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Nutrition ch. 12

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Approximately how much water (lbs) is found in a 134-lb person?
80
What is the body's most indispensable nutrient?
water
What fraction of lean tissue represents the water content?
3/4
Which of the following is not a function of water in the body?
Source of energy
Which of the following contributes most to the weight of the human body?
Water
Among the following groups, which has the highest percentage of body water?
Children
In the body, water that resides between cells is known as
interstitial fluid
All of the following are mild symptoms of dehydration except
Spastic muscles
Which of the following body structures helps to regulate thirst?
Hypothalamus
Where is interstitial water found?
Between cells
Which of the following is a feature of water and nutrition?
Water intoxication is rare but can result in death
What minimum level of body weight loss as water impairs a person's physical performance?
3-4%
What minimum percentage of body weight loss as water results in fatigue, weakness, and loss of appetite?
1-2
Abnormally low blood sodium concentration is known specifically as
Hyponatremia
Which of the following is a feature of water?
Generated from oxidation of energy nutrients
The average daily loss of water via the kidneys, lungs, feces, and skin is approximately
1.5-2.5 liters
What is the minimum amount of water (mL) that must be excreted each day as urine in order to carry away the body's waste products?
500
What is the minimum water intake for a 65-kg adult with an energy expenditure of 2,500 kcalories?
2,500 mL
Approximately how much water is in a loaf of bread?
35% of the loaf
The minimum amount of water that must be excreted by the body to dispose of its wastes is termed
obligatory water excretion
The approximate percentage of water in pizza is
45
Approximately how many mL of water/day are produced by metabolism?
250
Which of the following is present in highest concentration in soft water?
sodium
Habitual intake of soft water is most likely to aggravate
hypertension
Which of the following is a characteristic of caffeine intake and water balance?
Habitual consumers of caffeine lose almost no more fluid from the body than when ingesting noncaffeinated beverages
Which of the following types of drinking water contains the lowest amount of minerals?
distilled water
What organ provides the major control for homeostasis of body fluids?
Kidneys
How does antidiuretic hormone function?
It stimulates water reabsorption by the kidneys
What pituitary hormone regulates kidney retention of water?
Antidiuretic hormone
Factors that are effective in regulating the body's water balance include all of the following except
adrenaline
Aldosterone and renin each function to promote
retention of sodium
Among the following, which promotes constriction of blood vessels resulting in elevation of blood pressure?
Angiotension
What is the function of renin?
Activates angiotension
Ions that carry a positive charge are called
cations
Which of the following describes a way to make an electrolyte solution?
Dissolve a teaspoon of salt in a glass of water
What is the major extracellular anion?
Chloride
What is the major intracellular anion?
Phosphate
What is the major extracellular cation?
Sodium
What is the major intracellular cation?
Potassium
All of the following are properties of electrolytes except
they include fat- soluble as well as water soluble particles
What is the term for the pressure that develops when two solutions of varying concentrations are separated by a membrane?
osmotic pressure
What is the force that moves water into a space where a solute is more concentrated?
osmotic pressure
What is the sodium-potassium pump?
A cell membrane protein that uses energy to pump sodium out of the cell
When a person loses fluid by sweating or bleeding, what minerals are lost in greatest quantity?
Sodium and chloride
All of the following are typical ingredients in an oral rehydration therapy formula except
protein
The normal blood pH range is approximately
7.35-7.45
All of the following are common participants in the regulation of body fluid pH except
oxalic acid.
All of the following play important roles in acid-base balance except
the liver
What organ is the chief regulator of the body's acid-base balance?
kidneys
What is a chief function of carbonic acid in the body?
Helps maintain acid-base balance
Which of the following is a general property of the minerals?
When a food is burned, all the minerals are found in the ash
Which of the following does not serve as a major regulator of fluid balance in the body?
calcium
Which of the following events is specific to a salt-sensitive individual?
Blood pressure increases as salt intake rises
In a normal individual with a daily requirement of 500 mg sodium, what would be the sodium balance after an intake of 10 g of common salt?
Equilibrium
Normally, what is the relationship of the amount of sodium excreted to the amount ingested that day?
Intake and excretion are equal
What is another term for hypertension?
High blood pressure
Salt-sensitive population groups include all of the following except
Caucasians.
The DASH diet plan was devised to prevent
hypertension.
How much sodium is contained in a fast-food deluxe hamburger that lists a salt content of 2.5 g?
1,000 mg
Even in people with normal blood pressure, what percent are salt sensitive?
25
Sam has recently been diagnosed with high blood pressure. His doctor recommended adopting the DASH diet plan. Along with including more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, he was also advised to reduce daily sodium intake to no more than 2000 mg. How much salt (g) would be allowed under Sam's restriction?
