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35 terms

Cell Catch Phrase

Biology
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Cell
(biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms
Cell Theory
This says that all living things are made of cells, that cells are the basic unit of structure and function and that cells only come from other cells.
Nucleus
a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
eukaryote
an organism with cells characteristic of all life forms except primitive microorganisms such as bacteria
prokaryote
a unicellular organism having cells lacking membrane-bound nuclei
Organelle
A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell
Cytoplasm
material between the cell membrane and the nucleus
Chromatin
the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins
Nuclear Envelope
layer of two membranes that surrounds the nucleus of a cell
Chromosome
a threadlike body in the cell nucleus that carries the genes in a linear order
Nucleolus
The organelle where ribosomes are made, synthesized and partially assembled, located in the nucleus
Ribosome
an organelle in the cytoplasm of a living cell
Endoplasmic Reticulum
a cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another
Golgi Apparatus
A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell
Lysosome
an organelle found in the cytoplasm of most cells (especially in leukocytes and liver and kidney cells)
Vacuole
cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates
Mitochondria
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
Chloroplast
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that captures the energy from sunlight and converts it into chemical energy
Cytoskeleton
a microscopic network of actin filaments and microtubules in the cytoplasm of many living cells that gives the cell shape and coherence
Centriole
one of two small cylindrical cell organelles composes of 9 triplet microtubules
Cell Membrane
a thin membrane around the cytoplasm of a cell
Cell Wall
a thin membrane around the cytoplasm of a cell
Lipid Bilayer
double-layered sheet that forms the core of nearly all cell membranes
Concentration Gradient
Difference in concentration of a substance on two sides of a membrane
Diffusion
the movement of particles from regions of higher density to regions of lower density
Osmosis
diffusion of molecules through a semipermeable membrane from a place of higher concentration to a place of lower concentration until the concentration on both sides is equal
Isotonic
of or involving muscular contraction in which tension is constant while length changes
Hypertonic
(of a solution) having a higher osmotic pressure than a comparison solution
Hypotonic
(of a solution) having a lower osmotic pressure than a comparison solution
Facilitated Diffusion
movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels
Active Transport
transport of a substance (as a protein or drug) across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient
Endocytosis
process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane
Phagocytosis
process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles and take them into the cell
Pinocytosis
process by which certain cells can engulf and incorporate droplets of fluid
Exocytosis
the process by which a substance is released from the cell through a vesicle that transports the substance to the cell surface and then fuses with the membrane to let the substance out