141 terms

Sociology 204 Final

Influences drawn from our life experiences
Sociologists emphasize the notion that our thinking and motivation are largely determined by:
Social location
when sociologists group people into categories based on their age, gender, educational level, job and income, they are trying to determine their:
Clarise is employed as an FBI profiler. She has been asked to identify the common personality cahracteristics among a list of 15 serial killers. Clarise would most likely contact a(an)________ to assist her in her efforts.
Social Darwinism
The notion that only the fittest members of society deserve to survive and that social programs to help the poor will ultimately weaken the social order os a doctrine known as:
Class conflict
Karl Marx suggested that the force which drives human history and is at the core of human progress is:
Social integration
Durkheim introduced the concept _________ to express the degree to which people feel part of a social group.
According to Max Weber, the Protestant ethic was a central factor in the birth of:
Dr. Zahn spends virtually all his academic interest in analyzing various aspects of society and publishing his findings in sociological journals. In view of this, Dr. Zahn is considered to be a(an):
Symbolic interactionists
Sociologists who analyze how behavior depends on the ways that people define themselves and others are most likely:
Manifest funtions
According to Robert Merton, __________ are the intended beneficial consequences of people's actions.
Has lost many of its traditional functions
Funtionalists generally agree that the family, as it exists today:
Class Conflict
Karl Marx believed the key element is understanding human history is to understand:
Functionalist; conflict
Mark views society as a systemof interrelated parts, while john views society as composed of groups competing for scarce resources. Mark would be considered a ________ theorist and john would be seen as a _________ theorist.
in close relationships
Sociologist Lewis Coser pointed out that conflict is most likely to occur among people who are:
the male-female power relationship
Conflict theorists would contend that changes in _________ explain the high divorce rate in the U.S.
the level of analysis of each perspective
The major difference between the three sociological perspectives is:
macro level
Sergio is interestd in how changes in society are related to homelessness. He is examining how the movement of factory jobs from the U.S. to overseas locations has contributed to the increase in the number of homeless. Sergio is conducting _________ analysis.
symbolic interactionists
In studying probles of the homeless, _______ would focus on the face-to face micro level interactions among the homeless.
Investing to make profits within a rational system is called:
The breaking down of national boundaries because of advances in communication, trade, and travel is referred to as:
Anthropology, Economics,Political Science, Psychology, & Sociology
Five Social Sciences are:
symbolic culture
Nonmaterial culture is also referred to as:
in 1906 siciologist William Sumner made the comment "One's own group is the center of everything, and all others are scaled and rated with reference to it." This statement is most aligned with the concept of:
cultural relativism
To fully understaind the Islamic practice of polygyny ( men having multiple wives), it is necessary to use the perspective of:
Cultures should be evaluated on their "quality of life"
In his book, Sick Societies, anthropologist Robert Edgterton proposed that:
the way individuals used their bodies
A person who was preoccupied with understanding gestures would concentrate on:
Symbols can be strung together is an infinate number of ways for the purpose of communicating abstract thought. This is referred to as:
Language is universal in terms of the meaning of particular sounds
Which statement is LEAST accurate regarding language?
Sociologists use the term __________ to indicate the standards by which people define their ideas about what is desirable in life.
the expectations, or rules of behavior that develop out of values
Sociologists use the concept "norms" to describe:
When a group has a distinctive way of looking at life, but at the same time their values and norms reflect the dominant culture of their society, the group would be considered a(an):
A society which is made up of many different religious, racial and ethnic groups would be best described as:
Value contradiction
The coexistence of such values of democracy and equality alongside of sexism and group superiority illustrates the condition of:
a value cluster
Americans are expected to go far in school, work hard and attain a high level of material comfort as a demonstration of success. The interrelated values of education, hard work and success would be an example of:
social change
When social values contradict one another, such contradictions can serve as a source of:
culture war
the intense controversy between pro-choice and pro-life advocates that has resulted in a violence can best be described as a(an):
ideal culture; real culture
Americans glorify academic progress and material success. However, most students do not graduate with honors and most citizens are not wealthy. this condition characterizes the difference between ___________ and ___________.
