Upgrade to remove ads
Chapter 8: Thinking, Reasoning and Language
Terms in this set (38)
Definition: Any mental activity of information, including learning, remembering, perceiving, communicating, believing, and deciding.
Definition: Predispositions & default expectations that we use to interpret our experiences; systematic error in thinking; changing thoughts based on experiences
Definition: Judging the probability of an event by its superficial similarity to a prototype; judging the event's probability based on how prevalent that event has been in the past
Main Idea: Judging someone based on things you've seen; based on what you already know.
Example: If you meet someone who is shy, awkward and a tournament chess player, we might guess that he is more likely to be a computer science major than a communications major. This is relying on the representativeness heuristic because this person matched our stereotype of a computer science major.
Definition: How common a behavior or characteristic is in general (usually to the general population)
Main Idea: How common a behavior is to the public; will usually be represented by a statistic
Example: Alcoholism has a base rate of about 5% in the US population, meaning 1 in 20 Americans experience alcoholism on average.
Example: Looking for 10 new workers ; 200 people applied. 10% black, 20$ white, 4 black people, 6 white people. Assuming unfair. Take into account base rate - only 20% black people, 80% white people applied
Definition: Estimating the likelihood of an occurrence based on the ease with which it comes to our minds.
Main Idea: Making an assumption based on thoughts we immediately have associated to it
Using your best interpretation of what it could actually be based on what's already there; face-value guess
Example: Assuming there are more murders in Chicago, IL than in an Illinois suburb based on what we hear of Chicago
Definition: The "I knew it all along" effect; tendency to overestimate how well we could have predicted something after it has already occurred
Main Idea: Being overly confident in thinking you could've predicted something that's already happened
Example: Multiple-choice test, sports competitive teams (I knew they could've won!); reinterpreting the facts based on what you now know
Definition: Tendency to seek out evidence that supports out hypotheses or beliefs and denies, dismisses or distorts evidence that doesn't.
Main Idea: Rejecting/distorting all contrasting evidence that differs from your personal beliefs/hypotheses
Example: If hypothesizing that more boys participate in class than girls, physically manipulating the number of girls who raise their hands in class so your hypothesis deems true
Definition: "Filling in the gaps" or missing information using our experience and background knowledge
Main Idea: Having more than physical associations with something
Example: British passport is recognizable because we know what the standard size and shape of a passport already is
Definition: When our brain processes only the information it receives.
Main Idea: Taking things exactly as they are; only tangible attributes you can immediately receive
Example: Looking at an apple and only noting its texture, color, size, shape, etc.
Definition: Step-by-step learned procedure used to solve a problem (pretty inflexible)
Example: Replacing the brakes on your car. Step-by-step procedure that cannot be completely altered away from its directions
Definition: Phenomenon of becoming stuck in a specific problem-solving strategy, inhibiting our ability to generate alternatives; being stuck in a way of thinking; usually built up over time
Main Idea: Not being able to alter problem-solving strategies once a successful one has been found
Example: Not being able to think of your own essay topic that strays from the professor's example list; mental set of seeing pictures of men, then seeing mans face in the illusion; given list of addition problems, then multiplication, harder to switch because the mental set of addition
Definition: Difficulty conceptualizing that an object typically used for one purpose can be used for another
Main Idea: Assuming that each object only has one purpose and cannot be stretched to assist with another
Example: Not realizing that a shoe can be a hammer
Salience of Surface Similarities
Definition: Referring to how attention-grabbing something is; we tend to focus our attention on the surface-level properties of a problem
Main Idea: Almost like becomes easier to solve a problem if it is superficially similar to something else; how obviously similar something is
Example: Armies attacking town in the center, associate this with chemotherapy treatment attacking the center of a tumor; analogies
Definition: "rule of thumb;" using stereotypes
Definition: Our knowledge and ideas about a set of objects, actions, and characteristics that share core properties
Definition: The process of selecting among a set of possible alternatives
Definition: The way a question is formulated
that can influence the decisions people make
Example: Trying to get someone to answer in a positive or negative way - are you really going to ask mike?; doctors framing surgical information from telling a patient survival rate over mortality rate
Definition: Generating a cognitive strategy to accomplish a goal.
