chemical anatomical characteristic. usually calcium oxalate, calcium carbonate or silica. Can be shapes such as spherical, paphides (needle-like)
anatomical chemical characteristic. Some examples: alkaloids, betalains, flavonoids
Three things to distinguish in genetic systematic analysis
Nucleic Acids, Chromosomes, Mitosis and meiosis, Chromosome #, Aneuploidy and polyploidy
the use of DNA and RNA to infer relationships
Importance of gene
level changes in phylogeny
Three genomes in plant cells
1. mitochondrion 2. chloroplast 3. nucleus
Techniques to generate molecular data
1. cloning and PCR (polymerase chain reaction) 2. gene sequencing
1. align sequences 2. phylogeny reconstruction
1. chloroplast genes 2. ribosomal RNA genes (nuclear)
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