different from group to group
Sociologists have concluded that although certain behaviors qualify as cultural universals, the forms these behaviors take are:
cerebral cortex
Pigs, spiders, elephants and other animals that rely solely on instict act as they do because they lack a:
cultural lag
The terms coined by sociologist William Ogburn to describe a situation in which nonmaterial culture changes slower than material culture was:
cultural leveling
In recent years, cultures have become more similar to each other as a result of travel and communication. Sociologists use the term, ___________, to describe this process.
Individualism, Hardwork, Freedom, Education, Equality
Five of the U.S. values as listed in the text.
intimate early social interaction
Studies of isolated and institutionalized children point out the importance of ______________ in acquiring the basic "human" traits we take for granted.
_________ is the process through which people learn the characteristics of their group- attitudes, values, and actions thought appropriate.
Looking-glass self
_________ is the term Charles Horton Cooley coined to describe the process by which we develop a sense of self.
concrete operational
According to Jean Piaget, when a child is in the ________ stage of cognitive development, he/she can understand numbers, causation and speed, but cannot discuss abstract concepts.
According to Freud, the ____ is that part of our personality that is pleasure-seeking.
unconsciously rewarded daughters for being dependent.
Two psychologists observed the interactions of mothers and children to determine if the children were socialized differently, depending on the child's sex. They found that mothers:
sex objects
To sell products, such as automobiles, advertisers often use women who are scantily clothed. The use of semi-clad models reinforces women as:
discover the role of men in U.S. society
In a study of junior high school boys, it was found that boys would singleout media that focused on sex and violence. Her conclusion was that the teenage boys were using media to:
agents of socialization
The people of groups that influence our self-concept, emotions, attitudes, and behaviors are called:
obedience and conformity in their children
John and Mary work on the assembly line at the Marvelous Toy factory. Their work is closely supervised in their jobs. Based on Kohn's study, John and Mary's work experience will make them more likely to emphasize:
weaker the bonds between mothers and children
Researchers have found that the more hours per week that children were in daycare, the:
part of the hidden curriculum in U.S. schools
Wally is in thrid grade and is learning to read. His book has stories about the American Revolution adn how the early Americans were willing to fight to gain their freedom. According to conflict theorists, Wally is learning not only to read, but also being taught lessons in patriotism and democracy. These lessons would be referred to by Conflict theorists as:
peer groups
As children enter school, the influence of their families as agents of socialization lessens and ________ become more important in influencing their behaviors.
anticipatory socialization
Last summer Erin did an internship at a local law firm. After her internship, she has decided to become as attorney. The internship represents an opportunity for Erin to be involved in the process of:
____________ is the process of learning new norms, values, attitudes, adn behaviors.
personal identity kit
items people use to decorate their bodies constitute a
life course
the term __________ is used to describe the sequence of events that we experience as we proceed from birth to death.
total institution
Young men arriving at an army boot camp are about to enter a(an):
Both heredity and our social environment
After reading the case of Oskar and Jack, the two identical twins who were raised seperatly, we can conclude that the person we become is the result of:
absence of nurturing social interaction
When children were raised in orphanages in the U.S., they tended, on average, to have lower IQs than children raised at home. Two psychologists suspected that __________ was the basic problem, rather than mental retardation.
Paul is condictiong a study examining how social class effects students' study habits. This kind of research would be classified as:
The level of sociological analysis which places emphasis on social interaction is:
Social structure
_________ is the framework of a society consisting of the relationship of people and groups to one another.
A group's language, beliefs, values, and behaviors make up:
Social class
A _________ consists of large numbers of people who have similar amounts of income and education and who work at jobs that are roughly comparable in prestige.
achieved status
Alan is the quarterback on the highschool team. This is considered a (an):
_________ statuses are those statuses that we inherit at birth or recieve involuntarily later in life.
Ralph is a husband, father, and a doctor.Each of these _______ provide guidelines for how Ralph should act and feel.