Definition: Category of sounds our vocal apparatus produces.
Main Idea: No meaning; smallest unit of sound in the language; most are mapped onto one letter; "buh" matched to a B"; "letter sound" for letters; "Shhh" is one;
Definition: Smallest meaningful unit of speech
Main Idea: "ED" - means past tense; "S" is plural; "DOGS" not a morpheme "Dog" and "s"
Definition: Grammatical rules that govern how words are composed into meaningful strings
Main Idea: Grammar; order of words; sentence structure; structure our language; culture-based
Definition: Elements of communication that aren't part of the content of language but are critical to interpreting its meaning
Example: Facial expressions, tone of voice
Definition: Meaning derived from words and sentences.
Main Idea: Meaning of something; semantic properties; letter string with no definition has no semantic meaning; resonates somehow with the person
Definition: Language variation used by a group of people who share geographic proximity or ethnic background.
Main Idea: Variation of the same language, usually understood by all speakers of the same language; Brits use same language
Definition: Intentional vocalization that lacks specific meaning.
Definition: Early period of language development when children use single-word phrases to convey an entire thought.
Definition: System of signs invented by children who are deaf and born of hearing parents and therefore receive no language input.
Definition: Awareness of how language is structured and used.
Main Idea: Idea that people who know more than one language have more insight on how to use language; if Michelle speaks Gaelic fluently, saying that a person like her has to manipulate different structures is heightened; smarter about language; smarter semantics
Definition: Allowing an infinite number of unique sentences to be created by combining words in novel ways.
Main Idea: You have a certain grip on language that means you can make sentences you've never heard before; conversations are generative, original
Definition: Account of language acquisition that suggests children are born with some basic knowledge of how language works.
Main Idea: Nativist approach is saying that people are born with the innate ability to produce language
Language Acquisition Device
Definition: Hypothetical organ in the brain in which nativists believe knowledge of syntax resides.
Main Idea: Norm Chonsky (Nativist) - saying that we have a "language organ" called the LAD saying that all our abilities come from this organ
Definition: Account of language acquisition that proposes that children infer what words and sentences mean from context and social interactions.
Main Idea: The structure of language is highly driven by the social surroundings; engaging socially is learning the language
General Cognitive Processing
Definition: Theory; saying that learning language is building on general cognitive processing; if you're learning the structure, the brain has a natural ability to structure it.
Example: GCP: syntax looks at the way which you see patterns in words and sounds; brain is already programmed to hear and see patterns; GCP says that we're taking the ability to see this patterns and adapting them to language
Definition: View that all thought is represented verbally and that, as a result, our language defines our thinking.
Main Idea: Basically saying that our ability that our ability to perceive and see is determined by our language; eskimos have hundreds of words for snow, the fact they have 100 words for snow means they can see 100 differences; people think Irish people have many words for drunk; because Michelle has all these different words for drunk, means she can recognize all different types of drunk; language is driving what they see
Linguistic Relativity (Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis)
Definition: View that characteristics of language shape our thought processes
Main Idea: Saying that there are some characteristics of language that helps shape the way we see the world, but NOT saying that we have one word that tells us how to perceive it; Russians immigrate; when they speak Russian they remember things in Russia, when they speak English they remember things in USA
Whole Word Recognition
Definition: Reading strategy that involves identifying common words based on their appearance without having to sound them out
Main Idea: Learning whole words instead of breaking them down phonetically
Definition: Reading strategy that involves sounding out words by drawing correspondence between printed letters and sounds
Main Idea: Sounding it out
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Psy 1001- Chapter 7
Psychology Test 1
Psych Midterm 1 Practice Questions
Psychology Frequently Missed Questions
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Critical Thinking Chapter 3
Language & Communication
Philosophy chapter 1-3
Language and Communication Vocab (Ch. 3)
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
ILTS ELA 111 Content Test
Chapter 16: Psychological and Biological Treatments