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Chapter 6 - Project Time Management

Key Concepts:

Terms in this set (29)

.1 Schedule Management Plan
A component of the PM plan that establishes the criteria and the activities for developing monitoring and controlling the schedule.

The schedule management plan can establish the following:

- Project schedule model development - scheduling methodology and the scheduling tool to be used inthe the dev. of the project shceuld model are specified.

-Level of accuracy - acceptable range used in determining realistic activity duration estimates is specified and may include and amount for contingencies.
-Units of measure. Such as staff hours, weeks for time off, etc. is defined for each resources.

- Organizational procedures links. WBS provides the framework for the sehdule management plan, allowing for consistency with the estimates and resulting schedules.

-Project schedule model maintenance. The process used to update the status adn recod progress of the project schedule model during the execution of the product defined.

-Control thresholds. Variance thresholds for monitoring schedule perforamance may be specified to indicate an agreed-upon amount of variation to be allowed before some anction needs to be taken. Threshholds are typically expressed as percentage deviations

-Rules of performance measurement - Earned Value Management (EVM) rules or other physical mearsurement rules of performance measurement are set.

-Reporting formats - formats and frequency for the various schedule reports are defined.

-Process descriptions - descriptions for each of the schedule management processes are documented.
.1 Precedence Diagramming Method
Used for constructing a schedule model in which activities are represented by nodes and are graphically linked by one or more relatonships to show the sequence in which the activities are to be performed. Activity-on-node (AON) is one method of representing a precedence diagram.

PDM includes 4 types of dependncies or logical relationships A predecessor activity is in activity that logically comes after another activity in the schedule: Finish to Start (FS), Finish to Finish (FF), Start to Start (SS) and Start to Finish (SF).

FS most commonly used SF rarely used.

.2 Dependency Determination
Characterized by the following attributes: Mandatory or discretionariy, Internal or external discrepencies, mandatory internal discrepencies, discretionary exteranl dependencies, or discrsionary intrnal discrepencies.

- Mandatory Dependencies

legally or contractually required or inherent in the nature of the work.

-Discretionary Dependncies

Preferred logic, preferential logic, or soft logic. Are established based on knowlege of best practices withing a particular application are or some unusual aspect of the project where a specific sequence is desired, even though there may be other acceptable sequences.

-External dependencies
Involve a relationship between project activities and non-project actvities. Usually outside the project team's control.

-Internal Dependencies
Involve a precedence relationship between project activities and are generally inside the project team's control.

.3 Leads and Lags
The amount of time whereby a successor activity can be advanced with respect to a predecessor activity.

Lag is the amount of time whereby a successor activity will be delyaed with respect to a precessor activity.
.1 Schedule Management Plan
ADIS 6.1.3.1 Defines the method used and the level of accuracy along with other criteria required to estimate activity durations including the project update cycle.

.2 Activity List
ADIS 6.2.3.1 Identifies the activities that will need duration estimates.

.3 Activity Attributes
ADIS 6.2.3.0 The primary day for use in estimating duration required for each activity in the activity list.

.4 Activity Resource Requirements
ADIS 6.4.3.1 Requiremetns will have an effect on the duration of the activity, since the level to which the resesources ssigned to the activity meet the requirements will siggficanly influence the duration of most activities.
p. 167

.6 Project Scope Statement
ADIS 5.3.3.1 Are considered when estimating the activity durations. IBLT: Existing conditions, Avaialblity of informaiton and Length of the reporting periods.

.7 Risk Register
ADIS 11.2.3.1 Provids a list of risks, along with the results of risk analysis and risk response planning. Updates are included with project documents updates ADIS 11.5.3.2

.8 Resource Breakdown Structure
ADIS 6.4.3.2 Provides a hierarchical structure of the identified resources by resource category and resource type.
P. 168

.9 Enterprise Environmental Factors
ADIS 2.1.5. IBLT Durations estimating databases and other reference data, Productivity metrics, Published commercial information, and Location of team members.

.10 Organizational Process Assets
ADIS 2.1.4 IBLT Historical duration information, Project calendars, Scheduing methodology, and Lessons learned.
p.169
.1 Expert Judgement
Guided by historical information can provide duration estimate information or recommended maximum activity durations from prior similar projects. Can also be used to determine whether to combine methods of estimating and how to reconcile the differences between them.