5
What is the greatest single source of sodium in the diet?
Processed foods
What percentage of a person's total sodium intake derives from naturally occurring food sodium?
10
Which of the following is a feature of sodium and health?
High sodium intake is known to promote calcium excretion
Which of the following is a general characteristic of sodium in processed foods?
Salted peanuts contain less sodium than cereals on a per-gram basis
Why are salt tablets generally not recommended for people engaged in physical activity?
They can induce dehydration
What is the Tolerable Upper Intake Level for salt?
1 teaspoon
Hyponatremia refers to low blood concentration of
sodium
What adverse response is known to occur in people who drink copious amounts of water while participating in intense physical activity?
Hyponatremia
Which of the following is a feature of sodium nutrition?
The AI for young adults is only 1500 mg because the body possesses an unusually efficient retention mechanism
Which of the following minerals would a bulimia nervosa patient be likely to lose in the greatest amount?
chloride
Which of the following is a major function of chloride?
Helps maintain gastric acidity
All of the following are characteristics of chloride in nutrition except
the recommended intake has recently been set at 10 mg/kg body weight
Which of the following is the primary function of potassium?
Acts as principal intracellular electrolyte
Which of the following is not a feature of potassium deficiency?
It is common due to availability of only a few good food sources
Barbara has been healthy up to the past couple of weeks, but since then has been complaining of considerable muscle weakness. Her doctor just received the results of blood tests, which showed that she is deficient in potassium. If Barbara continues her current habits of consuming a diet low in potassium, for which of the following disorders is she most likely to be at risk?
High blood pressure
Which of the following is a feature of potassium?
Liberal intakes may correct hypertension
Which of the following is a symptom of potassium deficiency?
Muscle weakness
Which of the following people are at known risk for potassium depletion?
Those who ingest low amounts of fresh fruits/vegetables
All of the following are features of potassium in nutrition except
processed foods are a major source.
Which of the following is not among the common food sources of potassium?
Cheeses
Which of the following is a feature of potassium supplements?
Can cause toxicity
Approximately what percentage of the body's calcium is found in the blood?
1
Almost all (99%) of the calcium in the body is used to
provide rigidity for the bones and teeth.
What is hydroxyapatite?
The calcium-rich crystalline structure of teeth and bones
As far as is known, which of the following is not a process that directly involves calcium?
pH regulation
What is calmodulin?
A calcium-binding protein
Which of the following is a feature of calcium in the body?
Higher calcium intakes correlate with lower body fatness
Which of the following regulates the level of calcium in the blood?
Parathyroid hormone and calcitonin
Tiffany is a strict vegan and does not consume calcium-rich plant foods nor supplements of calcium. Which of the following
Parathyroid hormone
Which of the following represents the least likely cause for an abnormal blood calcium level?
Insufficient dietary intake
The muscle stiffness that results from abnormally high calcium levels in the blood is termed
calcium rigor.
Calcium absorption is facilitated by the presence of
lactose.
All of the following are known to enhance calcium absorption from the GI tract except
oxalates.
Which of the following foods are significant sources of oxalates?
Spinach and sweet potatoes
How much calcium (mg) would typically be absorbed by a normal adult with a calcium intake of 1,000 mg?
300
All of the following dietary substances are known to adversely affect calcium balance except
lactose in the diet.
Calcium-binding protein acts within the
intestines.
Which of the following is a risk of consuming calcium supplements above the UL?
Kidney stone formation
Which of the following are good sources of dietary calcium?
Certain green vegetables
Which of the following green vegetables shows the lowest bioavailability of calcium?
Spinach
On a per kcalorie basis, which of the following are the best sources of calcium?
Vegetables
Which of the following shows the highest bioavailability for calcium?
Broccoli
All of the following are good plant sources of calcium for the body except
spinach.
Which of the following ages (years) is typically associated with people having the densest bone?
28
At what age do adults normally begin to lose bone mass?
30-40 yrs
Approximately how many people in the United States are afflicted with osteoporosis?
50 million
Certain green leafy vegetables have a very low calcium bioavailability due to the presence of
naturally occurring binders.
Which of the following is a feature of osteoporosis?
It has virtually no effect on blood calcium levels
What is the calcium Adequate Intake for young adults?
1000 mg
All of the following are characteristics of phosphorus in nutrition except
the ratio of phosphorus to calcium in the diet is important for bone maintenance
Which of the following is a feature of phosphorus?
Involved in energy exchange
Which of the following is a feature of phosphorus in nutrition?
Dietary deficiencies are virtually unknown
Which of the following minerals is involved in the transportation of lipids through the body's lymph and blood systems?
