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Approximately how much water (lbs) is found in a 134-lb person?


What is the body's most indispensable nutrient?


What fraction of lean tissue represents the water content?


Which of the following is not a function of water in the body?

Source of energy

Which of the following contributes most to the weight of the human body?


Among the following groups, which has the highest percentage of body water?


In the body, water that resides between cells is known as

interstitial fluid

All of the following are mild symptoms of dehydration except

Spastic muscles

Which of the following body structures helps to regulate thirst?


Where is interstitial water found?

Between cells

Which of the following is a feature of water and nutrition?

Water intoxication is rare but can result in death

What minimum level of body weight loss as water impairs a person's physical performance?


What minimum percentage of body weight loss as water results in fatigue, weakness, and loss of appetite?


Abnormally low blood sodium concentration is known specifically as


Which of the following is a feature of water?

Generated from oxidation of energy nutrients

The average daily loss of water via the kidneys, lungs, feces, and skin is approximately

1.5-2.5 liters

What is the minimum amount of water (mL) that must be excreted each day as urine in order to carry away the body's waste products?


What is the minimum water intake for a 65-kg adult with an energy expenditure of 2,500 kcalories?

2,500 mL

Approximately how much water is in a loaf of bread?

35% of the loaf

The minimum amount of water that must be excreted by the body to dispose of its wastes is termed

obligatory water excretion

The approximate percentage of water in pizza is


Approximately how many mL of water/day are produced by metabolism?


Which of the following is present in highest concentration in soft water?


Habitual intake of soft water is most likely to aggravate


Which of the following is a characteristic of caffeine intake and water balance?

Habitual consumers of caffeine lose almost no more fluid from the body than when ingesting noncaffeinated beverages

Which of the following types of drinking water contains the lowest amount of minerals?

distilled water

What organ provides the major control for homeostasis of body fluids?


How does antidiuretic hormone function?

It stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys

What pituitary hormone regulates kidney retention of water?

Antidiuretic hormone

Factors that are effective in regulating the body's water balance include all of the following except


Aldosterone and renin each function to promote

retention of sodium

Among the following, which promotes constriction of blood vessels resulting in elevation of blood pressure?


What is the function of renin?

Activates angiotension

Ions that carry a positive charge are called


Which of the following describes a way to make an electrolyte solution?

Dissolve a teaspoon of salt in a glass of water

What is the major extracellular anion?


What is the major intracellular anion?


What is the major extracellular cation?


What is the major intracellular cation?


All of the following are properties of electrolytes except

they include fat- soluble as well as water soluble particles

What is the term for the pressure that develops when two solutions of varying concentrations are separated by a membrane?

osmotic pressure

What is the force that moves water into a space where a solute is more concentrated?

osmotic pressure

What is the sodium-potassium pump?

A cell membrane protein that uses energy to pump sodium out of the cell

When a person loses fluid by sweating or bleeding, what minerals are lost in greatest quantity?

Sodium and chloride

All of the following are typical ingredients in an oral rehydration therapy formula except


The normal blood pH range is approximately


All of the following are common participants in the regulation of body fluid pH except

oxalic acid.

All of the following play important roles in acid-base balance except

the liver

What organ is the chief regulator of the body's acid-base balance?


What is a chief function of carbonic acid in the body?

Helps maintain acid-base balance

Which of the following is a general property of the minerals?

When a food is burned, all the minerals are found in the ash

Which of the following does not serve as a major regulator of fluid balance in the body?


Which of the following events is specific to a salt-sensitive individual?

Blood pressure increases as salt intake rises

In a normal individual with a daily requirement of 500 mg sodium, what would be the sodium balance after an intake of 10 g of common salt?


Normally, what is the relationship of the amount of sodium excreted to the amount ingested that day?

Intake and excretion are equal

What is another term for hypertension?

High blood pressure

Salt-sensitive population groups include all of the following except


The DASH diet plan was devised to prevent


How much sodium is contained in a fast-food deluxe hamburger that lists a salt content of 2.5 g?

1,000 mg

Even in people with normal blood pressure, what percent are salt sensitive?


Sam has recently been diagnosed with high blood pressure. His doctor recommended adopting the DASH diet plan. Along with including more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, he was also advised to reduce daily sodium intake to no more than 2000 mg. How much salt (g) would be allowed under Sam's restriction?


What is the greatest single source of sodium in the diet?

Processed foods

What percentage of a person's total sodium intake derives from naturally occurring food sodium?


Which of the following is a feature of sodium and health?

High sodium intake is known to promote calcium excretion

Which of the following is a general characteristic of sodium in processed foods?

Salted peanuts contain less sodium than cereals on a per-gram basis

Why are salt tablets generally not recommended for people engaged in physical activity?

They can induce dehydration

What is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for salt?

1 teaspoon

Hyponatremia refers to low blood concentration of


What adverse response is known to occur in people who drink copious amounts of water while participating in intense physical activity?


Which of the following is a feature of sodium nutrition?

The AI for young adults is only 1500 mg because the body possesses an unusually efficient retention mechanism

Which of the following minerals would a bulimia nervosa patient be likely to lose in the greatest amount?


Which of the following is a major function of chloride?

Helps maintain gastric acidity

All of the following are characteristics of chloride in nutrition except

the recommended intake has recently been set at 10 mg/kg body weight

Which of the following is the primary function of potassium?

Acts as principal intracellular electrolyte

Which of the following is not a feature of potassium deficiency?