.2 Analogous Estimating
A technique used for estimating the duration of cos of an activity or project using historical data from a similar activity or project. Uses parameters from a previous, similar project, such as duration, budget, size, weight and complexity, as the basis for estimating the same parameter or measure for a future project. This technique relies on actual duration of previous, similar projects, similar projects as the bases for estimating the project.

Is generally less costly and less time consuming than other techniques, but also less accurate. Most reliable when similar activities are similar in fact and not just in appearance.
p.169

.3 Parametric Estimating
An estimating technique in which an algorithm is used to calculate cost or duration based on historical data and project parameters. Uses statistical relatiohnship between historical data and other variable to calculate an estimate for activity parameters.

Activity durations can be quantitatively determined by multiplying the quantity of work to be performed by labor hours per unit of work.

This technique can produce higher levels of accuracy depending upon the sophistication and underlying data built into the model. Can be applied to a total project or segments in conjunction with other estimating methods.

.4 Three-Point Estimating
The accuracy of single-point activity duration estimates may be improved by considering estimation uncertainty and risk. Orginated from PERT: Uses three estimates to define an approximate range for an activity's duration:

- Most Likely (tM) - based on duration of the activity, given resources likely to be assigned, their productivity, realistic expectations of availability for the activity, dependencies on other participants, and interruptions.

- Optimisitic (tO). Based on analysis of the best-case scenario for the activity.

- Pessimisitic (tP) Based on analysis of the worst-case scenario for the activity.

Expectation tE, can be calculated using a formula depending on the assumed distribution values within the range of the 3 estimates the expected duration.
- Triangular Distribution. tE=(tO+tM+tP)/3
- Beta Distribution (from the traditional PERT technique). tE = (tO+4tM+tP)/6

Duration estimates based on three points with an assumed distribution provide an expected duration and clarify the range of uncertainty around the expected duration.

.5 Group Decision-Making Techniques
An assessment having multiple alterntiaves with an expected outcome in the form of future actions. These techniques are useful for engaging time members to improve estimates accuracy and commitment to the emerging estimates.

.6 Reserve Analysis
Duration estimates may include contingency reserves aka reserves are the estimated duration within a schedule to account for schedule uncertainty. Contingency reserves are the estimated duration within the schedule baseline, which is allocated for identified risks that are accepted and for which contingent or mitigation responses are developed. Contingency reserves are associated with the "known-unknowns" which may be estimated to account for this unknown amount of rework. May be a percentage of estimated avtivity, fixed # of work periods,or may be developed using quantitative analysis methods such as the Monte Carol Simulation. May be reserves separated from the individual activities and aggregated buffers.

Estimates may be produces for the amount of management reserve for the project. Management reserves are intended to address the "Unknown-unknowns" that can affect a project. Management reserve is not included in in the schedule baseline, but is part of the overall project duration requirements.
.1 Schedule Management Plan
ADIS 6.1.3.1 Identifies the scheduling method and tool used to create the schedule, and how to the schedule is to be calculated.

.2 Activity List
AIDIS 6.1.3.1 Identifies the activities that will be included in the schedule model.

.3 Activity Attributes
ADIS 6.2.3.2 Provide details used to build the schedule model.

.4 Project Schedule Network Diagrams
ADIS 6.3.3.1 Contains the logical relationships of the predecessors and successors that will be used to calculate the schedule.

.5 Activity Resource Requirements
ADIS 6.4.3.1 Identifies te ytpes and quantities of resources required for each activity used to create the schedule model.

.6 Resource Calendars
ADIS 9.2.3.2 and 12.2.3.3 Contains information on the availability of resources during the project.

.7 Activity Duration Estimates
ADIS 6.5.3.1 Contains the quantitative assessments of the unlikely number of work periods that will be required to complete an activity that will be used to calculate the schedule.

.8 Project Scope Statement
ADIS 5.3.3.1 Contains assumptions and contraints that can impact the development of a project schedule.

.9 Risk Register
ADIS 11.2.3.1 Provides details of all identified risks and their characteristics that affect the schedule model.