Status symbol
Lee is graduating from college ths spring. She has purchased a class ring. This ring is an example of a:
master status
A status that cuts across other statuses that a person holds is called a (an):
Status inconsistency
A contradiction or mismatch between statuses is referred to as:
Those expectations that define appropriate of inappropriate behavior for the occupant of a status are:
Social institutions
Each society develops organized ways to meet its basic needs. These usual or standard ways are called:
Social institutions
According to functionalists, _____________ exist to fulfill basic survival needs of a society.
_________ theorists believe that a society's social institutions are controlled by an elite that uses them to maintain their priveleged position of wealth and power.
Organic solidarity
According to Durkheim, when a society increases in size, its division of labor becomes more specialized. People begin to depend on one another and become interdependent. This form of social cohesion he termed:
Social interaction
For Symbolic interactionists, ___________ is (are) the most significant part of life in society.
Influence our behavior towards people
When we meet people we often use stereotypes to make assumptions about what they are like. Studies have shown that assumptions:
Varies from one culture to another
After studying the use of personal space in several cultures, Edward Hall concluded that the amount of space people prefer:
Researchers who observed couples in coffee shops around the world concluded that the United States is a (an) _________ society.
Select a topic, review the literature, collect the data, and share the results
What represents a correct sequence of steps in the research process?
a predicted relationship between or among variables
A hypothesis is a statement which expresses:
The term ________ refers to the extent to which different studies come up with similar results.
research methods
The means by which sociologists collect data are referred to as:
Max wants to test his hypothesis that unemployed men are more likely to commit spousal abuse than men who are employed. He is most likely to use a (an) ____________ analysis to test his hypothesis.
Andrea is doing research on the study habits of students at Harvard University. The student body at harvard will serve as Andrea's:
In order to generalize your findings to a total population it is important to select a sample that is:
they are neutral
When constructing a survey, it is best to phrase the survey's questions in such a way that:
begin by asking them non-sensitive and non-threatening questions
During an interview, the best way to develop rapport with the respondents is to:
secondary analysis
Being unsure if the manner in which data being used was gathered, its accuracy, and the training of the original researcher are problems most associated with:
Unobtrusive measures
Steve and Naomi are counting the empty whenskey bottles in trashcans to measure the level of whiskey consumption in town. These researchers are using the _________ method of conductiong research.
the experiment
Which of the following methods os best suited for determining the existence of cause and effect relationships?
if an experiment were conducted to examine whether viewing pornography increased the likelihood of committing rape, the group that did NOT view pornographic films would be considered the _________ group.
Quantitative methods
Research methods that emphasize measurement, numbers, and statistics are reffered to as:
The Hawthorne effect
A group of high school students take notes of the fact that they are being observed by a class of Secondary Education majors. In an effort to mess with the heads of the observers, the high school students stick pencils in their ears and whistle "Dixie". This uncharacteristic behavior is as example of:
reduce interviewer bias
Scully and Marolla's study of convicted rapists in prison was arranged so that half the sample was interviewed by each of the researchers. The primary objective for applying this technique was to:
If a researcher were to steal someone else's work, he/she would be guilty of:
rapists are more likely to believe rape myths
In their research on convicted rapists, Diana Scully and Joseph Marolla cincluded that:
people who interact with one another and think of themselves as belonging togethere are referred to as a (an):
Hunting and gathering
______________ societies are those societies with the fewest social divisions.
the elimination of shamans and priests
with the domestication of plants and animals, a number of significant social changes occurred. Which if the following was not one of these?
