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Science Chapter 1
Terms in this set (42)
is the basic units of structure and function in living things and they form parts of an organism and carry out all of an organism's processes or functions
is an instrument that makes small objects look larger
is an explanation of the relationship between cells and living things
What did a microscope do?
The invention of the microscope made it possible for people to discover and learn about cells
Who first observed cells?
Robert Hooke in 1663
What does the cell theory state?
All living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and all cells are produced from other cells
How does a light microscope magnify?
The lenses in light microscopes magnify an object by bending the light that passes through them
How do electron microscopes magnify?
Electron microscopes use a beam of electrons instead of light to produce a magnified image
are tiny structures that carry out specific functions within the cell
is a rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms
is located inside the cell wall and it controls what substance come into and out of the cell
is an oval structure that directs all of the cell's activities
is the region between the cell membrane and the nucleus which is a clear thick gel like fluid that is constantly moving
are rod shaped structures that convert energy in food molecules to energy the cell can use to carry out its functions
are passageways that carry proteins and other materials from one part of a cell to another
are small structures that float in the cytoplasm and produce proteins
are flattened sacs and tubes that receive proteins and other newly formed materials from the endoplasmic reticulum package them and distribute them to other parts of the cell and sometimes outside of the cell
are large green structures that capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell
are sacs that float in the cytoplasm and are the storage areas of cells
are small round structures that contain chemicals that break down certain materials in the cell
What does a plants cell wall do?
A plants cell wall helps to protect and support the cell
How are cells in organisms organized?
In many celled organisms cells are ofter organized into tissues, organs, and organ systems
they have a cell wall and a cell membrane but it doesn't contain a nucleus and the bacterial cell's genetic material that looks like a tangled string is found in the cytoplasm
is any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
is when two or more elements combine chemically
is an energy rich organic compound made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
are energy rich organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
are large organic molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sometimes sulfur
are the small molecules that protein molecules are made up of
is a type of proteins that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living thing
are very long organic molecules made of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
is the genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed down from parent to offspring, and its found in the chromatin in the nucleus
plays a role in the production of proteins and is found in the cytoplasm and the nucleus
What are some important groups of organic compounds?
Important organic compounds found in living things are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
What could most chemical reactions in a cell not take place without?
Most chemical reactions in a cell couldn't take place without water
means the cell membrane lets some substances pass through while others can't
is process by which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
is diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane
is when the movement of dissolved materials through a cell membrane without using cell energy
is movement of materials through a cell membrane using cell energy
What is main method small molecules move across cell membrane?
Diffusion is main method small molecules move across cell membrane
Why do many cell functions rely on osmosis?
Because cells can't function properly without adequate water many cell processes depend on osmosis
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