.10 Project Staff Assignments
ADIS 9.2.3.1 Specify which resources are assigned to each activity.

.11 Resource Breakdown Structure
ADIS 6.4.3.2 Provides the details by which resource analysis and organizational reporting can be done.
p.175

.13 Environmental Factors
ADIS 2.1.5 BNLT Standards, Communication channels, and Scheduling tool to be use din developing schedule model.

.13 Organizational Process Assets
ADIS 2.1.4. Can influence the Development Schedule process IBNLT scheduling methodology and project calendars.
.1 Schedule Network Analysis
A technique that generates the project schedule model. It employs various analytical techniques, such as critical path method, critical chain method, what-if analysis, and resource optimization techniques to calculate the early and late start and finish dates for the uncompleted portions of project activities.

.2 Critical Path Method
Used to estimate the minimum project duration and determine the amount of scheduling flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model. This schedule network analysis technique calculates the early start, early finish, late start and late finish dates for all activities without regard for any resource limitation by performing a forward and backward pass analysis through the schedule network. CPM is used to calculate the amount of scheduling flexibility on the logical network paths within the schedule model.

The schedule flexibility is measured by the amount of time that a schedule activity can be delayed or extended from its early start date without delaying the project finish date or violating a schedule constraint, and is termed "total float". CPM critical path is normally characterized by zero total float on the critical path. Any activity on the critical path is called the path activity. Positive total float is caused when the backward pass is calculated from a schedule contraint that is later than the early finish date that has been calculated from a schedule constraint that is later than the early finish date has been calculated during forward pass calculation Negative total float is caused when a constraint on the late dates is violated by duration and logic.

.3 Critical Chain Method
CCM allows the project team to place buffers on any project schedule pat to account for limited resource and project uncertainties. Developed from the critical path method approach and considers effects of resource allocation, resource optimization, resource leveling, and activity duration uncertainty on the critical path method. To do so, the critical chain method introduces the concept of buffer and buffer management. The critical chain uses activities with durations that do not include safety margins, logical relationships, and resource availability with statistically determined buffers composed of the aggregated safety margins of activities at specified points in the project schedule path to account for the limited resources and project uncertainties. The resource-constrained critical path is known as the critical chain.

The CCM adds duration buffers are non-work schedule activities to manage uncertainty.

.4 Resource Optimization Techniques

Resource leveling
- Technique in which start and finish dates are adjusted based on resource constraints with the goal of balancing demand for resources with the available supply. Can be used when shared or critcally requrired resources only available at certain times, or in limited quantities, or over-allocaetd, such as when a resource has been assigned to two or more activities during the same time period or to keep resource usage at a constant level. Resource leveling can often cause the original critical path to change, usual increase.

Resource Smoothing
A technique that adjusts the activities a schedule model such that the requirements for resources on the project do not exceed certain predefined resource limits. The critical path is not changed and the completion date may not be delayed.

.5 Modeling Techniques
What-If Scenario Analysis
Simulaiton

.6 Leads and Lags
ADIS 6.3.2.3 refinements applied during network analysis to develop a viable schedule by adjusting the start time of the successor activities. Leads are used in limited circumstances to advance a successor activity with respect to the predecessor activity, and lags are used in limited circumstances where processes require a set period of tiem to elapse between the predecessors and successors without work or resource impact.

.7 Schedule Compression
Techniques used to shorten the schedule duration without reducing the project scope, in order to meet schedule contraints, imposed dates or other scheudle objectives IBNLT:
-Crashing
Used to shorten duration for the least incremental cost by adding resources. ex. ovetme

-Fast Tracking
Activities or phases normally done in sequence are performed in parallel for the least portion of their duration.

.8 Scheduling Tool
Tools contain the schedule model and expedite the scheduling process by generating start and finish dates based on the inputs or activities, network diagrams, resources and activity durations using schedule network analysis. Can be used in conjunction with other PM software application as well as manual methods.
p. 181
.1 Schedule Baseline
The approved version of a schedule model that can be changed only through formal change control procedures and is used as a basis for comaprison to actual results.

.2 Project Schedule
Schedule presentations. Is an output of a schedule model that presents linked activites with planned dates, durations, milesonte and resources. Graphically represented as:

- Bar charts/Gantt Charts

- Milestone charts - same as bar charts, but only identify the scheduled start or completion of major variables.

- Project schedule network diagrams
Commonly represented in the activity-on-node diagram format showing activities and relationships without a time scale, sometimes referred to a s pure logic diagram or presented in a time-scaled schedule network diagram format sometimes called a logic bar chart.

.3 Schedule Data
The collection of information for describing and controlling the schedule. Includes at least the schedule milestones, schedule activities, activity attributes, and documentation of all identified assumptions and constraints. Can also sow cash flow projections and delivery schedules. IBLT:

- Resource requirements by time period often in a form of a histogram.
- Alternative schedules, such as best-case and worst-case, nto resource-leveled or resource-leveled, with or without imposed dates; and
-Scheduling of contingency reserves.

.4 Project Calendars
Identifies working days and shifts available for scheduled activities. It distinguishes time periods in days or parts of days that are avaialable to comptle scheuduled activiites from time periods that are not available.

.5 Project Management Plan Updates
Elements IBLT
- Schedule baseline
- Schedule Management plan

.6 Project Document Updates
IBLT

- Activity Resource Requirements - Resource leveling can have a significant effect on preliminary estimates for the types and quantities of resources required.

- Activity Attributes
- Calendars
- Risk Register
p.185
The process of monitoring that status of project activities to update project progress and manage changes to the schedule baseline to achieve the plan. The key benefit of this process is that it provides a means to recognize deviation form the plan and take corrective and preventive actions and thus minimize risk.

Updating the schedule model requires knowing the actual performance date. Any change to the schedule baseline can only be approved through the Perform Integrated Change Control process. Control Schedule as a component in the Perform Integrated Change Control process (Section 4.5). Control Schedule, as a component of the Perform Integrated Change Control process, is concerned with:
- Determining the current status of the project schedule,
- Influencing the factors that create schedule changes,
- Determining if the project schedule has changed, and
- Managing the actual changes as they occur.

If any agile approach is utilized, control schedule is concerned with:
- Determining the current status of the project schedule by comparing the total amount of work delivered and accepted against the estimates to work completed for the time elapsed time cycle;
- Conducting retrospective reviews for correcting processes and improving, if required,
- Reprioritizing the remaining work plan (backlog),
- Determining the rate which the deliverables are produced, validated, and accpeted (velocity) in given time per iteration,
- Determining that the project schedule has changed, and
- Managing the actaul changed as they occur.
p. 187
.1 Performance Reviews
Measures, compare, and analyze schedule performance such start and finish dates, percent complete and remaining duration for work in progress. Various techniques:
- Trend Analysis - valuable for understanding performance to date and for comparison to future performance goals in the form of completion dates.
- Critical path method - The variance on the crtitical path will have direct impact on the project end date. Evaluating the progress of activities on near critical paths can identify schedule risk.
- Critical Chain Method - Comparing the amount of buffer remaining to the amount of buffer needed to protect the delivery date can help determin schedule status. The differene between the buffer needed and the buffer can determine schedule status. The difference between the buffer needed and the buffer remaining can determine whether corrective action is appropriate.
- Earned Value Management - Schedule performance measurements such as schedule variance (SV) and schedule performance index (SPI), are used to assess the magnitued of variation to the original schedule baseline.+

.2 Project Management Software
Provides the ability to track planned dates versus actual dates, to report variances to and progress made against the schedule baseline,.

.3 Resource Optimization Techniques
ADIS 6.6.2.4 Involves the scheduling of activities and the resources required by those activities while taking into consideration both the resource availablity and the project time.

.4 Modeling Techniques

.5 Leads and Lags
Adjustig leads and lags is applied during network to find ways to bring project activities that are behind into alighment with plan.

.6 Schedule Compression
ADIS 6.6.2.7

.7 Scheduling Tool
Is updated and compiled into the schedule model to reflect actual progress of the project and remaining work to be completed. Scheduling tool ADIS 6.6.2.8 and the supporting scheudle date are use din conjunction with manual methods or other project management software to perform schedule network analysis to generate an updated project schedule