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A plant lacking a mineral or failing to make a needed vitamin dies before it can bear food for human consumption.


So far no convincing evidence exists indicating benefits from antioxidant supplements in well-nourished people.


An individual has developed heart disease and high blood lipid values and does not want to go on lipid-lowering prescription medications because of their side effects. Which vitamin has been used by physicians in treatment plans as a more natural treatment for heart disease?


Research suggests that deficiency of vitamin D may lead to:

cardiovascular disease

The thiamin deficiency disease is known as:


A woman who is on a low-carbohydrate diet for weight loss may have difficulty maintaining an adequate level of the B vitamins thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and folate. What foods being avoided in her diet are most likely to cause this?

grain foods and cereals

Vitamin A plays an important role in:

a and c
maintenance of body linings and reproduction

Population studies suggest that people whose diets lack foods rich in beta-carotene have a higher incidence of:

macular degeneration

Any disease that produces _____ malabsorption can bring about deficiencies of vitamins A, D, E, and K.


If a person does need to take a vitamin supplement, it is best for them to select a product that:

has a balance of the vitamins you really need with few added ingredients.

All of the following are good food sources of vitamin C except:


True statements concerning the water-soluble vitamins include:

b and c
They are easily excreted in the urine; they can be leached out of foods by cooking in water

In which of the following situations would a vitamin E deficiency be least likely?

someone who eats a diet high in fat

A compound in food that can be converted into an active vitamin inside the body is known as a(an):


Vitamin toxicity is more of a concern with which type of vitamins?

fat-soluble vitamins because they are stored more readily in body tissues

Pellagra is a _____ deficiency disease.


The amount of vitamin A a person needs is proportional to:

body weight

The active form of vitamin A stored in the liver is:


A person who lives in a city with high air pollution levels may be exposed to increased oxidative damage in the lungs from breathing the contaminated air. Which antioxidant vitamin is needed to protect the cells from damage?

vitamin E

Important roles of vitamin D in the body in addition to maintenance of bone health include all of the following except:

health of the retina in the eye.

Antioxidant nutrients that actively scavenge and quench free radicals in the body include:

a and c
vitamin E; vitamin C

As a reaction to the increasing rate of the birth of children with neural tube defects in the U.S., the FDA instituted a new fortification program for all grain and cereal products in conjunction with public health programs. Which vitamin was added to these foods?


All of the following statements are true about choline except:

there are no DRI recommendations.

The main reason for fortifying enriched grain products with folic acid is to:

reduce the incidence of birth defects called neural tube defects.

The amount of _____ people need is proportional to protein intake.

vitamin B6

Which of the following food combinations would ensure adequate intakes of thiamin without too many calories?

small pork chop, green peas, and watermelon

The best natural sources of folate include:

raw spinach

There has been an increase recently in new cases of rickets in children in the U.S. All of the following might contribute to this except:

increased physical activity in organized sports

All enriched grain products in the U.S. now have folic acid added to them because:

most young women dont have an adequate intake of fruits and vegetables

All of the following foods contain active vitamin A except:

french fries

The main function of vitamin K is:

to help synthesize proteins that help clot the blood.

The DRI recommendation for vitamin C for women is _____ milligrams per day.


Vitamin E serves as:

an antioxidant

All of the following are significant food sources of vitamin D except:


Foods fortified with vitamin D are important because:

a and b
very few foods have a naturally high vitamin D content.; not everyone will be able to obtain adequate exposure to the sun.

Fortified plant sources of vitamin D available in the United States include:

b and c
margarine; cereals

By definition, a vitamin is all of the following except:

a non-essential nutrient

A woman who has been following a vegan diet and now has become pregnant most likely needs _____ supplements.

vitamin D and vitamin B12

The USP symbol on the label of a vitamin supplement means that:

a and c
it contains the ingredients as listed on the label.; it will dissolve in the digestive tract.

