Which of the following is a feature of water and nutrition?
Water intoxication is rare but can result in death
What minimum percentage of body weight loss as water results in fatigue, weakness, and loss of appetite?
The average daily loss of water via the kidneys, lungs, feces, and skin is approximately
What is the minimum amount of water (mL) that must be excreted each day as urine in order to carry away the body's waste products?
What is the minimum water intake for a 65-kg adult with an energy expenditure of 2,500 kcalories?
The minimum amount of water that must be excreted by the body to dispose of its wastes is termed
obligatory water excretion
Which of the following is a characteristic of caffeine intake and water balance?
Habitual consumers of caffeine lose almost no more fluid from the body than when ingesting noncaffeinated beverages
Which of the following types of drinking water contains the lowest amount of minerals?
Factors that are effective in regulating the body's water balance include all of the following except
Among the following, which promotes constriction of blood vessels resulting in elevation of blood pressure?
Which of the following describes a way to make an electrolyte solution?
Dissolve a teaspoon of salt in a glass of water
All of the following are properties of electrolytes except
they include fat- soluble as well as water soluble particles
What is the term for the pressure that develops when two solutions of varying concentrations are separated by a membrane?
What is the force that moves water into a space where a solute is more concentrated?
What is the sodium-potassium pump?
A cell membrane protein that uses energy to pump sodium out of the cell
When a person loses fluid by sweating or bleeding, what minerals are lost in greatest quantity?
Sodium and chloride
Which of the following is a general property of the minerals?
When a food is burned, all the minerals are found in the ash
Which of the following events is specific to a salt-sensitive individual?
Blood pressure increases as salt intake rises
In a normal individual with a daily requirement of 500 mg sodium, what would be the sodium balance after an intake of 10 g of common salt?
Normally, what is the relationship of the amount of sodium excreted to the amount ingested that day?
Intake and excretion are equal
How much sodium is contained in a fast-food deluxe hamburger that lists a salt content of 2.5 g?
Sam has recently been diagnosed with high blood pressure. His doctor recommended adopting the DASH diet plan. Along with including more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, he was also advised to reduce daily sodium intake to no more than 2000 mg. How much salt (g) would be allowed under Sam's restriction?
Which of the following is a feature of sodium and health?
High sodium intake is known to promote calcium excretion
Which of the following is a general characteristic of sodium in processed foods?
Salted peanuts contain less sodium than cereals on a per-gram basis
Why are salt tablets generally not recommended for people engaged in physical activity?
They can induce dehydration
What adverse response is known to occur in people who drink copious amounts of water while participating in intense physical activity?
Which of the following is a feature of sodium nutrition?
The AI for young adults is only 1500 mg because the body possesses an unusually efficient retention mechanism
Which of the following minerals would a bulimia nervosa patient be likely to lose in the greatest amount?
All of the following are characteristics of chloride in nutrition except
the recommended intake has recently been set at 10 mg/kg body weight
Which of the following is the primary function of potassium?
Acts as principal intracellular electrolyte
Which of the following is not a feature of potassium deficiency?
It is common due to availability of only a few good food sources
Barbara has been healthy up to the past couple of weeks, but since then has been complaining of considerable muscle weakness. Her doctor just received the results of blood tests, which showed that she is deficient in potassium. If Barbara continues her current habits of consuming a diet low in potassium, for which of the following disorders is she most likely to be at risk?
High blood pressure
Which of the following people are at known risk for potassium depletion?
Those who ingest low amounts of fresh fruits/vegetables
All of the following are features of potassium in nutrition except
processed foods are a major source.
As far as is known, which of the following is not a process that directly involves calcium?
Which of the following is a feature of calcium in the body?
Higher calcium intakes correlate with lower body fatness
Which of the following regulates the level of calcium in the blood?
Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin
Tiffany is a strict vegan and does not consume calcium-rich plant foods nor supplements of calcium. Which of the following
Which of the following represents the least likely cause for an abnormal blood calcium level?
Insufficient dietary intake
The muscle stiffness that results from abnormally high calcium levels in the blood is termed
How much calcium (mg) would typically be absorbed by a normal adult with a calcium intake of 1,000 mg?
All of the following dietary substances are known to adversely affect calcium balance except
lactose in the diet.
Which of the following is a risk of consuming calcium supplements above the UL?
Kidney stone formation
Certain green leafy vegetables have a very low calcium bioavailability due to the presence of
naturally occurring binders.
Which of the following is a feature of osteoporosis?
It has virtually no effect on blood calcium levels
All of the following are characteristics of phosphorus in nutrition except
the ratio of phosphorus to calcium in the diet is important for bone maintenance
Which of the following is a feature of phosphorus in nutrition?
Dietary deficiencies are virtually unknown
Which of the following minerals is involved in the transportation of lipids through the body's lymph and blood systems?
All of the following characteristics are shared by calcium and magnesium except
both are found in abundance in dairy products.
A friend shows you a newspaper article titled "Magnesium's Role in ATP Synthesis." You explain that
magnesium serves as a catalyst in the reaction that adds the last phosphate to ATP.
Which of the following is a feature of magnesium nutrition?
Deficiency is associated with hypertension
Which of the following is a feature of magnesium in nutrition?
Average intakes from food are below recommendations
All of the following are characteristics of dolomite supplements except
they are usually sold as a very pure product.
All of the following are known to have a high correlation with risk for osteoporosis except
consuming a high-protein diet.
The development of osteoporosis in men typically occurs at what age in relation to the appearance of osteoporosis in women?
10 years later
Antiresorptive drug treatments for osteoporosis work primarily by
inhibiting the activities of the bone-degrading cells.
The primary mechanism by which soy consumption may lower the risk for osteoporosis is related to
the estrogen-like activity of soy phytochemicals.
What component of soy is thought to account for most of its beneficial effects on bone health?
What is the incidence of bone fractures in African American women in comparison with Caucasian women?
One-half as much
Which of the following is a feature of physical activity and bone health?
Working the muscles places stress on bones which promotes bone density
Which of the following best explains why Asians from Japan and China show fewer bone fractures than do Caucasians and Hispanic people?
They have small, compact, hips
Which of the following is not a feature of body weight and bone health?
A low-calcium diet promotes similar bone loss in normal and overweight people
All of the following are features of bone health and smoking except
smokers adapt by increasing their calcium absorption and reducing their bone resorption rate.
Which of the following is characteristic of calcium nutrition in teenagers?
The intake of calcium is higher in boys than girls because they eat more food
Which of the following is a feature of calcium supplements?
Common antacids are used as a source of calcium
Among the following calcium supplements, which is most likely to be contaminated with toxic minerals?
Which of the following is not a characteristic of alcohol and bone health?
Even moderate alcohol intake reduces bone density
Which of the following is a characteristic of calcium supplement use?
Taking them with a meal enhances absorption of calcium
For optimal utilization of calcium supplements, it is best to take them several times a day, in doses up to
Common side effects of taking a high-dose calcium supplement include all of the following except
increased iron absorption.
Among the following calcium supplements, which contains the lowest percentage of calcium?
To minimize the risk of calcium toxicity, total daily intakes should be held to a maximum of