It is common due to availability of only a few good food sources

Barbara has been healthy up to the past couple of weeks, but since then has been complaining of considerable muscle weakness. Her doctor just received the results of blood tests, which showed that she is deficient in potassium. If Barbara continues her current habits of consuming a diet low in potassium, for which of the following disorders is she most likely to be at risk?

High blood pressure

Which of the following is a feature of potassium?

Liberal intakes may correct hypertension

Which of the following is a symptom of potassium deficiency?

Muscle weakness

Which of the following people are at known risk for potassium depletion?

Those who ingest low amounts of fresh fruits/vegetables

All of the following are features of potassium in nutrition except

processed foods are a major source.

Which of the following is not among the common food sources of potassium?


Which of the following is a feature of potassium supplements?

Can cause toxicity

Approximately what percentage of the body's calcium is found in the blood?


Almost all (99%) of the calcium in the body is used to

provide rigidity for the bones and teeth.

What is hydroxyapatite?

The calcium-rich crystalline structure of teeth and bones

As far as is known, which of the following is not a process that directly involves calcium?

pH regulation

What is calmodulin?

A calcium-binding protein

Which of the following is a feature of calcium in the body?

Higher calcium intakes correlate with lower body fatness

Which of the following regulates the level of calcium in the blood?

Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin

Tiffany is a strict vegan and does not consume calcium-rich plant foods nor supplements of calcium. Which of the following

Parathyroid hormone

Which of the following represents the least likely cause for an abnormal blood calcium level?

Insufficient dietary intake

The muscle stiffness that results from abnormally high calcium levels in the blood is termed

calcium rigor.

Calcium absorption is facilitated by the presence of


All of the following are known to enhance calcium absorption from the GI tract except


Which of the following foods are significant sources of oxalates?

Spinach and sweet potatoes

How much calcium (mg) would typically be absorbed by a normal adult with a calcium intake of 1,000 mg?


All of the following dietary substances are known to adversely affect calcium balance except

lactose in the diet.

Calcium-binding protein acts within the


Which of the following is a risk of consuming calcium supplements above the UL?

Kidney stone formation

Which of the following are good sources of dietary calcium?

Certain green vegetables

Which of the following green vegetables shows the lowest bioavailability of calcium?


On a per kcalorie basis, which of the following are the best sources of calcium?


Which of the following shows the highest bioavailability for calcium?


All of the following are good plant sources of calcium for the body except


Which of the following ages (years) is typically associated with people having the densest bone?


At what age do adults normally begin to lose bone mass?

30-40 yrs

Approximately how many people in the United States are afflicted with osteoporosis?

50 million

Certain green leafy vegetables have a very low calcium bioavailability due to the presence of

naturally occurring binders.

Which of the following is a feature of osteoporosis?

It has virtually no effect on blood calcium levels

What is the calcium Adequate Intake for young adults?

1000 mg

All of the following are characteristics of phosphorus in nutrition except

the ratio of phosphorus to calcium in the diet is important for bone maintenance

Which of the following is a feature of phosphorus?

Involved in energy exchange

Which of the following is a feature of phosphorus in nutrition?

Dietary deficiencies are virtually unknown

Which of the following minerals is involved in the transportation of lipids through the body's lymph and blood systems?


Which of the following minerals is least likely to be deficient in anyone's diet?


All of the following characteristics are shared by calcium and magnesium except

both are found in abundance in dairy products.

Where is the majority of the body's magnesium found?


Which of the following is a major function of magnesium?

Catalyst in energy metabolism

A friend shows you a newspaper article titled "Magnesium's Role in ATP Synthesis." You explain that

magnesium serves as a catalyst in the reaction that adds the last phosphate to ATP.

Which of the following minerals is required in the enzymatic phosphorylation of ADP?


Which of the following is a feature of magnesium nutrition?

Deficiency is associated with hypertension

Which of the following is a feature of magnesium in nutrition?

Average intakes from food are below recommendations

The magnesium present in mineral water has a bioavailability of about


Magnesium is known to be involved in all of the following except

production of red blood cells.

Sulfur is present in practically all


Some amino acids can link to each other by bridges made of


What is the major source of dietary sulfur?


All of the following are known to have a high sulfur content except


The outer, hard shell of bone is called

cortical bone.

All of the following are characteristics of dolomite supplements except

they are usually sold as a very pure product.

Which of the following is a function of trabecular bone?


The incidence of death within 1 year of sustaining a hip fracture is about


In what decade of life does osteoporosis first begin in men and women?


For every man who has type I osteoporosis, about how many women have it?


The most common fracture sites of osteoporosis type I are

spine and wrist.

What does a DEXA scan measure?

Bone density

Which of the following is a feature of type I osteoporosis?

It can be prevented by taking estrogen

What percentage of hip fractures in men and women are due to osteoporosis?


All of the following are known to have a high correlation with risk for osteoporosis except

consuming a high-protein diet.

Protective factors for osteoporosis include all of the following except

female gender.

The strongest predictor for loss of bone density is a person's


The development of osteoporosis in men typically occurs at what age in relation to the appearance of osteoporosis in women?

10 years later

A person's highest bone density is achieved by around age (years)


What percentage of people with osteoporosis are female?


After age, what is the next strongest risk factor for osteoporosis?


Antiresorptive drug treatments for osteoporosis work primarily by

inhibiting the activities of the bone-degrading cells.

Anabolic drug treatments for osteoporosis work chiefly by

enhancing osteoblast activity.

Estrogen therapy for osteoporosis is often rejected because it may increase risk for


Which of the following is not known to be a risk factor for osteoporosis in men?

High BMI

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