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Botany EXAM 2


chemical anatomical characteristic. usually calcium oxalate, calcium carbonate or silica. Can be shapes such as spherical, paphides (needle-like)

Secondary Compounds

anatomical chemical characteristic. Some examples: alkaloids, betalains, flavonoids

Three things to distinguish in genetic systematic analysis

Nucleic Acids, Chromosomes, Mitosis and meiosis, Chromosome #, Aneuploidy and polyploidy

Molecular Systematics

the use of DNA and RNA to infer relationships

Importance of gene

level changes in phylogeny

Three genomes in plant cells

1. mitochondrion 2. chloroplast 3. nucleus

Techniques to generate molecular data

1. cloning and PCR (polymerase chain reaction) 2. gene sequencing

Data Analysis

1. align sequences 2. phylogeny reconstruction

Molecular characters

1. chloroplast genes 2. ribosomal RNA genes (nuclear)

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