Tobacco use introduces oxidants into the body that can do potential harm to the body tissues. What antioxidant plays an important role in protecting sensitive blood constituents from being damaged, and so is needed in much higher amounts in people exposed to tobacco products and smoke?

vitamin C

In the U.S. scurvy is seldom seen today except in:

people addicted to alcohol.

A girl has stopped growing in height prematurely because her bones are not going through the remodeling process necessary for growth. This is most likely from a deficiency of which vitamin?

vitamin A

Current recommendations for fruit and vegetable intakes are for us to consume a variety from each category on a daily basis. The two vitamins that rely heavily on our consumption of leafy greens and citrus fruits, as well as other fruits and vegetables, are:

folate and vitamin C

If someone did not meet the recommended intakes for the fat-soluble vitamins one day, you would tell him to:

not be concerned as long as the diet as a whole provides average amounts that approximate the recommended intakes.

An elderly woman has had difficulty with digesting her foods because of reduced stomach acid, has had progressively worse nerve pain in her legs, and is now having difficulty walking. Her physician suspects she may have a deficiency of which vitamin?

vitamin B12

Which of the following is not one of the functions of vitamin C?

maintains bone density

The recommended intake for vitamin D is _____ micrograms per day for adults over 70.


An elderly person who is having difficulty tolerating dairy products and does not go outdoors may benefit from which of the following vitamin supplements?

vitamin D

All of the following are fat-soluble vitamins except:


A person who has taken antibiotics for several weeks because of a severe bacterial infection may develop a deficiency of:

vitamin K

The B vitamins act as part of:


Which of the following groups would not be at risk for developing a thiamin deficiency?

people who consume enough calories from whole foods

The statement, "Eat carrots because they are good for your eyes," is correct because:

the vitamin A precursor in carrots becomes activated to form rhodopsin in the eye.

A non-food source from which vitamin K can be obtained is:

intestinal bacteria

When comparing absorption and storage of fat-soluble versus water-soluble vitamins in the body:

fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the liver and fatty tissues until the body needs them.

To obtain an adequate intake of vitamin A, a man needs a daily average of about _____ micrograms.


Which of the following B vitamins is especially important for women of childbearing age to prevent neural tube defects?


A young woman on a vegetarian diet has decided to increase her intake of raw bright-colored vegetables and has recently noticed that her skin is turning a bright yellow color. This is most likely a result of over-consumption of:


Much of the vitamin E people consume comes from

vegetable oils and products made from them.

Symptoms of vitamin A deficiency include:

a and b
reduced food intake; blindness

Foods rich in beta-carotene include:

a and b
broccoli; sweet potatoes

Characteristics of water-soluble vitamins include all of the following except:

they are stored extensively in tissues.

All of the following statements about vitamin A supplements and fortified foods are true except:

although some foods have been fortified with vitamin A, the amounts are not high enough to be a toxicity concern.

An uninformed strict vegetarian is at special risk for _____ deficiency.

vitamin B12

The best way to select foods that are vitamin rich is to:

select a wide variety if whole foods to get a balance of vitamins.

The only animal food source that is rich in vitamin K is:


To derive the maximum amount of vitamin C from vegetables you would:

b and c
cook them for short periods of time; consume them promptly after purchasing

As people consume more polyunsaturated oil their need for vitamin _____ rises.


Which of the following is the most potentially toxic of all vitamins?


Someone consuming a diet comprised mostly of processed, fast, deep-fried, and convenience foods should be most concerned about getting an adequate amount of vitamin:


What is one symptom of a beta-carotene toxicity?

bright yellow skin

When determining the benefits or risks of taking vitamin supplements to reduce risk of chronic diseases, which of the following studies can you rely on to help make your decision?

smokers taking beta-carotene supplements had an increase in lung cancer

People whose diets are rich in vegetables and fruits have low rates of:


The vitamin D deficiency disease in adults is known as:


Healthy people can eat vitamin A-rich foods in large amounts without risking toxicity, with the possible exception of:


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