program of health insurance for persons 65 years of age and older
Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned American against it in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that the combined lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that contracted with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending.
Miranda vs. Arizona
Court case determined that no confession could be admissible in court unless the suspect had first been read their rights.
Economic crisis of 1973 that occurred when OPEC nations refused to export oil to Western nations. Ensuing economic crisis plagued Gerald Ford's time in office. / Many Arab countries created embargo against US for support of Israel in the Yom Kippur War; and the Iran Revolution caused US to not have enough oil supplies for energy and cars
An international oil cartel originally formed in 1960. Represents the majority of all oil produced in the world. Attempts to limit production to raise prices. It's long name is the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.
Second Red Scare
Post-World War II Red Scare focused on the fear of Communists in U.S. government positions; peaked during the Korean War and declined soon thereafter, when the U.S. Senate censured Joseph McCarthy, who had been a major instigator of the hysteria.
Rock and Roll
music that grew out of rhythm and blues and that became popular in the 1950s
A mode of life opposed to the conventional or dominant, that rejects established social values and practices, esp. among the young.
July 26, 1956, Nasser (leader of Egypt) nationalized the Suez Canal, Oct. 29, British, French and Israeli forces attacked Egypt. UN forced British to withdraw; made it clear Britain was no longer a world power
U.S. region, mostly comprised of southeastern and southwestern states, which has grown most dramatically since World War II.
Tennessee Valley Authority
A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.
The Affluent Society
A book written by John Kenneth Galbraith that criticized post-war American life and warned that the public sector was starved for funds and public enterprises were everywhere deteriorating.
(LBJ), France tried to keep control of SE Asia, but Vietminh (Ho Chi Minh), North was Vietminh govt, South was anti communist, US helped them with military troops
A cohort of individuals born in the United States between 1946 and 1964, which was just after World War II in a time of relative peace and prosperity. These conditions allowed for better education and job opportunities, encouraging high rates of both marriage and fertility.
Iran Hostage crisis
In November 1979, revolutionaries stormed the American embassy in Tehran and held 52 Americans hostage. The Carter administration tried unsuccessfully to negotiate for the hostages release. On January 20, 1981, the day Carter left office, Iran released the Americans, ending their 444 days in captivity.
1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President (CREEP) to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security gaurd foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committe Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was nominated for impeachment, resigns
marriage between persons of different religions, races, castes, etc.
Social Safety net
the many programs that the federal government provides to protect Americans against economic and social misfortune
An ideal that embraces all aspects of civilized life and that is linked to fundamental notions of fairness and to cultural beliefs about right and wrong.
1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulsesto achieve true independence and equality
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