A (an)___________ society is one that is based on the harnessing of machines powered by fuels.
plow; microchip
the __________ is to the agricultural society as the ___________ is to the postindustrial society.
primary group
intimate, long-term, face-to-face association and cooperation characterize a:
break down into primary groups
because secondary groups do not satisfy our human needs for intimate associations, these groups tend to:
we judge the traits of our in-group as virtues; those same traits are judged in out-groups as:
reference groups
groups we use as standards to evaluate ourselves are termed:
social networks
an important factor which contributes to the perpetuation of social inequality is the pervasiveness of:
as small group grow larger, they become more stable
with respect to group size, Georg Simmel noted that:
the smallest possible group os classified as a:
group dynamics
how groups influence us and how we affect groups is referred to as:
According to Simmel, which of the following groups is the most unstable?
they are more reserved and tend to say less
which of the following traits is least characteristic of a leader?
keep the group moving toward its goal
As the instrumental leader of a group, your responsibility would be to:
groups in which members do less scapegoating and work at a steadier pace, even without supervision, are most likely headed by a (an) ____________ leader.
because of group pressure, most people are willing to say things they know are not true.
Solomon Asch's experiment on group conformity demonstrated that:
a substantial number of people will inflict pain on others if ordered to do so by a person in a position of authority.
Milgram's "teacher-learner" experiments demonstrated that:
when members of a group begin to narrow their thoughts and feel that there is only one correct answer to a situation, and when suggesting an alternative is seen as being disloyal to the group, sociologists would term this phenomenon:
__________ is an approach to life in which there is an acceptance of rules, efficiency, and practical results.
the past is the best guide for what to do in the present
a traditional orientation to life emphasizes the notion that:
Karl Marx
____________ was one of the first theorists to argue that the change to capitalist economic systems was responsible for the decline of traditional orientations to social life.
Formal organizations
a central feature of contemporary society is the increase in:
the extent to which an organization has become bureaucratized
Comparing the "ideal type" characteristics of a bureaucracy to an actual organization allows sociologists to determine:
McDonaldization of society
George Ritzer maintains that the organizational features of the fast food industry have gradually seeped into many aspects of human social life. He describes this process as the:
rules and procedures which may impede the purpose of the organization
"Red tape" is a term which refers to:
____________ refers to the experience of being cut off from the product of a person's labor resulting in feelings of powerlessness and normlessness.
Peter Principle
Nick was a promising caseworker for the agency. After earning several lower level promotions, he was appointed to a supervisory position. Supervisory work did not mix well with Nick's abilities and he fell into a professional rut. This is an example of the:
goal displacement
Recently, the march of dimes shifted is focus from raising funds for combating polio to raising funds to birth defect research. Sociologists would term this shift in focus:
a fundemental change in how people relate to each other
Bureaucracies are sociologically significant because they represent:
voluntary assciation
The Boy Scouts, Jim's Friday Night Poker Club, The Kiwanis, Cathy's Coffee Klatch, and the Veterans of Foreign Wars are all examples of:
they offer people an identity
which of the following represents a function that would apply to virtually all voluntary organizations?
the domination of organizations by a small, self-perpetuating elite
Michael's term, "the iron law of oligarchy" refers to:
Jobs which allow little power or authority
According to Kanter, organizations sometimes showcase women and minorities by placing them in highly visible positions to demonstrate how "progressive" they are. These positions tend to be:
corporate culture
the ________ is a phenomenon that shapes people's attitudes and, by extension, the quality of their work.
humanize the work setting to develop human potential
Bon works at an automobile factory that organizes its workers into small groups that meet regularly to discuss ways to increase production and efficiency. Individual workers are often singled out and recognized for their contributions to the organization. these are examples of attempts to:
small groups form primary relationships, thereby reducing alienation
People work more effectively in small groups than in a centralized command structure. The sociological explanation for this is:
Saving the bank money to operate
The Union Bank of Monterey, California measured the net cost of its day care. They found that the center was:
_________ theorists feel that attempts to humanize the workplace are simply ways to manipulate workers into cooperating in their own exploitation.
clear levels, with assignment flowing downward, and accountability flowing upward.
division of labor
written rules
written communications and records
Impersonality and replaceability
Five characteristics of Bureaucracies: