west to east: tobacco, maize, potatoes, and beans; east to west: livestock (horses, cattle, pigs), rice, wheat, diseases (most importantly smallpox)
Europeans viewed this as Native's punishment for not accepting Christianity; devastated the Native population
basically slavery; military officers 'protected' groups of natives & were forced to convert to Christianity and provide the Spanish with labor and tribute
greatest setback that natives ever inflicted on European expansion in North America
A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land. The nobility remained powerful and owned land, while the 2nd and 3rd sons were forced to seek fortune elsewhere. Many of them turned to the New World for their financial purposes and individual wealth.
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
1607, first permanent English settlement, Virginia, John Smith, tobacco, cash crop, starving time
Joint Stock Company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
The winter of 1609 to 1610 in Jamestown, Virginia. Only sixty members of the original four-hundred colonists survived. The rest died of starvation because they did not possess the skills that were necessary to obtain food in the new world.
The Virginia Company's system in which settlers and the family members who came with them each received 50 acres of land
Colonists who received free passage to North America in exchange for working without pay for a certain number of years
Cash crop that made a profit and saved Jamestown
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
the trading of African people to the colonies of the New World in and around the Atlantic ocean
100 slaves rebelled in South Carolina, killing 100 whites and attempting to escape to Florida; whites quickly suppress rebellion
18th century movement led by French intellectuals who advocated reason as the universal source of knowledge and truth
The Great Awakening
1735-1755; preachers delivered emotional sermons and stressed personal conviction; George Whitefield
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
1741; sermon by Johnathan Edwards during The Great Awakening
A series of British regulations which taxed goods imported by the colonies from places other than Britain, or otherwise sought to control and regulate colonial trade. Increased British-colonial trade and tax revenues. The Navigation Acts were reinstated after the French and Indian War because Britain needed to pay off debts incurred during the war, and to pay the costs of maintaining a standing army in the colonies.
British colonial policy during the reigns of George I and George II. Relaxed supervision of internal colonial affairs by royal bureacrats contributed significantly to the rise of American self government
French and Indian War
(1754-1763) War fought in the colonies between the English and the French for possession of the Ohio Valley area. The English won.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains, and required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
A rebellion lead by Nathaniel Bacon with backcountry farmers to attack Native Americans in an attemp to gain more land
those who followed a religious faith other than the official religion of england
1765 - Required the colonials to provide food, lodging, and supplies for the British troops in the colonies.
an agreement that pledged not to import or use goods imported from great britain
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization formed after the passage of the Stamp Act to protest various British acts; organization used poth peaceful and violent means of protest