Chapter 9 Energy Resources 6th Grade Earth Science (Pearson)
Section 9.1 Fossil Fuels Section 9.2 Renewable Sources of Energy Section 9.3 Energy Use and Conservation
Terms in this set (69)
Energy from the sun.
Electricity produced by the kinetic energy of water moving over a waterfall or dam.
Fuel made from living things.
A mixture of gasoline and alcohol.
The intense heat energy that comes from the earth's interior.
The splitting of an atom' s nucleus into two smaller nuclei and neutrons, releasing a large quantity of energy.
The part of a nuclear reactor in which nuclear fission occours.
A uranium rod that undergoes fission in a nuclear reactor.
A cadium rod used in a nuclear reactor to absorb neutrons from fission reactions.
The percentage of input work that is converted to output work.
Material that traps air to help block heat transfer between the air inside and outside of a building.
The practice of reducing energy use.
A substance that provides energy as the result of a chemical change.
Process of burning fuel.
Energy-rich chemical compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen atoms.
The three major fossil fuels are?
a nonrenewable energy-rich resource that forms in the Earth's crust for millions of years from the remains of once living organisms. Formed during the Carboniferous Period, approximately 360 to 286 million years ago.
A non-renewable resource, a solid fossil fuel formed from decaying plant matter.
A non-renewable resource. An oily, dark-colored, flammable liquid found in the earth, consisting mainly of a mixture of various hydrocarbons. Gasoline, kerosene, fuel oil, paraffin, and lubricants are made from petroleum.
A factory in which crude oil is heated and separated into fuels and other products
A non-renewable resource. A mixture of methane and other gases. A resource that is used in heating systems, in stoves, ovens, and some vehicles. Advantage: it is the cleanest burning fossil fuel. Disadvantage: highly flammable, could cause a violent explosion and fire.
A natural resource that cannot be replaced or that can be replaced only over thousands or millions of years. A resource used faster than it can be produced.
Disadvantage of coal
Erosion and water pollution. Can cause air pollution when burned.
Fuels contain stored chemical energy. When they are burned, the chemical energy is converted into other forms of energy such as
heat, light, motion, and electricity
Petroleum as it comes out of the ground and before it has been refined or processed into useful products
How Fossil Fuels are formed?
Trees and plants died and sank to the bottom of the swamps of oceans and formed peat. Over hundreds of years, the peat was covered by sand and clay which turned into sedimentary rock. More rock piles on top of more rock, and pressed down on the peat. Over millions of years, pressure from sediments turned into coal, oil or petroleum, and natural gas.
Any natural resource that can replenish itself in a relatively short period of time, usually no longer than the length of a human life.
How Fossil Fuels provide energy?
Fuels contain stored chemical energy. When they are burned, the chemical energy is converted into other forms of energy.
Advantage: does not cause pollution. Disadvantage: Only available during certain hours of a clear day. Energy must be collected over a wide area.
Active solar heating systems
a heating system that uses solar collectors and additional electricity to power pumps or fans to distribute the Sun's energy
passive solar heating systems
Convert sunlight into thermal energy, but do not distribute it.
Energy produced by magma sources deep underground. Only available where magma is close to Earth's surface.
fuels made from things that were once alive, including leaves, food wastes, and even manure. Other examples include wood, sugar-cane wastes, corn, alcohol, methane.
What type of resources come from natural processes that have been happening for billions of years and will continue to happen?
What captures light energy and transform it to electrical energy?
What can use solar energy to generate electricity for large areas?
Solar power plants
How do solar power plants generate electricity?
They transform energy in sunlight, which then turns turbines connected to generators.
What type of solar energy uses technology, such as solar panels, that gathers and stores solar energy that heats water and homes?
Active solar energy
What type of solar energy uses design elements that capture energy in sunlight?
Passive solar energy
What needs to be used to produce electricity from wind energy on a large scale?
A group of wind turbines that produce electricity is called what?
A wind farm.
How does water energy produce electricity?
Hydroelectric power and tidal power.
What is electricity produced by flowing water?
Why do humans build a dam across a powerful river?
To produce hydroelectric power.
In a hydroelectric power plant, what does energy from flowing water produce?
In a geothermal power plants, what energy from Earth's interior is used to produce electricity?
What is thermal energy from Earth's interior called?
How do people reach the thermal energy in hot, dry rocks or bodies of magma?
How does a geothermal power plant convert the thermal energy found in hot rocks or magma into electricity?
It heats water that makes steam. The steam turns the turbines connected to generators that produce electricity.
What is energy produced by burning organic matter, such as wood, food scraps, and alcohol?
What is the most widely used biomass?
How can we use industrial wood scraps and organic material, such as grass clippings and food scraps to make electricity?
They could be burned to generate electricity on a large scale.
Can biomass be used for vehicles?
Yes, it can be converted into fuels for vehicles.
What is a type of biomass that can be used as a renewable fuel for cars?
What is made from sugars in plants, such as corn?
What is ethanol made from?
Sugars in plants, such as corn.
What is ethanol usually blended with?
Gasoline, because it reduces pollutants released by vehicles.
What renewable fuel is made from vegetable oils and fats?
Biodiesel is an example of what renewable energy?
Biomass, because it is made from vegetable oils and fats.
What is an advantage of using biodiesel?
It emits few pollutants and is the fastest growing renewable fuel in the US.
What emits few pollutants and is the fastest growing renewable fuel in the U.S.?
What are two advantages to using renewable energy resources?
They are renewable and they produce less pollution than fossil fuels.
What are disadvantages associated with using renewable resources?
Some are costly or limited to certain areas.
What is one similarity among oil, coal, and natural gas.
They are all formed from the remains of dead organisms.
How does coal form?
Swamp plants die and their remains pile up. Over time the remains pile up and form peat. Under increasing pressure, the peat changes to coal.
What is the most plentiful fossil fuel in the U.S.?
What is a disadvantage of coal?
1) Runoff from coal mines can cause water pollution.
2) Coal mining increases erosion.
3) Burning coal results in more air pollution than other fossil fuels.
What is the advantage of coal?
1) Coal is easy to transport
2) Coal provides a lot of energy when burned.
How is oil formed?
It's formed from the remains of algae, small animals, and other organisms that once lived in oceans, shallow inland seas hundreds of million of years ago.