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LAMP Exam 6- Basic Skin Pathology
Terms in this set (89)
What are two common symptoms of eczema?
What are early signs of exzema?
-vesicles (fluid-filled, raised areas)
What are late signs of exzema?
The skin of patients with exzema tends to be described as ___ and ______ or looking as though it "boiled over"
red and blistering
What is spongiosis?
intercellular edema of the epidermis
Name 3 of 5 possible causes of eczema
-atopic- nasal congestion
-photoeczema-reaction to substances placed on the skin
What type of cells help mediate type IV allergic contact dermatitis?
Who is exempt from dealing with allergic contact dermatitis?
children under the age of 5 and the elderly
How many times must an individual be exposed to an allergen, leading to allergic contact dermatitis, before a reaction presents itself?
once, then the reaction appears the second time
What type of test is used to determine an individual's allergens?
What is irritant dermatitis?
a reaction that can be caused by almost any substance if applied under effective conditions of duration, temperature, and humidity
What are some examples of objects that may lead to irritant dermatitis?
True or False
Irritant dermatitis is an immune response
What is an example of irritant dermatitis?
chapped hands from washing frequently in the winter
What percentage of individuals in the US are affected by psoriasis?
1 to 2%
What type of disease is psoriasis?
an autoimmune disease
In patients with psoriasis, ______ are constantly activated and there is an increase in the amount of ________ released
T-cells and cytokines
-ex. TNF alpha, INF gamma, interleukins
Keratinocyte proliferation and recruitment of neutrophils into the skin are caused by
cytokines involved in patients with psoriasis
Which of the following are not psoriasis triggering factors?
d. emotional stress
Trick question! They are all triggers!
How would one describe psoriasis?
In what areas of the body does psoriasis tend to most often be found?
-elbows and knees
Psoriasis vulgaris is
symmetric distribution of sharply defined scaly plaques
How would guttate psoriasis be described?
What type of psoriasis is common in children, but can also be chronic in adults?
Pustular psoriasis may be _________ or __________, potentially containing pus
localized or generalized
Impetigo herpetiformis is a type of pustular psoriasis seen in
Erythrodermic psoriasis is characterized by ______ and usually covers about ___% of the body
Inverse psoriasis occurs in which areas of the skin?
Keratinocyte neoplasms are derived from which cell type?
Seborrheic keratosis is a benign type of?
Basal cell carincoma and squamous cell carcinoma are both malignant types of?
An in situ carcinoma is located in which layer of the skin?
An invasive carcinoma is located in which layer of the skin?
the dermis of beyond
What type of keratinocyte neoplasm is also referred to as having age spots?
Where are the most common places to find seborrheic keratosis on the body?
Acanthosis is known as
thickened epidermis that forms on top of the skin with uniform small cells
What is the most common malignant keratinocyte neoplasm?
basal cell carcinoma
What percentage of all skin cancers are basal cell carcinomas?
Around what age do basal cell carcinomas begin to present themselves?
around age 70
Extended ____ exposure is associated with basal cell carcinoma
What are four risk factors of basal cell carcinoma?
Do basal cell carcinomas tend to metastasize?
-only potentially in patients who have had the cancer for years
What is a superficial variant?
flat, scaly erthematous patch
What is an infiltrating/sclerosing variant?
a scar-like plaque
A mutation of ____ tends to lead to basal cell carcinoma
What is vismodegib?
-an inhibitor of the hedgehob pathway
-now used to treat advance BCC
Gorlin syndrome is associated with __________ and ___________
PTCH pathways and BCC syndrome
What does in situ mean?
in it's place
What can cause squamous cell carcinoma?
-chronic solar damage
What percentage of in situ squamous cell carcinoma could progress into invasive squamous cell carcinoma?
How could squamous cell carcinoma be described?
well- demarcated plaques with scale and erythema
In what layer of the skin is squamous cell carcinoma usually found?
Enlargment of the nuclei along with crowding of the cell and disorganization can be seen in which type of carcinoma?
squamous cell carcinoma
What percentage of skin cancers do squamous cell carcinomas make up?
What risk factors could increase the chances of developing invasive squamous cell carcinoma?
-chronic sun exposure
-light skin pigmentation
What area of the body does UV induced cancer tend to affect?
the head and neck of elderly patients
Arsenic associated carcinomas correlate with which type of the body?
palms and soles
What is the metastatic rate of invasive squamous cell carcinoma?
To which area of the body does invasive squamous cell carcinoma spread?
the lymph nodes
Merkel cell carcinoma is defined as
a neoplasm of cutaneous neuroendocrine cells
Roughly how many cases of Merkel cell carcinoma were detected in 2008?
Which is more malignant, Merkel cell carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma?
Merkel cell carcinoma
Which is more malignant, Merkel cell carcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma?
Merkel cell carcinoma
What is the 5 year survival rate with patients who have localized Merkel cell carcinoma?
59% for regional spread
25% for distant metastasis
What type of tumor is characterized by red to violet papule or nodules?
Merkel cell carcinoma
What do melanocytes produce?
Another name for a benign melanocytic neoplasm is
melancytic nevi or a birth mark
What is melanoma?
malignancy of melanocytes
At what point in an individuals lifetime do their number or nevi peak?
around the 2nd or 3rd decade
What is the mean number of nevi a caucasian adult might have?
15 to 20 nevi
What oncogene is activated by activating mutations by nevi?
BRAF or RAS
What is a term for an atypical nevi?
What is the best marker for increased risk of melanoma over a patient's life?
Is the familial type of atypical nevi autosomal dominant or recessive?
Where are most atypical nevi found on the body?
the chest and back
What percentage of all cancers are due to malignant melanoma?
What is the ninth most common malignancy in the US?
Which of the following are not risk factors for developing melanoma?
-acute sun exposure/blistering sun exposure
-large numbers of nevi
-Northern European skin
all are risk factors
What percentage of melanomas are familial? Sporadic?
10% and 90%
What Represent ABCDE of the well known melanoma diagnosis test?
Which category from the ABCDE melanoma diagnosis test is the most concerning?
the evolution of the nevi
Acral lengtiginous melanoma tends to be present in what two races?
*Note: doesn't seem to correlate with sun exposure
Lentigo maligna melanoma is described as and seen in what kind of patients?
flat, in sun damaged skin of elderly
Where is a common place to find Lentigo maligna?
near the neck and head
What are three histologic prognostic factors?
What is Breslow thickness?
thickness of melanoma
How is Breslow thickness measures?
in millimeters from the granular cell layer
What is the correlation between melanoma mortality rates and tumor thickness?
there is a high correlation present
What is ulceration?
missing epidermis from the area covering the tumor
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