Phosphorus
Which of the following minerals is least likely to be deficient in anyone's diet?
Phosphorus
All of the following characteristics are shared by calcium and magnesium except
both are found in abundance in dairy products.
Where is the majority of the body's magnesium found?
Bones
Which of the following is a major function of magnesium?
Catalyst in energy metabolism
A friend shows you a newspaper article titled "Magnesium's Role in ATP Synthesis." You explain that
magnesium serves as a catalyst in the reaction that adds the last phosphate to ATP.
Which of the following minerals is required in the enzymatic phosphorylation of ADP?
Magnesium
Which of the following is a feature of magnesium nutrition?
Deficiency is associated with hypertension
Which of the following is a feature of magnesium in nutrition?
Average intakes from food are below recommendations
The magnesium present in mineral water has a bioavailability of about
50%.
Magnesium is known to be involved in all of the following except
production of red blood cells.
Sulfur is present in practically all
proteins.
Some amino acids can link to each other by bridges made of
sulfur.
What is the major source of dietary sulfur?
Protein
All of the following are known to have a high sulfur content except
teeth.
The outer, hard shell of bone is called
cortical bone.
All of the following are characteristics of dolomite supplements except
they are usually sold as a very pure product.
Which of the following is a function of trabecular bone?
25%
The incidence of death within 1 year of sustaining a hip fracture is about
25%
In what decade of life does osteoporosis first begin in men and women?
Fourth
For every man who has type I osteoporosis, about how many women have it?
6
The most common fracture sites of osteoporosis type I are
spine and wrist.
What does a DEXA scan measure?
Bone density
Which of the following is a feature of type I osteoporosis?
It can be prevented by taking estrogen
What percentage of hip fractures in men and women are due to osteoporosis?
80-90
All of the following are known to have a high correlation with risk for osteoporosis except
consuming a high-protein diet.
Protective factors for osteoporosis include all of the following except
female gender.
The strongest predictor for loss of bone density is a person's
age
The development of osteoporosis in men typically occurs at what age in relation to the appearance of osteoporosis in women?
10 years later
A person's highest bone density is achieved by around age (years)
30
What percentage of people with osteoporosis are female?
80
After age, what is the next strongest risk factor for osteoporosis?
Sex
Antiresorptive drug treatments for osteoporosis work primarily by
inhibiting the activities of the bone-degrading cells.
Anabolic drug treatments for osteoporosis work chiefly by
enhancing osteoblast activity.
Estrogen therapy for osteoporosis is often rejected because it may increase risk for
cancer.
Which of the following is not known to be a risk factor for osteoporosis in men?
High BMI
The primary mechanism by which soy consumption may lower the risk for osteoporosis is related to
the estrogen-like activity of soy phytochemicals.
What component of soy is thought to account for most of its beneficial effects on bone health?
Phytochemicals
Among the following ethnic groups, which has the highest bone density?
African-American
What is the incidence of bone fractures in African American women in comparison with Caucasian women?
One-half as much
Which of the following is a feature of physical activity and bone health?
Working the muscles places stress on bones which promotes bone density
Which of the following best explains why Asians from Japan and China show fewer bone fractures than do Caucasians and Hispanic people?
They have small, compact, hips
Which of the following is not a feature of body weight and bone health?
A low-calcium diet promotes similar bone loss in normal and overweight people
All of the following are features of bone health and smoking except
smokers adapt by increasing their calcium absorption and reducing their bone resorption rate.
Which of the following is characteristic of calcium nutrition in teenagers?
The intake of calcium is higher in boys than girls because they eat more food
Which of the following is a feature of calcium supplements?
Common antacids are used as a source of calcium
Among the following calcium supplements, which is most likely to be contaminated with toxic minerals?
Oyster shells
Which of the following is not a characteristic of alcohol and bone health?
Even moderate alcohol intake reduces bone density
Which of the following is a characteristic of calcium supplement use?
Taking them with a meal enhances absorption of calcium
For optimal utilization of calcium supplements, it is best to take them several times a day, in doses up to
500 mg.
Among the following calcium supplements, which is most calcium-dense?
Calcium carbonate
Common side effects of taking a high-dose calcium supplement include all of the following except
increased iron absorption.
Among the following calcium supplements, which contains the lowest percentage of calcium?
Calcium gluconate
How many mg of calcium are present in a 500-mg tablet of calcium carbonate?
200
To minimize the risk of calcium toxicity, total daily intakes should be held to a maximum of
2,500 mg.
What is most likely to occur when a calcium supplement and an iron supplement are taken simultaneously?
Absorption of iron is reduced