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Physical Science Vocabulary
Terms in this set (112)
The ability to cause change
Energy stored in chemical bonds
Energy from the sun
The energy of electrically charged particles moving from one place to another
The total energy of motion and position of an object
The energy of motion
Energy stored due to an object's position or arrangement
Total amount of energy associated with the random movement of atoms and molecules in a sample of matter
Law of Conservation of Energy
States that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another
A naturally occurring raw material or form of energy that will be replenished through natural ecological cycles or sound management practices (e.g., the sun, wind, water, trees).
Is a natural resource which cannot be produced, grown, or regenerated. Includes oil, natural gas and coal.
New, renewable, or inexhaustible energy source; includes solar energy, wind, and geothermal energy
A nonrenewable energy resource formed from the remains of organisms that lived long ago
An energy source that can't be used up by humans
Become larger in size or volume or quantity
To shrink or become smaller due to the application of cold
The transfer of thermal energy from one substance to another through direct contact
The transfer of heat as a result of moving currents of water or air
Describes a reaction that absorbs energy from the surroundings
Chemical reaction in which energy is primarily given off in the form of heat
Fossil fuel consisting of carbonized vegetable matter deposited in the Carboniferous period
A state in which all parts of a system are at the same temperature
The movement of thermal energy from a substance at a higher temperature to a substance at a lower temperature
The average kinetic energy of the individual particles in a substance
Law of Conservation of Mass
States that mass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction but is conserved
Anything that has mass and takes up space
Material composed of two or more elements or compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined
A mixture in which substances are evenly distributed throughout the mixture
A type of mixture in which the parts of the mixture are noticeably different from one another
The ability to dissolve in another substance
The amount of matter in an object.
The amount of space that matter takes up
The amount of mass in a given volume
A change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance
A change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties
A characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance
A property used to characterize materials in reactions that change their identity
The resistance of a gas or liquid to flow
A substance made of one type of atom.
Substance made up of more than one type of atom or element.
A chart that identifies and organizes all known elements.
The number of protons in an atom
The mass of an atom. The protons. Plus the neutrons.
A class of elements characterized by physical properties that include shininess, malleability, ductility, and conductivity.
Substance that is a poor conductor of heat and electricity.
An element that has some properties of metals and non metals.
The substances that are originally present before a chemical reaction takes place.
The substances that are formed as the results of a chemical reaction.
A push or a pull.
The tendency of a body to maintain its state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force.
Forces on an object that combine to give a zero net force and do not change the motion of the object.
Two or more forces that are not equal and opposite of one another; can cause change in motion.
The contact force that occurs when an object in motion rubs against the surface.
A force of attraction between objects that is due to their masses.
The distance an object travels per unit of time. Distance/Time
The speed and direction of a moving object.
The rate at which velocity changes.
The product of an object's mass and velocity.
Distance and direction of an object's change in position from the starting point.
The ability to remain afloat in in a liquid.
A form of matter that has a definite shape and volume
A state of matter that has a definite volume but no definite shape.
A form of matter that does not have a definite volume or shape.
A change directly from the solid to the gaseous state without becoming liquid
A liquid that is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
Electric charge at rest; generally produced by friction or induction
A circuit in which all parts are connected end to end to provide a single path of current.
A closed circuit in which the current divides into two or more paths before recombining to complete the circuit
Force of attraction or repulsion that exists between like or unlike poles.
The force of gravity between two objects like the Earth and the Sun and the Earth and the moon.
How many waves can pass a given point per second, measured in Hertz (Hz)
For a wave or vibration, the maximiun displacement on either side of the equilibrium (midpoint) position.
Horizontal distance between the crests or between the troughs of two adjacent waves
A longitudinal wave consisting of compressions and rarefactions, which travels through a medium.
All of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
A unit of frequency equal to one cycle per second.
A measure of how loud a sound is (its intensity)
Rays that come from a light source. The visible part of the electromagnetic spectrum
A wave that requires a medium through which to travel
an atmospheric phenomenon consisting of bands of light caused by charged solar particles following the earth's magnetic lines of force
A tone's experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency.
A continuous flow of electric charge.
The region around a magnet where the magnetic force is exerted
The bending of a wave as it passes at an angle from one medium to another
Measure of potential energy generated by separated charge.
The area surrounding Earth that is influenced by Earth's magnetic field
Electromagnetic waves that have a wavelength between about 1 mm and 750 billionths of a meter.
a field of force surrounding a charged particle
Alternating Current (AC)
Current generated by electrons changing the direction in which they move
Direct Current (DC)
Electrical current that flows in only one direction through a wire; found in batteries
the persistence of a sound after its source has stopped
A material that allows heat and electricity to pass through it.
A material that does not allow heat or electrons to move through it easily.
All of the different types of electromagnetic radiation according to wavelength and frequency
Law of Reflection
States that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection
A form of energy that can move through the vacuum of space.
A wave in which the vibration is at right angles to the direction in which the wave is traveling.
The attraction or repulsion between electric charges
A device that increases or decreases the voltage of alternating current
a type of energy that comes to Earth from the Sun, can damage skin and cause cancer, and mostly absorbed by the ozone layer
Occurs when an object causes a wave to change direction and bend around it
a wave in which the energy travels in the same direction as the wave.
A material's opposition to the flow of electric current.
Electrical law that states that the current in a wire(I) is equal to the voltage
Smallest particle of an element
A particle made of two or more atoms bonded together
The process by which water changes from liquid form to an atmospheric gas.
The process of changing from a gaseous to a liquid or solid state
An oval shaped path, used to describe the shape of the Earth's orbit around the Sun
An oval shaped path, used to describe the shape of the Earth's orbit around the Sun
The average distance between Earth and the sun, about 150 million kilometers
Process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches.
The process of cells breaking down glucose, releasing energy and producing carbon dioxide.
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