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AP Human Geography - Chapter 11
Terms in this set (39)
Concerning farms, farmers, or the use of land
Commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
genetic modification of an animal such that it is rendered more amenable to human control
Raising marine and freshwater fish in ponds and underwater cages
A form of technology that uses living organisms, usually genes, to modify products, to make or modify plants and animals, or to develop other microorganisms for specific purposes.
Areas of the world with similar climate characteristics
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
An agricultural system characterized by low inputs of labor per unit land area.
The practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
Harvesting twice a year from the same field.
a type of concentrated animal feeding operation
first agricultural revolution
Dating back 10,000 years, the First Agricultural Revolution achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
genetically modified organisms
An organism whose genetic material has been altered through some genetic engineering technology or technique.
A shift in agricultural practices in the twentieth century that included new management techniques, mechanization, fertilization, irrigation, and improved crop varieties, and resulted in increased food output
Koppen climatic classification system
Developed by Wladimir Köppen, a system for classifying the world's climates on the basis of temperature and precipitation
An extensive commercial agricultural activity that involves the raising of livestock over vast geographic spaces typically located in semi-arid climates like the American West.
Distinct regional approach to land surveying found in the Canadian Maritimes, parts of Quebec, Louisiana, and Texas whereby land is divided into narrow parcels stretching back from rivers, roads, or canals
Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco
Mediterranean agriculture is an agro-ecological strategy, an adjustment to particular climatic conditions in Mediterranean zones: mild, humid winter with no or very little frost, and a warm, dry summer.
metes and bounds system
a system or method of describing land, real property (in contrast to personal property) or real estate. The system has been used in England for many centuries, and is still used there in the definition of general boundaries.
farming strategy in which large fields are planted with a single crop, year after year
crops produced without the use of synthetic or industrially produced pesticides and fertilizers
A type of agricultural activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter.
genetic modification of a plant such that its reproductive success depends on human intervention
Production system based on a large estate owned by an individual, family, or corporation and organized to produce a cash crop.
A system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family received all of his father's land.
Service sector industries concerned with the collection, processing, and manipulation of information and capital. Examples include finance, administration, insurance, and legal services.
Service sector industries that require a high level of specialized knowledge or technical skill. Examples include scientific research and high-level management.
rectangular survey system
Also called the Public Land Survey, the system was used by the US Land Office Survey to parcel land west of the Appalachian Mountains. The system divides land into a series of rectangular parcels.
crops that are reproduced by cultivating either the roots or cuttings from the plants
second agricultural revolution
tools and equipment were modified, methods of soil preparation, fertilization, crop care, and harvesting improved the general organization of agriculture made more efficient
crop that is reproduced by cultivating the seeds of the plants
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
slash and burn agriculture
Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris.
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
third agricultural revolution
20th century; tractor; monoculture; irrigation; petroleum; Agro-Biotechnology
township and range system
a rectangular land division scheme designed by Thomas Jefferson to disperse settlers evenly across farmlands of the US interior
Von Thunen Model
A model that explains the location of agricultural activities in a commercial, profit-making economy.
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