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19 terms

Vocabulary Chapter 20~

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Virus
particle made up of nucleic acid, protein, and in some cases lipids that can replicate only by infecting living cells
Capsid
the outer covering of protein surrounding the nucleic acid of a virus
Bacteriophage
a virus that infects bacteria
Lytic infection
process in which a virus enters a cell, makes a copy of itself, and causes the cell to burst
Lysogenic infection
process by which a virus embeds its DNA into the DNA of the host cell and is replicated along with the host cell's DNA
Prophage
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Retrovirus
any of a group of viruses that contain two single-strand linear RNA molecules per virion and reverse transcriptase (RNA to DNA)
Prokaryote
a unicellular organism having cells lacking membrane-bound nuclei
Bacillus
aerobic rod-shaped spore-producing bacterium
Coccus
any spherical or nearly spherical bacteria
Spirillum
any flagellated aerobic bacteria having a spirally twisted rodlike form
Binary fission
a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
Endospore
a small asexual spore that develops inside the cell of some bacteria and algae
Conjugation
the act of making or becoming a single unit
Pathogen
any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)
Vaccine
immunogen consisting of a suspension of weakened or dead pathogenic cells injected in order to stimulate the production of antibodies
Antibiotic
a chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that kills microorganisms and cures infections
Emerging disease
a disease that is caused by new or reappearing infectious agents that typically exist in animal populations
prion
(microbiology) an infectious protein particle similar to a virus but lacking nucleic acid